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• Recycling is the reprocessing of materials into new products
• Recycling prevents useful material resources from being wasted, reduces the
consumption of raw materials and reduces energy usage, and hence lesser greenhouse
gas emissions, compared to virgin production.
• Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component
of the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Recycling Building Materials
Most materials from building and construction sites can be recycled. The following list
demonstrates some reuse options.

Steel: Electric arc furnaces produce reinforcing bar, mesh and sections from 100% steel

Bricks and Tiles: Can be reused where appropriate or crushed onsite for backfill, aggregate
and gravel with portable crushing plants

Concrete: Unset concrete can be “washed” out at the plant to remove cement. Sand and
stone can be reused. Set concrete can be crushed and recycled as aggregate for new concrete
on road base and fill.
Glass: Most glass is recyclable. Construction glass must be separated from other glass such
as drink bottles. Glass maybe cut and reused or recycled as aggregate for concrete.

Plastics: Many plastic can be granulated and reused to make plastic products for use within
the building industry.

Aluminium: is 100% recyclable

Recycling Construction Waste
What is Construction Waste?
"Construction waste" means any substance, matter or thing which is generated as a result of
construction work and abandoned whether or not it has been processed or stockpiled before
being abandoned.

It is a mixture of surplus materials arising from site clearance, excavation, construction,

refurbishment, renovation, demolition and road works.

 Masonry and concrete are easily recycled.

 Landscape contractors may be interested in older bricks, which they can use to build
walls and walkways.
 Broken or unusable bricks, concrete block and clay roof tiles can be ground into gravel.
Starting at the top, most roofs are covered with asphalt or fiberglass composite shingles.
These can be recycled into a gravel-like material that is used as a base for driveways, roads
and parking lots.
Bamboo is an amazing material. Used for everything from serving utensils to structural
building materials, this resource covers the gamut and it’s rapidly renewable. Teragren uses a
specific species of bamboo for their surfaces. Optimum 5.5 Moso Bamboo from the Zhejiang
province in China, is among the hardest species, with extremely dense fibers. Bamboo reaches
maturity every 5-1/2 to 6 years, when it is then harvested for use.
ShetkaStone – Counterfeit Line: Recycled Paper – Currency removed from Circulation
Squak Mountain Stone – Recycled Paper and Glass / Low-Carbon Cement / Fly Ash –
Natural Squak Mountain Stone is a fibrous-cement material comprised of recycled
paper, recycled glass, coal fly-ash and cement. The material is hand-cast into “slabs” as
an alternative to natural or quarried stone. This product is finished beautifully with a
similar resemblance to soapstone or limestones.
ConcreteWorks has developed a sustainable concrete without compromising its
wonderful character. They have replaced raw aggregates with post-consumer recycled
material and industrial by-products, diverting upwards of 80% of the total product
weight in material from landfill. In the Husk color, one of those recycled fillers is rice
husks. This protective covering for a grain of rice, is a natural substitute for raw
aggregates and creates beautiful visual texture.
Fly ash
Fly ash, also known as flue-ash, is one of the residues generated in combustion, and
comprises the fine particles that rise with the flue gases. Ash which does not rise is
termed bottom ash. In an industrial context, fly ash usually refers to ash produced during
combustion of coal. Fly ash is generally captured by electrostatic precipitators or other
particle filtration equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys of coal-fired power
plants, and together with bottom ash removed from the bottom of the furnace is in this
case jointly known as coal ash.
In the past, fly ash was generally released into the atmosphere, but pollution control
equipment mandated in recent decades now require that it be captured prior to release.
About 43% is recycled.
Fly ash in building construction

•Concrete production, as a substitute material for Portland cement and sand

•Embankments and other structural fills (usually for road construction)
•Grout and Flowable fill production
•Cement clinkers production - (as a substitute material for clay)
• Road subbase (pavement) construction
•As Aggregate substitute material (e.g. for brick production)
•Mineral filler in asphaltic concrete
Trinity Glass is a composite surface made from a patent-pending formulation of recycled glass
and low-carbon cement. The surfaces are used for countertops, tabletops, wall cladding, and
exterior surfaces. The beautiful color palette is suitable for any design, commercial or

The Jellyfish Theatre in London, by The Red

Room, an organization that brings theatre and
public art to bear on social issues of our time,
and built by architects team Kaltwasser and
Industrial sinks were reused in Kobberling , this theatre was created out of over
temporary community pavilion 800 used wooden pallets from produce markets,
in Netherlands. 750 sq meters of donated plywood and countless
used nails, water jugs and theatre seats.

Retank5 Wonderbar in The Netherlands Retank5 Wonderbar in The

reuses plastic waste A residential Netherlands reuses plastic water
expansion in The Netherlands uses tire tanks for lighting
treads for roofing material. r tanks for

A Lighting installation for a recycling A municipal library in Spain uses old

company in Lithuania reuses old railroad ties for a facade.