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Basic Manufacturing Processes

P.V.R.Ravindra Reddy
Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology

It is the process of obtaining

desired product from raw
• Metal casting :Making the desired product by
melting and pouring the metal in desired cavity made
in a mould.

• Fabrication: Joining Process. Welding, riveting etc

comes under fabrication processes.

• Metal forming: due plastic deformation by the

application of load with the tools called dies and

• Machining : getting the desired shape by removal

of material
Metal Casting
Metal Casting : classification
• Sand Casting
•Green sand Moulding
•Dry sand Moulding
• Special Moulding/casting processes
• Shell Moulding
• Centrifugal Casting
• Continuous casting
• Pressure die casting
• Investmest casting
Sand Casting
Processes in sand casting

•Pattern Design & Development

•In process and final inspection
•Packing and dispatch
Pattern : The replica of casting

Pattern : The replica of casting
• Pattern Allowances
• Shrinkage Allowance
• Draft Allowance
• Machining Allowance
• Rapping & Tapping Allowance
• Distortion allowance
• Pattern Materials
• Wood : Teak, Deodar, Pine, Mahogany Wall nut etc.
• Metals & Alloys : CI, Steel, Aluminum, Brass etc.
• Plasters : Plaster of Paris
• Plastics : Epoxy resin.
• Expendable materials: Wax, Mercury etc.
Moulding: Making the cavity
• Sand Mix
• Sand
• Clay
• Additives
• Water
• Desired properties of Moulding sand
• Refractoriness
• Permeability
• Adhesiveness & Cohesiveness
• Strength (GCS,GSS,DCS,DSS,Hot strength)
• Plasticity
• Collapsibility
• Bench Life
Core : For a cavity in casting
• Sand Mix
• Sand
• Binder: Core oil, Dextrin etc.
• Preparation
• Preparation using core boxes
• Backing – 200-240 0C for 1-3 hrs.

Types of cores
Gating System
Melting & Pouring

• Melting furnaces
• Cupola
• Arc furnace
• Induction furnace
• Metal is tapped in ladles
• Poured in the mould
Knockout & Fetling
• Breaking the mould
• Removing the gating system
• With hammer
• With hacksaw machine
• With flame cutting
• Cleaning the castings
• Shot blasting
• Sand blasting
• Tumbling
• Tumbling with hydro blast
Inprocess & final inspection
• Visual inspection
• Percussion test
• Dye penatrant test
• Florescent powder test
• Magnetic particle test
• Ultrasonic test
• Radiography
Shell Moulding
Centrifugal Casting

• True Centrifugal casting

• Semi centrifugal Casting
• Centrifuging
True Centrifugal casting
Semi Centrifugal casting
Pressure die casting

• Hot chamber process

• Cold chamber process

Hot chamber Process
Cold chamber Process
Investment Casting
Casting Defects
• Blow holes
• Pin holes
• Shrinkage cavity
• Cold shut
• Misrun
• Scab
• Mould drop
• Hot cracks
• Cold cracks
Advantages of casting Process
• No limitation of Weight
• Complex shapes
• Cheapest manufacturing process
• Hardness, brittleness does not matter
• Suitable for mass production or
jobbing work
• No directional properties

Welding is a process used to join similar

or dissimilar metals with the help of
heat and with or without the application
of Pressure
Welding Positions
Types of Joints
Types of Welding Processes

• Gas Welding
• Arc Welding
• Resistance Welding
• Thermo-chemical Welding
• Radiant energy welding
• Solid state welding process
Gas Welding

• Oxy-Hydrogen Welding
• Air-Acetylene Welding
• Oxy-Acetylene Welding
Oxy Acetylene Welding Setup
Types of flames
Arc Welding Processes
• Carbon Arc Welding (CAW)
• Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
• Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
• Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG)
• Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG)
• Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
• Electro Slag Welding (ESW)
• Contains electrons and ions
• Electron emission is thermionic.
• K.E of is converted to heat.
• 66.6% heat at anode and 33% at
• Work piece is heated more in DCSP
• Electrode consumption is more in
Carbon Arc Welding
• First invented arc welding
• Graphite electrodes are used
• No weld pool protection
• Almost obsolete .
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Coating ingredients
• Arc Stabilizers • Binding Agents
• Titania TiO2 • Sodium Silicate
• Gas-Forming Materials • Asbestos
• Wood Pulp • Starch
• Sugar
• Limestone CaCO3
• Alloying and Deoxidizing Elements
• Slag-Forming Materials • Si, Al
• Alumina Al2O3
• TiO2
• SiO2
• Fe3O4
• Slipping Agents to Aid Extrusion
• Clay
• Talc
• Glycerin
Submerged Arc Welding
Tungsten Inert Gas Welding
Metal Inert Gas Welding
Plasma Arc Welding
Electro slag welding process
Resistance Welding

•Spot Welding
•Seam Welding
•Projection Welding
•Resistance Butt

•Percussion Welding
Thermo-Chemical Welding
Fe2O3 + 2Al 2Fe + Al2O3 + 181.5 kcal

3Fe3O4 + 8Al 9Fe + 4Al2O3 + 719.3 kcal

Radiant Energy Welding Processes

Electron beam welding Laser Beam Welding

Solid State Welding Processes

• Cold welding
• Forge welding
• Friction Welding
• Ultrasonic welding
• Explosion Welding
• Diffusion welding
Weld Defects
Metal Forming

It is the process of obtaining

desired shape due to plastic
deformation by the application of
load with the tools called dies
and punches.
Types of Metal forming processes
• Bulk Deformation Processes:
• Rolling
• Forging
• Extrusion
• Wire drawing
• Sheet Metal Forming :
• Shearing : Blanking, piercing, lancing, shaving,
notching, Perforating.
• Cup drawing
• Stretch forming
• Spinning
• Open die forging
• Closed die forging
Wire Drawing
Cup Drawing
Drawing is a sheet metal
forming operation used
to make cup-shaped,
box-shaped, or other
complex-curved, hollow-
shaped parts. It is
performed by placing a
piece of sheet metal
over a die cavity and
then pushing the sheet
into the opening with a
punch. The blank is held
down flat against the die
by a blankholder.
Two common bending methods are:
• V-bending
• Edge or wipe bending.
V-bending: In the sheet metal blank is
bent between a V-shaped punch and
Edge or wipe bending: involves
cantilever loading of the material. A
pressure pad is used to apply a Force to
hold the blank against the die, while the
punch forces the work piece to yield and
bend over the edge of the die.

Machining is the process removal of

material from a raw material, by
cutting small chips, in order to obtain
the desired shape and dimensions for
final part.
Classification of machining processes

Machining types
(Cutting processes types)

Traditional machining Non-Traditional machining

Cutting with Conventional Tools Cutting with Non-Conventional Tools Machining by:
(Single point or multi point cutting tools (Abrasive tools that have a random
having a cleary defined geometry) geometru of cutting part)

Sloting/ Turning Milling Drilling Grinding Honning Lapping Water Electro/ Laser Ultra
Shaping jet Chemical beam sonic
Operations on lathe
Milling is a machining operation in which a workpart is
fed past a rotating cylindrical tool usually with multiple
cutting edges.

The cutting tool in milling is called a milling cutter and

cutting edges are called teeth.

The geometric form created by milling is a plane surface.

Other geometries can be created either by means of the
cutter path or cutter shape.
Types of Milling operations

Peripheral milling: the axis of

the cutter is parallel to the
surface being machined, and
the machining is performed by
cutting edges on the outside
periphery of the cutter.
Face milling: the axis of the
cutter is perpendicular to the
surface being milled, and
machining is performed by
cutting edges on both the end
and outside periphery of the
Types of Peripheral Milling
• Up (conventional) milling:
the direction of motion of
the cutter teeth is opposite
the feed direction when the
teeth cut into the work.
• Down (climb) milling: the
direction of motion of the
cutter teeth is the same as
the feed direction when the
teeth cut into the work.
Reaming and Tapping
Thank you