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MODULATION

PULSE MODULATION

of sampling analog information signals

and then converting those samples into

discrete pulses and transporting the

pulses from a source to a destination

over a physical transmission medium.

PULSE MODULATION

pulse modulation include:

Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION

modulation (PDM) or pulse length

modulation(PLM), as the width (active

portion of the duty cycle) of a constant

amplitude pulse is varied proportional to

the amplitude of the analog signal at the

time the signal is sampled.

PULSE POSITION MODULATION

width pulse within a prescribed time slot

is varied according to the amplitude of

the sample of the analog signal. The

higher the amplitude of the sample, the

farther to the right the pulse is positioned

within the prescribed time slot.

PULSE POSITION MODULATION

a pulse to the far right, and the lowest

amplitude sample produces a pulse to the

far left.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION

constant-position pulse is varied

according to the amplitude of the sample

of the analog signal.The amplitude of a

pulse coincides with the amplitude of the

analog signal. PAM waveforms resemble

the original analog signal more than the

waveforms for PWM or PPM.

PULSE CODE MODULATION

and then converted to a serial n-bit

binary code for transmission. Each code

has the same number of bits and requires

the same length of time for transmission.

PULSE MODULATION

PULSE CODE

MODULATION

PULSE CODE MODULATION

modulation technique shown in Figure 1

that is commonly used for digital

transmission. The term pulse code

modulation is somewhat of amisnomer,

as it is not really a type of modulation

but rather a form of digitally coding

analog signals.

PULSE CODE MODULATION

and fixed amplitude. PCM is a binary

system where a pulse or lack of a pulse

within a prescribed time slot represents

either a logic 1 or a logic 0 condition.

PWM, PPM, and PAM are digital but

seldom binary, as a pulse does not

represent a single binary digit (bit).

PULSE CODE MODULATION

PULSE CODE MODULATION

PCM TRANSMITTER

Bandpass filter - limits the frequency of

the analog input signal to

the standard voice-band frequency range

of 300 Hz to 3000 Hz.

Sample-And-Hold circuit - periodically

samples the analog input signal and

converts those samples to a multilevel

PAM signal.

PULSE CODE MODULATION

PCM TRANSMITTER

Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) -

converts the PAM samples to parallel

PCM codes, which are converted to

serial binary data in the parallel-to-

serial converter and then outputted onto

the transmission line as serial digital

pulses.

PULSE CODE MODULATION

PCM TRANSMITTER

Transmission Line Repeaters -

are placed at prescribed distances to

regenerate the digital pulses.

PULSE CODE MODULATION

PCM RECEIVER

serial pulses received from the

transmission line to parallel PCM codes.

converts the parallel PCM codes to

multilevel PAM signals.

PULSE CODE MODULATION

PCM RECEIVER

serial pulses received from the

transmission line to parallel PCM codes.

converts the parallel PCM codes to

multilevel PAM signals.

PULSE CODE MODULATION

PCM RECEIVER

filter that converts the PAM signals back

to its original analog form.

PULSE CODE MODULATION SAMPLING

PCM transmitter is to periodically

sample the continually changing analog

input voltage and convert those samples

to a series of constant amplitude pulses

that can more easily be converted to

binary PCM code.

PULSE CODE MODULATION SAMPLING

PCM transmitter is to periodically

sample the continually changing analog

input voltage and convert those samples

to a series of constant amplitude pulses

that can more easily be converted to

binary PCM code.

PULSE CODE MODULATION SAMPLING

perform the sampling function:

• Natural Sampling

• Flat-Top Sampling

PULSE CODE MODULATION SAMPLING

sample pulses retain their natural shape

during the sample interval, making it

difficult for an ADC to convert the

sample to a PCM code. With natural

sampling, the frequency spectrum of the

sampled output is different from that of

an ideal sample.

PULSE CODE MODULATION SAMPLING

NATURAL SAMPLING

PULSE CODE MODULATION SAMPLING

sample-and-hold circuit. The purpose of

a sampleand-hold circuit is to

periodically sample the continually

changing analog input voltage and

convert those samples to a series of

constant-amplitude PAM voltage levels.

PULSE CODE MODULATION SAMPLING

is sampled with a narrow pulse and then

held relatively constant until the next

sample is taken.

PULSE CODE MODULATION SAMPLING

FLAT-TOP SAMPLING

SAMPLING RATE

minimum sampling rate (fs) that can be used for

a given PCM system. For a sample to be

reproduced accurately in a PCM receiver, each

cycle of the analog input signal (fa) must be

sampled at least twice. Consequently, the

minimum sampling rate is equal to twice the

highest audio input frequency. If fs is less than

two times fa, an impairment called alias or

foldover distortion occurs.

SAMPLING RATE

rate is

fs ≥ 2fa

fa = maximum analog input frequency

(hertz)

SAMPLING RATE

ALIASING

SAMPLING RATE

ALIASING

sampled when the sampling frequency is

less than twice the input frequency. An

antialiasing ﬁlter is used to ensure that the

correct signal is used.

SAMPLING RATE

ALIASING

called an antialiasing filter is usually

placed between the modulating signal

source and the A/D converter input to

ensure that no signal with a frequency

greater than one-half the sampling

frequency is passed.

SAMPLING RATE

ALIASING

LC filters, an RC active filter, or high-order

switched capacitor filters to give the steep

roll-off required to eliminate any aliasing.

The filter cutoff is usually set just slightly

above the highest- frequency content of the

input signal.

SAMPLING RATE

ALIASING

A digital communication system uses

sampling at 10kilosamplespersecond

(kSa/s). The receiver filters out all

frequencies above 5 kHz. What frequencies

appear at the receiver for each of the

following signal frequencies at the input to

the transmitter? (a) 1 kHz

(b) 5 kHz

(c) 6 kHz

SAMPLING RATE

ALIASING

using a frequency range from 300 Hz to 3.5

kHz using a digital system.

(a) What is the minimum required sampling

rate, according to theory?

(b) Why would a practical system need a

higher rate than the one you calculated in

part (a)

QUANTIZATION

infinite number of possibilities to a finite

number of conditions. Analog signals

contain an infinite number of amplitude

possibilities.

the amplitudes of flat-top samples to a

manageable number of levels.

QUANTIZATION

QUANTIZATION

quantizing. The magnitude of a quantum is also called

the resolution.

step size, which is equal to the voltage of the least

significant bit (Vlsb) of the PCM code. The resolution

is the minimum voltage other than 0 V that can be

decoded by the digital-to-analog converter in the

receiver.

QUANTIZATION

will be converted to that code. For example, any

voltage between +0.5 and +1.5 will be converted to

the code 101 (+1 V). Each code has a quantization

range equal to + or - one-half the magnitude

of a quantum except the codes for +0 and -0. The 0-V

codes each have an input range equal to only one-half

a quantum (0.5 V).

QUANTIZATION

QUANTIZATION

The figure shows an analog input signal,

the sampling pulse, the corresponding

quantized signal (PAM), and the PCM code

for each sample. The likelihood of a sample

voltage being equal to one of the eight

quantization levels is remote. Therefore, as

shown in the figure, each sample voltage is

rounded off (quantized) to the closest

available level and then converted to its

corresponding PCM code.

QUANTIZATION

Quantization Error (Qe) - any round-off

errors in the transmitted signal that are

reproduced when the code is converted

back to analog in the receiver. Quantization

error is also called quantization noise (Qn).

The maximum magnitude for the

quantization error is equal to onehalf a

quantum.

QUANTIZATION

The first sample shown in Figure at time

t1,when the input voltage is exactly +2 V.

The PCM code that corresponds to +2 V is

110, and there is no quantization error.

Sample 2 occurs at time t2, when the input

voltage is +1 V. The corresponding PCM

code is 001, and again there is no

quantization error.

QUANTIZATION

To determine the PCM code for a particular

sample voltage, simply divide the voltage

by the resolution, convert the quotient to an

n-bit binary code,and then add the sign bit.

For sample 3 in Figure,the voltage at t3 is

approximately +2.6 V.

QUANTIZATION

Example

For the PCM coding scheme shown in

Figure, determine the quantized voltage,

quantization error (Qe), and PCM code for

the analog sample voltage of +1.07 V.

DYNAMIC RANGE

Dynamic range(DR) is the ratio of the

largest possible magnitude to the smallest

possible magnitude (other than 0 V) that

can be decoded by the digital-to-analog

converter in the receiver. Mathematically,

dynamic range is

DR = Vmax/Vmin

DR = dynamic range (unitless ratio)

Vmin = the quantum value (resolution)

Vmax = the maximum voltage magnitude that

can be discerned by the DACs in the receiver

DYNAMIC RANGE

Can be written as:

DR = Vmax/Resolution

Dynamic range is generally expressed as a dB value; therefore,

DR = 20log(Vmax/Vmin)

The number of bits used for a PCM code depends on the dynamic range.

The relationship between dynamic range and the number of bits in a PCM

code is

2n - 1 ≥ DR

and for a minimum number of bits

2n -1 = DR

where

n = number of bits in a PCM code, excluding the sign bit

DR = absolute value of dynamic range

DYNAMIC RANGE

Example

For a PCM system with the following parameters,

determine

(a) minimum sample rate,

(b) minimum number of bits used in the PCM code,

(c) resolution, and

(d) quantization error.

Maximum decoded voltage at the receiver = 2.55 V

Minimum dynamic range = 46 dB

DYNAMIC RANGE

Example

a.) Minimum sample rate = 8kHz

b.) Minimum number of bits used

in the PCM code= 7.63

c.) Resolution = 0.01V

d.) Quantization Error = 0.005V

DYNAMIC RANGE

Example

a.) Minimum sample rate = 8kHz

b.) Minimum number of bits used

in the PCM code= 7.63

c.) Resolution = 0.01V

d.) Quantization Error = 0.005V

CODING EFFICIENCY

efficiently a PCM code is utilized. Coding efficiency

is the ratio of the minimum number of bits required to

achieve a certain dynamic range to the actual number

of PCM bits used. Mathematically, coding efficiency

is

minimum number of bits (including sign bit)

coding efficiency = x 100

actual number of bits (including sign bit)

SIGNAL-TO-QUANTIZATION NOISE RATIO

digital conversion of an analog signal. Defined as

normalized signal power divided by normalized

quantization noise power.

resolution (quantum value). Therefore, the worst

possible signal voltage-to-quantization noise voltage

ratio (SQR) occurs when the input signal is at its

minimum amplitude (101 or 001). Mathematically, the

worst-case voltage SQR is

SIGNAL-TO-QUANTIZATION NOISE RATIO

Resolution Vlsb

SQNR = SQNR = =2

Qe Vlsb/2

magnitude quantization voltage (

1V). Therefore, the

minimum SQR is

SIGNAL-TO-QUANTIZATION NOISE RATIO

LINEAR VERSUS NONLINEAR PCM CODES

Linear Codes

The magnitude change between any two successive

steps is uniform. With linear codes, resolution for

higher amplitude analog signals is the same for lower

amplitude signals.

The step size increases with the amplitude of the input

signal

LINEAR VERSUS NONLINEAR PCM CODES

COMPANDING

Companding is a process of signal compression

and expansion that is used to overcome problems

of distortion and noise in the transmission of

audio signals.

then expansion. With companded system, the

higher amplitude analog signals are compressed

(amplified less than lower amplitude signals)

prior to transmission and then expanded

(amplified more than the lower amplitude signals)

in the receiver.

COMPANDING

The data rate is important in telecommunication

because it is directly proportional to the cost of

transmitting the signal. Saving bits is the same as

saving money. Companding is a common

technique for reducing the data rate of audio

signals by making the quantization levels

unequal.

COMPANDING

ANALOG COMPANDING

COMPANDING

companding is used. The compression

characteristics for μ-law is

Vm = maximum possible input voltage

Vin = instantaneous value of input voltage

The value of µ is usually 255.

COMPANDING

TWO BASIC TYPES OF COMPANDING

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