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Physics Notes

- ATQ1
- LOD and Other Error Sources
- CHAPTER 4 (Engineering Estimation & Approximation)
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• Errors can be disastrous - NASA probe disaster

in 1999

• In 1999, NASA lost its $125-million Mars Climate

Orbiter

exchanging vital data before the craft was launched

used the metric system, while Lockheed Martin

Astronautics in Denver, which designed and built the

spacecraft, provided crucial acceleration data in the

English system of inches, feet and pounds.

Error caused it to be off course by about 100 km.

Sept. 23, 1999: Mars Orbiter Destroyed

http://abcnews.go.com/Archives/video/sept-23-1999-mars-

orbiter-destroyed-11002953

Key concepts in this unit

prefixes, make estimates of physical quantities

B. SCALARS AND VECTORS – Addition and subtraction, relative

velocity, represent a vector as 2 perpendicular

components

C. ERRORS – Distinguish between systematic and random

errors, accuracy and precision

D. ESTIMATION OF S.F. AND D.P.

E. UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMENT – Absolute, fractional

and percentage uncertainties, calculation of consequential

uncertainty

1. PHYSICAL

QUANTITY

- A physical quantity is a quantity that be can

measured

value and a unit (eg speed v = 80 km h-1 )

•All physical quantities in Physics can be classified

into base (or fundamental) quantities, or derived

quantities.

seven quantities have been arbitrarily defined as base

quantities and their units chosen.

Base quantities

and easily reproduced and are unchanging with time.

No Base Quantity Base Unit Base Unit

Name Symbol

1 mass kilogram kg

2 length metre m

3 time second s

4 electric current ampere A

5 temperature kelvin K

6 amount of substance mole mol

7 luminous intensity candela cd

defined in terms of these base quantities.

•Any physical quantity must be quoted with its

numerical value and its unit.

Notes:

•v = 3 m s-1, not v = 3, which is meaningless because

it has no unit.

already in m s-1.

or v/10-3 m s-1 = 3, not v x 10-3/m s-1 = 3.

Derived quantities

from the multiplication or division of base

quantities.

Some derived units are given special names due to

their complexity when expressed in terms of the base

units.

Derived Quantity Base Unit SI Unit Symbol

density = m/V kg m-3 -- --

momentum p = mv kg m s-1 -- --

force F = ma kg m s-2 newton N

pressure P = F/A kg m-1 s-2 pascal Pa

work W = Fs kg m2 s-2 joule J

power P = W/t kg m2 s-3 watt W

electric charge Q = It As coulomb C

electric resistance kg m2 s-3 A-2 ohm

R =P/I2

e.m.f. V = P/I kg m2 s-3 A-1 volt V

Can we add length to time?

Why?

•No

•Because they are not of the same unit,

the equation is not homogeneous

Homogeneity of a physical equation

each of the terms, separated by plus, minus, equality

or inequality signs has the same base units.

But a homogeneous equation need not be correct.

since equations which are not homogeneous are

definitely not correct.

Example 1

Is the equation v = u + at homogenous?

[v] = m s-1

[u] = m s-1

[at ] = m s-2 s = m s-1

equation is homogeneous.

In fact the equation is also correct.

Example 2

Determine if the equation v2 = u2 + as is

homogeneous.

[u2] = (m s-1)2 = m2 s-2

[as] = (m s-2) m = m2 s-2

The equation v2 = u2 + as is homogeneous.

But it is incorrect as the correct equation is

v2 = u2 + 2as.

Notes:

The kinematics equations for uniformly accelerated

motion in a straight line:

v = u + at

v2 = u2 + 2as

s = ut + ½ at2

where t is time

a is acceleration

u is initial velocity

v is velocity after time t

s is displacement travelled after time t

Prefixes and their symbols

multiplied by a numerical value represented by the

prefix.

Prefixes and their symbols

Prefix Name Symbol Example

10-12 pico p 10 pF (capacitance)

10-9 nano n 400 to 700 nm (wavelength of light)

2 nm (width of DNA)

10-6 micro 20 – 180 m (thickness of human hair)

7 m (width of red blood cell)

10-3 milli m mA (current that kills)

10-2 centi c 2 cm (wavelength of microwave)

10-1 deci d 40 dB (intensity level of quiet conversation)

103 kilo k 50 kg (mass of a person)

106 mega M 98.7 MHz (Perfect 10 station)

109 giga G 16 GBytes (Random Access Memory)

2 TB (computer hard disk space)

Estimates of physical quantities

physical quantities. This knowledge is important as it

allows you to check the answers in your calculations.

Physical quantity Estimated value

Upper limit to nuclear size 10-14 m

diameter of an atom 10-10 m

wavelength of visible light 4 x 10-7 to 7 x 10-7 m

length of filament of a car lamp 10-2 m

radius of earth 106 m

mass of an apple 300 g

mass of a car 2 000 kg

current through a car lamp 1A

current through heating coil of a kettle 10 A

typical frequency of voice of a man 200 to 300 Hz

magnetic flux density of earth 10-5 T

density of water 1.0 x 103 kg m-3

power of a hairdryer 1000 W

viscosity of water 1.0 x 10-3 N s m-2

Quiz

Estimate the area of the island of Singapore.

2. SCALARS AND

VECTORS

Scalars and vectors

distance displacement

speed velocity

mass weight

energy momentum

Scalars and vectors

A scalar is specified by its magnitude and its unit. For

example,

the speed of a car = 10 m s-1.

direction. For example,

the velocity of a car = 10 m s-1 due west;

the force on a ball = 10 N acting to the left etc.

Vector diagram

Direction of arrow represents direction of vector

and direction.

A B

A=B

Vector addition

(a) By parallelogram law:

To add vectors P and Q, draw them such that they

form the adjacent sides of a parallelogram. Then the

resultant vector R is given by the diagonal of the

parallelogram.

P P R

Q

Q

Vector addition

(b) By vector triangle:

To add vectors P and Q, draw them such that they

form the two sides of a triangle, where P and Q are

joined nose-to-tail. Then the resultant vector R is

represented by the third side of the triangle, where R

joins P and Q nose-to-nose and tail-to-tail respectively.

Q

P R

Q

R P

Q

Notes:

The magnitude and direction of the resultant vector R can

be found by scale drawing

R P

Q

Notes:

or by calculation using the cosine equation

R2 = P 2 + Q2 - 2PQ cos.

R P

Q

When solving problem, keep a look out for:

- Equilateral triangle

- Isosceles triangle

- Right angle triangle, especially the 3, 4, 5 or 5, 12, 13 triangle

Notes:

•When more than 2 vectors are to be added, the

resultant vector R can be found by drawing a polygon.

•The result is the same whatever the order in which the

vectors are added.

D E D C

B

C A

R B

E

A

Example 3

A man moves 40 m due east and then 30 m due north. What is his

displacement from his starting position?

North

d 30 m

East

40 m

displacement d 40 30 50 m

2 2

30

tan = 37o

40

Thus his displacement is 50 m in the direction N53oE.

Vector subtraction

R = P – Q = P + (– Q)

opposite direction to Q.

parallelogram law or the vector triangle as follows:

–Q

P Q R R

P P

–Q

by parallelogram law by vector triangle

Example 4

Vf = 20 m s-1

Vi = 15 m s-1 due south

due east

Example 4

Vf = 20 m s-1

Vi = 15 m s-1 due south V Vf

due east

– Vi

(b) change of velocity V Vf Vi Vf Vi

from the vector triangle,

15

tan = 37o

20

Thus change in velocity is 25 m s1 in direction S37o W.

Quiz 2010 P1 Q2

Vf

East

Vi = 8 m s-1

Vf = 6 m s-1 - Vi

due north V

due east

South

Quiz

Two forces, each of 10 N, act at a point P as shown

the diagram. Find the magnitude of the resultant

force.

10 N

10 N

120

60

10 N

Magnitude of the resultant force is 10 N.

Relative velocity

If object A travels with a constant velocity of VA and

object B travels with constant velocity of VB ,

VAB = VA – VB

VBA = VB – VA = – VAB

Example 5

In a 100 m race, Adam is running abreast Ben at the 10

m mark. If Adam’s speed is 10.3 m s-1 and Ben’s speed is

10.0 m s-1 at that instant, what is the relative velocity of

Adam with respect to Ben? Assuming that they maintain

the same speeds, how long will Adam take to be ahead

of Ben by 2.0 m?

VAB VA – VB 10.3 10.0 0.3 m s1

S 2.0

t 6.7 s

VAB 0.3

Quiz 2011P1 Q4 (H1) vC

A passenger in a train

travelling due North at VR VCT

speed vT sees a car VC VT vT

travelling due East at VC VT

speed vC .

Which diagram shows the velocity vR relative to the

passenger on the train?

Components of a Vector

are called the components of the vector.

mutually perpendicular directions.

components is known as resolution of vectors.

Components of a Vector

where Fx F cos

F

Fy F sin Fy

and F F

2 2

X FY

2

Fx

Example 6

y F1

Two forces, F1 and F2, act at

a point as shown in the 8.0 N

diagram. The magnitudes of 60

F1 and F2 are 8.0 N and 5.0 x

53

N respectively. Find the 5.0 N

resultant of these two F2

forces.

Example 6

y F1

8.0 N

Fy F

60

x

53

5.0 N

F2

Fx

2.9

tan = 71o

0.99

Thus F is 3.1 N in the direction 71o above the horizontal.

3. ERRORS

Sources of Error

(a) the instrument:

instruments with a calibrated scale. For example, old

instruments like old ammeter and old voltmeters may

suffer drift in accuracy due to the weakening of magnet

or spring

•mass-produced instruments may not be correctly

calibrated

may affect the accuracy of many instruments

Sources of Error

(b) the experimenter:

error. For example, parallax error, misalignment of zero

scale, over-tightening of micrometer screw gauge etc.

Sources of Error

(c) the nature of the quantity to be measured:

during the measurement (e.g. count rate of a radioactive

source)

different points (e.g. diameter of a long wire).

ERRORS

Systematic errors

under the same conditions yields readings with

error of same magnitude and sign.

predictable manner depending on the conditions.

Examples of systematic error:

•calibration error of an instrument

•a stop watch that is running too slowly or too

quickly

•heat loss in calorimetry

•background counts when measuring the count rate

of a radioactive source

Random errors

under the same conditions yields readings with

error of different magnitude and sign. Readings

with random error spread over a certain range

within which a mean value may be determined.

occurrence. Thus random error occurs statistically,

with equal probability of being positive or

negative.

Examples of random error:

slightly different thickness at different points of the

wire

•human judgement in the timing of a number of

oscillations

•fluctuations in the voltmeter or ammeter readings

due to poor connection in an electrical circuit

•parallax error*

Treatment of errors

experimental value is different from the expected

value as deduced from a theoretical analysis, or

when changing the experimental procedure leads

to a different result.

Treatment of errors

corrections for it if the cause of the systematic

error is known.

determined and then subtracted from the observed

reading. Or the measuring instrument can be

recalibrated.

Treatment of errors

minimized be taking the mean of a large number

of measurements.

positive or negative, they tend to cancel out to

some extent when the mean is calculated.

Quiz

Errors in measurement may be either systematic or

random. Which of the following involves random

error?

A not allowing for zero error on a moving-coil

voltmeter

B not subtracting background count rate when

determining the count rate from a radioactive

source

C stopping a stopwatch at the end of a race

D using the value of g as 10 N kg-1 when calculating

weight from mass

Accuracy and precision

(a) The accuracy of an experiment is a measure of how

close the result of an experiment comes to the true

value. (i.e. It is a measure of the correctness of the

result.)

dependent of how well we can control or

compensate for systematic errors. These are errors

which will make our results different from the true

value.

Accuracy and precision

(b) The precision of an experiment is a measure of how

exactly the result is determined without reference

to what that result means. (i.e. It is a measure of

how small the uncertainty is.)

the more precise is the measurement. The precision

of an experiment is dependent on how well we can

minimize random errors.

Which set (blue/orange) is more precise? Accurate?

accurate

but not

precise

precise but

not

accurate

frequency of results frequency of results

value value

true value

Notes:

use instruments of appropriate precision.

pencil (1 mm), but use a micrometer screw gauge to

measure the thickness of paper (0.01 mm).

Example 7

A student uses an ammeter. The ammeter has a needle

which moves above a horizontal scale. There are three

sources of error in the readings:

•The ammeter has an incorrectly set zero.

•The ammeter always gives a reading which is 5% lower

than the true current.

•The student’s eye is not always vertically above the

ammeter needle.

Which row correctly classifies these sources of error?

Random error Systematic

error

A 1 2,3

B 1,3 2

C 2,3 1

D 3 1,2

Example 8

A voltmeter connected across a resistor in a circuit gives

readings which have high precision but low accuracy.

readings taken with this voltmeter?

A high high

B high low

C low high

D low low

Quiz

A steel rule can be read to the nearest mm. It is used to

measure the length of a bar whose true length is 895 mm.

Results are precise to within 1 mm: yes /no

Quiz

An object of mass 1.000 kg is placed on 4 different

balances. For each balance the reading is taken 5 times.

Which balance has the smallest systematic error but is

not very precise?

balance reading/kg mean/ Deviation Biggest

from true Deviation

1 2 3 4 5 kg value from mean

B 1.011 0.999 1.001 0.989 0.995 0.999 0.001 0.012

C 1.012 1.013 1.012 1.014 1.014 1.013 0.013 0.001

D 0.993 0.987 1.002 1.000 0.983 0.993 0.007 0.01

B is accurate but not precise

C is not accurate but precise

D is not accurate and not precise

4. ESTIMATIONS OF

S.F. AND D.P.

The number of significant figures indicates the reliability

of a reading.

uncertain

If a reading is recorded as 21.35 cm, it means that the

last figure 5 is uncertain even though the uncertainty is

not specified.

Value Number of significant figures

1.950 4

0.001950 4

1950 3 or 4

1.95 x103 3

1.950 x103 4

General rules to estimate

s.f. and d.p.

(a) For the sum or difference of a number of values, the

number of decimal places follows the value with the

least number of decimal places.

Then Y = a + b = 25.4 + 4.567

= 30.0 cm (follows 1 d.p. of 25.4 cm)

carries an uncertainty, Y should be quoted to one

decimal place only. The values in the second and third

decimal places of b have lost their significance.

(b) For the product or quotient of a number of values, the

number of significant figures follows the value with

the least number of significant figures.

Then Y = a x b = 25.4 cm x 4.567 cm

= 116 cm2 (follows 3 s.f. of 25.4 cm).

(b) For the product or quotient of a number of values, the

number of significant figures follows the value with

the least number of significant figures.

Exceptions:

If the time for 20 oscillations t = 25.5 s,

t 25.5

Period T 1.28 s

20 20

(follows 3 s.f. of t since 20 is an exact value)

(b) For the product or quotient of a number of values, the

number of significant figures follows the value with

the least number of significant figures.

Exceptions:

Y = 0.9 x 3.1416 = 2.8

(follows 0.9 which is close to 1.0 with 2 s.f.)

(c) For sinusoidal functions, the number of significant

figures follows the significant figure of the angle.

For example,

X = tan 2.6o = 0.045 (follows 2 s.f. of 2.6)

Y = cos 0.36o = 1.0 (follows 2 s.f. of 0.36)

Z = sin 0.87o = 0.0152 (follows 0.87 which is close to

1.00 with 3 s.f.)

(d) For logarithm of values, the number of decimal places

of the logged value follows the number of significant

figures in the original value.

For example,

Y = log10 48 = 1.68 (corrected to 2 d.p. after the decimal

point to follow 48 with 2 s.f.)

point to follow 4.8 with 2 s.f.)

(d) For logarithm of values, the number of decimal places

of the logged value follows the number of significant

figures in the original value.

So their logged values have 2 decimal places

respectively.

4.8 10 and log10101 = 1.

4.8 1 and log101 = 0.

In summary:

angle

of significant figures

5. UNCERTAINTY OF

MEASUREMENT

1. Absolute uncertainty

2. Fractional uncertainty

3. Percentage uncertainty

Absolute uncertainty

A reading R is recorded in the form of R R

where R is absolute uncertainty.

The graduation of the scale of the instrument determines

the uncertainty of the measurement obtained.

Absolute uncertainty

(a) If the separation between scale markings on an

instrument is small (about 1mm), readings are taken

to the nearest half of the smallest graduation.

Uncertainty is half the smallest graduation.

instrument is large, readings are taken to the nearest

fifth of the smallest graduation. Uncertainty is one

fifth of the smallest graduation.

A metre rule graduated to the nearest 1 mm has

small graduations.

A 3 V voltmeter graduated to the nearest 0.1 V has

large graduations.

1

Read to 0.1 0.02 V.

5

Uncertainty is 0.02 V.

•0.05 cm and 0.02 V are absolute uncertainties.

as that in the uncertainty.

recorded as 20.00 0.05 cm, not as 20 0.05 cm.

recorded as 2.00 0.02 V, not as 2 0.02 V.

Common measuring instruments

1. Metre rule

R1 R2 Iength l R1 R2

uncertainty in Iength l R1 R2

l = ±0.1 cm

instrument graduation d.p. in a reading in a measurement

1 metre rule 0.1 cm 0.05 cm, 2 d.p. 0.1 cm, 1 d.p.

3 micrometer 0.01 mm 0.005 mm, 3 0.01 mm, 2 d.p.

screw gauge d.p.

2. 3 V voltmeter

instrument graduation d.p. in a reading in a measurement

1 metre rule 0.1 cm 0.05 cm, 2 d.p. 0.1 cm, 1 d.p.

3 micrometer 0.01 mm 0.005 mm, 3 0.01 mm, 2 d.p.

screw gauge d.p.

3. micometer screw gauge

instrument graduation d.p. in a reading in a measurement

1 metre rule 0.1 cm 0.05 cm, 2 d.p. 0.1 cm, 1 d.p.

3 micrometer 0.01 mm 0.005 mm, 3 0.01 mm, 2 d.p.

screw gauge d.p.

4. Vernier calipers (20 division or 10 division)

instrument graduation d.p. in a reading in a measurement

4 vernier calipers 0.005 cm 0.005 cm, 3 d.p. 0.01 cm, 2 d.p.

(20 division)

vernier calipers 0.01 cm 0.01 cm, 2 d.p. 0.02 cm, 2 d.p.

(10 division)

Uncertainty = smallest

graduation!

5. thermometer

1

uncertainty 0. 5o C

2

0. 25o C

0. 3o C to1 s.f.

R = 32.0 ± 0.3 oC

instrument graduation d.p. in a reading in a measurement

5 thermometer 0.5 oC 0.3oC, 1 d.p. For temperature

change

0.5oC, 1 d.p.

6 digital stop watch 0.01s 0.1 s, 1 d.p. 0.2 s, 1 d.p.

6. digital stop watch

of about 0.2 s,

uncertainty 0.2 s

t = 75.8 ± 0.2 s

instrument graduation d.p. in a reading in a measurement

5 thermometer 0.5 oC 0.3oC, 1 d.p. For temperature

change

0.5oC, 1 d.p.

6 digital stop watch 0.01s 0.1 s, 1 d.p. 0.2 s, 1 d.p.

6. digital stop watch

of about 0.2 s,

uncertainty 0.2 s

R = 75.8 ± 0.2 s

instrument if the timing is recorded by light gates (use

together with data logger).

Example 9

In various experiments to determine the value of the

acceleration of free fall (g = 9.81 m s-2), the results

obtained and their uncertainties are as follows:

(b) 9.24 0.02 m s-2

(c) 9.476 0.005 m s-2

which is the most precise? Explain your answer.

Example 9

In various experiments to determine the value of the

acceleration of free fall (g = 9.81 m s-2), the results

obtained and their uncertainties are as follows:

(b) 9.24 0.02 m s-2

(c) 9.476 0.005 m s-2

(a) is the most accurate as 9.7 m s-2 is closest to the true

value of 9.81 m s-2.

(c) is the most precise as the uncertainty of 0.005 m s-2 is

the smallest.

Fractional and percentage uncertainty

All readings can be recorded in the form of

R R where R is absolute uncertainty.

certain measurement is not reflected by the absolute

uncertainty but by the fractional or percentage

uncertainty which are defined as follows:

R

Fractional uncertainty

R Expressed

to 2 or 3 sf

R

Percentage uncertainty 100%

R

Example 10

Using a metre-rule, the thickness of two separate

objects are measured to be (a) 20.0 ± 0.1 cm and (b)

0.2 ± 0.1 cm respectively. Determine their percentage

uncertainties.

R 0.1

Percentage uncertainty = 100 100 0.5%

R 20.0

Unacceptable!

(b) For 0.2 ± 0.1 cm,

R 0.1

Percentage uncertainty = 100 100 50%!!

R 0.2

Use micro meter screw gauge, d = 0.01 mm

•For higher degree of precision, use vernier calipers or a

micrometer screw gauge, as they give a lower percentage

uncertainty.

to a measurement is determined by the fractional or

percentage uncertainty of the measured value with the

instrument.

Consequential uncertainty

of a calculated value

1 If a quantity is the sum or difference of a few

variables, the consequential uncertainty of the

quantity is the sum of the absolute uncertainties of

the variables.

If Y a b or Y a b, then Y a b

Example 11

Given that a = 41.2 ± 0.1 cm and b = 20.0 ± 0.5 cm, find

the consequential uncertainty of

(a) Y = a + b and

(b) Y = a – b.

Y = a + b = 0.1 + 0.5 = 0.6 cm.

=> Y = 61.2 ± 0.6 cm.

(b) Y = a – b = 41.2 – 20.0 = 21.2 cm.

Y = a + b = 0.1 + 0.5 = 0.6 cm

=> Y = 21.2 ± 0.6 cm.

Example 12

Given that a = 16.8 ± 0.1 cm and b = 3.15 ± 0.01 cm, find

the consequential uncertainty of

(a) Y = a + b and (b) Y = a – b.

Y = a + b = 0.1 + 0.01 = 0.1 cm. (to 1 s.f.)

=> Y = 20.0 ± 0.1 cm.

(b) Y = a – b = = 16.8 – 3.15 = 13.65 cm.

Y = a + b = 0.1 + 0.01 = 0.1 cm. (to 1 s.f.)

=> Y = 13.7 ± 0.1 cm.

•Measurement of length is obtained from the

difference of two scale readings of an instrument.

equal to the sum of the absolute uncertainty in

each reading.

Example 13

A student attempts to measure the diameter of a steel ball

by using a different type of metre rule to measure four

similar balls in a row.

X = (1.0 ± 0.1) cm

Y = (5.0 ± 0.1) cm

What is the diameter of a steel ball together with its

associated uncertainty?

Example 13

X = (1.0 ± 0.1) cm

Y = (5.0 ± 0.1) cm

=> d = 1.00 ± 0.05 cm

instead of one at a time, the uncertainty is quartered.

And the result is thus more precise.

2 If a quantity is the product or quotient of a few

variables, the fractional uncertainty of the quantity is

the sum of the fractional uncertainties of the

variables.

a Y a b

If Y a b or Y , then

b Y a b

Example 14

Y a b

Y a b

Y 0.1 0.1

57.68 10.3 5.6

Y 2 cm (to 1 s.f.)

2

Y 58 2 cm 2

Example 14

a 10.3

(b ) Y 1.839

b 5.6

Y a b

Y a b

Y 0.1 0.1

1.839 10.3 5.6

Y 1.84 0.05

Y a

3. If Y a a a a..., then

n

n

Y a

For a sphere,

M M

density given by the formula

V 4 3

r

3

M r

Then consequential uncertainty is 3

M r

4

and are exact numbers and have no uncertainty,

3

so they do not contribute any fractional uncertainty.

Y a

3. If Y a a a a ..., then n

n

Y a

For a sphere,

M M

density given by the formula

V 4 3

r

3

M r

Then consequential uncertainty is 3

M r

fractional uncertainty that is 3 times larger.

Y a

3. If Y a a a a ..., then n

n

Y a

For a sphere,

M M

density given by the formula

V 4 3

r

3

M r

Then consequential uncertainty is 3

M r

measurement using instruments with small absolute

uncertainties.

In summary:

1. If Y a b or Y a b, then Y a b

a Y a b

2. If Y a b or Y , then

b Y a b

Y a

3. If Y a a a a ..., then

n

n

Y a

Y follows the number of decimal places of Y

4 It is sometimes easier to derive the absolute

uncertainty of a derived quantity by simple numerical

substitution

Example 15

The equation connecting object distance u, image

distance v and focal length f for a lens is

1 1 1

u v f

A student measures values of u and v, with their

associated uncertainties. These are u = 50 mm ± 3 mm

and v = 200 mm ± 5 mm.

He calculates the value of f as 40 mm. What is the

uncertainty in this value?

Minimum value of u = umin = 50 – 3 = 47 mm

Minimum value of v = vmin = 200 – 5 = 195 mm

1 1 1 1 1 f f f min

f min u min v min 47 195 40 37.87

f min 37.87 mm 2 mm (1 s.f.)

OR

Maximum value of u = umax= 50 + 3 = 53 mm

Maximum value of v = vmax= 200 + 5 = 205 mm

1 1 1 1 1 f f max f

f max u max v max 53 205 42.11 40

f max 42.11 mm 2 mm (1 s.f.)

Alternatively,

f f min

f (

max

)

2

2.12 mm 2 mm (1 s.f.)

Thank you

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