2.

July 29- Aug19, 2010

CETASIKAS

MENTAL FACTORS
Putosi, Kota Kinabalu

Compendium of Mental Factors
1. 2. 3.

4.

52 Cetasikas (mental factors)/adjuncts/concomitants) Association of each cetasika with different cittas Combination of mental conscomitants ² analyses of each citta into their component cetasikas Classification of cetasikas by way of the cittas

Characteristics of cetasikas
y Cetasikas are mental

factors or mental concomitants that influence the mind to be bad, good or neutral as they arise. y Cetasikas and citta are interdependent ± citta as the leader , being assisted by cetasikas in the task of cognition

A cetasika 1. arises together with citta (consciousness). 2. perishes together with citta. 3. takes the same object (arammana) which citta takes. 4. shares a common physical base (vatthu) with citta.

Classification of Cetasikas
A¤¤asamàna 1. Sabba-citta sàddhàraõa Ethically (7) variable (13) 2. Pakiõõaka (6) 1. Moha-catukka (4) Akusala 2. Lobha-tri (3) Immoral or Cetasikas Unwholesom 3. Dosa-catukka (4) (total of 52) e (14) 4. End-tri (3) 1. Sobhaõa sàdhàraõa (19) 2. Virati (3) Sobhana Beautiful (25) 3. Appama¤¤à (2) 4. Pa¤¤indriya (1)

A¤¤asamàna Cetasikas (13)
Ethically variable mental factors
1. Sabba-citta sàddhàraõa (7) 2. Pakiõõaka (6)

A¤¤asamàna Cetasikas (13)
A¤¤a= other; samàna = common y associate both with sobhaõa and asobhaõa cittas, thus ethically variable. y enhance the properties of the cetasikas with which they associate. y Total of 13 a¤¤asamàna cetasikas 1. Sabbacitta-sàdhàraõa (7) y Universals (essentials) which associate with all cittas 2. Pakiõõaka (6) y Occasional (particulars) which associate with particular cittas - some sobhaõa and some asobhaõa cittas

Sabbacitta-s¤dh¤ra¼a Cetasikas (7)
Ethically variable mental factors present in all cittas y the Universals or Essentials - Minimum present for the citta to function ± rudimentary and cognitive functions. 1. Phassa ± Contact 2. Vedanà ± Feeling or sensation
y
3. Sa¤¤à ± perception 4. Cetanà ± volition or intention 5. Ekaggatà ± one-pointedness, concentration (samàdhi) 6. Jãvitindriya ± vitality or psychic life or mental life faculty 7. Manasikàra ± attention or advertence

Sabbacitta-s¤dh¤ra¼a Cetasikas Universals (7)
1. Phassa (contact) y Phassa furnishes the contact between the sense object, the sense faculty and the citta. y Characteristic: touching y Function: impingement (of citta and the sense object) y Manifestation: occurrence of citta, sense faculty and sense object y Proximate cause: objective field that comes into focus 2. Vedanà (feeling or sensation) y Vedanà feels or experiences (=function) the object directly (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral) y Conditioned by phassa, vedanà arises; conditioned by vedanà, taõha arises y Vedanàkkhanda= aggregate of feelings (past, present, future, one¶s own etc) y Manifestation: relishing of the mental states y Proximate cause: contact

Sabbacitta-s¤dh¤ra¼a Cetasikas (7)
3. Sa¤¤à y takes note of or perceives the quality of the senseobjects (color, form, shape, name, etc) y functions as memory enables one to recognize an object that has once been perceived by the mind y sa¤¤akkhandha = aggregate of perceptions past, present, future, one¶s own etc
y y y

y

Characteristic: perceiving Function: recognize Manifests in interpreting the object by the features previously apprehended Proximate cause: the object as it appears

Sabbacitta-s¤dh¤ra¼a Cetasikas (7)
4. Cetanà (volition) y Leads, marshals, coordinates and wills the other cetasikas associated with it to act on the object of consciousness y fulfils its function and regulates the functions of the associated cetasikas to accomplish the task. y Volition determines action, good or bad generates kamma
y One of the 50 cetasikas that

make up the aggregate of mental formations or saïkhàrakkhandha y Most important cetasika in lokiya citta Buddha: µvolition is Acton (kamma) ..¶ Characteristic: willing Function: accumulate kamma Manifestation: coordination Proximate cause: associated states

Sabbacitta-s¤dh¤ra¼a Cetasikas (7)
5. Ekaggatà (onepointedness) y focuses (= function) the citta and its concomitants on one object. y prevents its adjuncts from dissipation and fixes them on the object y Unification of the mind y One of the five jhàna factors y Characteristic: nonwandering y Manifest as peace y Proximate cause: happiness 6. Jãvitindriya (mental life faculty) y vitalises mental states or infusing life into the cetasikas y Characteristic: maintains the associated cetasikas y Function: make the cetasikas occur y Manifestation: establishing their presence y Proximate cause: cetasikas to be maintained

Sabbacitta-s¤dh¤ra¼a Cetasikas (7)
7. Manasikàra (attention y the mind¶s first µconfrontation with an object¶ y directs the associated mental concomitants to the object - prominent factor in mind door- and five-sensedoor adverting cittas pa¤cadvàràvajjana-citta and mano-dvàràvajjana-citta, y Without manasikàra, the mind is like a rudderless ship and will not be aware of the object Characteristic: directing of the cetasikas to the object Function: yoke the associated cetasikas to the object Manifestation: confrontation with the object Proximate cause: the object

yoniso-manasikàra (wise attention or reflection) or ayoniso-manasikàra (unwise attention or reflection) leads to moral or immoral citta respectively.

Sabbacitta-s¤dh¤ra¼a Cetasikas y Significance: Essential for the citta to function
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

Manasikàra first confronts with the object and directs the citta and the mental concomitants associated with it towards the object. Phassa let the citta and its mental concomitants be in contact with the sense-object. Cetanà coordinates & acts on the citta and the concomitant cetasikas to perform their functions in cognizing of the object Vedanà enjoys/experience or feels the taste of sensation which arises from the contact Sa¤¤à takes note of the object and helps to recognize the object. Ekaggatà focuses the citta and its concomitants on the object and keeps them bound on the object; essential for awareness of the object Jãvitindriya sustains the vitality of the citta and the mental concomitants for the performance of their functions to completion

A¤¤asamàna Cetasikas (13)
Ethically variable mental factors B. Pakiõõaka (6) ± the Occasional or Particulars
-

present in some particular cittas, not all

the Occasional or particulars ± associated with some particular cittas (not all) 1. Vitakka ± initial application or thought conception 2. Vicàra ± sustained application or discursive thinking 3. Adhimokkha ± decision or determination 4. Viriya ± effort or energy or exertion 5 . Pãti ± rapture or interest 6. Chanda ± wish, desire or will

Pakiõõaka (Particulars - 6)
1. Vitakka (initial application) y applies the citta and its concomitants onto the sense object. y manasikàra directs, vitakka applies, cetanà leads & coordinates and wills the citta & concomitants to act on the object. y Leads to thought processes, also known as thought conception
y Jhàna factor; inhibits sloth & torpor (thãna-middha) y Also the path factor, µsammà-saïkappa¶ (rightthought) y Characteristic: places the mind onto the object y Function: strike at the object; y Manifestation: leading the mind onto the object y Proximate cause: object

Pakiõõaka (Particulars - 6)
2. Vicàra (Sustained application) y sustains the citta and its concomitants on the object, examining the object again and again. y a jhàna factor; inhibits vicikicchà (doubt).
y Characteristic: pressure

on the object y Function: sustained application of the mind on the object; y Manifestation: anchoring the mind on the object y Proximate cause: object

Pakiõõaka (Particulars - 6)
3. Adhimokka (decision or determination or resolution) y Unwavering decision with regards to the object ± µrelease¶ the mind onto the object y Unshakable resolve y Opposed to vicikicchà (doubt).
y Characteristic:

conviction y Function: not groping; y Manifestation: decisiveness y Proximate cause: object to be convinced about

Pakiõõaka (Particulars - 6)
4. Viriya (effort; energy) y State of being energetic, y Supports the concomitants y Spiritual faculty ± controls and overcomes idleness; One of the five powers; y Root of all achievement
y Characteristic:

supporting or sustaining the concomitants y Function: to support the mind; y Manifestation: noncollapse y Proximate cause: sense of urgency or ground for arousing energy

Pakiõõaka (Particulars - 6)
5, Pãti (rapture; interest; zest) y Joyful interest; precursor of sukha (happiness) y Not a feeling or sensation y Jhàna factor; inhibits vyàpàda y Thrill; instantaneous joy; flood or waves of joy; uplifting or levitating joy; suffusing joy pervading the body
y Characteristic: endearing y Function: to refresh the mind and body; y Manifestation: elation y Proximate cause: mind and body (nàmaråpa)

Pakiõõaka (Particulars - 6)
6. chanda (wish or desire to act; conation; intention) y Wish to do, like stretching forth of one¶s mind towards an object y Eg the journey of 1000 miles begins with the first step ± that first step is chanda y Intensified chanda becomes will ± one of the 4 means to attaining exalted states (+ citta; viriya; pa¤¤à)
y Characteristic: wish to do y Function: to search for an

object; y Manifestation: need for an object y Proximate cause: same object y Chanda is ethically variable; different from lobha or attachment which is ethically immoral

Akusala Cetasikas (14)
Unwholesome or Immoral Cetasikas (14)
1. Moha catukka (4) (Ignorance group of 4) 2. Lobha Tri (3) (Greed group of 3) 3. Dosa catukka (4) (Aversion group of 4) 4. End-Tri (3) (End group of 3)

Akusala (Immoral) Cetasikas (14)
I. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Moha-catukka ± akusalasàdhàraõa or universal unwholesome factors (4) headed by moha Present in all 12 Akusala or unwholesome cittas Moha ± avijjà ± delusion, ignorance, dullness Ahirika ± lack of moral shame, impudence Anottappa ± lack of moral dread, recklessness Uddhacca ± unrest, restlessness, distraction.

II. Lobha-tri ± papa¤cadhamma ± 3 - headed by lobha 5. Lobha ± ràga ±taõhà ± greed, attachment, sensuous desire ± found in all 8 lobhamula cittas 6. Diññhi ± wrong view, evil opinion ± present n 4 lobhamula cittas 7. Màna ± conceit, pride ± found 4 lobhamula cittas not associated with wrong view

Akusala (immoral) Cetasikas (14)
III. Dosa-catukka ± hateful ones ± 4 - headed by dosa - Present in all two dosamula cittas 8. Dosa ±pañigha ± hatred, anger, aversion 9. Issa ± envy, jealousy 10. Macchariya ± avarice, stinginess, selfishness 11. Kukkucca ± worry, scruples, remorse IV. End-tri ± dull and wavering ones ± 3 12. Thãna ± sloth 13. Middha ± torpor Thãna-middha found in 5 prompted akusala cittas 14. Vicikiccchà ± sceptical doubt, perplexity ± present in mohamula citta associated with doubt

Moha Catukka (Ignorance-4)
1. y y y

Moha ± avijja Leader of all akusala cetasikas Root of all akusala cittas Ignorance of true nature of object as nàma and råpa which are conditioned dhammas, constantly arising and passing away; not seeing impermanence unsatisfactoriness, nonself, and loathsomeness

y Wrong view (seeing nicca ,

y

y y y y

sukha, atta, subha) undesirable consequences Clouds our knowledge on such Dhammas as Four Noble Truths (avijjà) Characteristic: mental blindness Function: to conceal real nature of the object Manifestation: absence of right understanding Proximate cause: unwise attention (ayoniso manasikarà)

Moha Catukka (Ignorance-4)
2. y

y y y y

Ahirika (Shamelessness) urges one not to be ashamed of committing immoral action, speech and thought Characteristic: absence of disgust at misconduct Function: to do evil things Manifestation: not shrinking away from evils Proximate cause: lack of respect for self

3. Anottappa (lack of moral dread) y urges one not to be afraid of committing immoral action, speech and thought y Characteristic: absence of dread on account of the misconduct y Function: to do evil things y Manifestation: not shrinking away from evils y Proximate cause: lack of respect for others

Moha Catukka (Ignorance-4)
4. Uddhacca (Restlessness) y Restless state of mind (deluded by moha), cannot see the consequences of evil deeds y Like the disturbed state of a heap of ash hit by a stone; or like water whipped up by the wind
y y y y

Characteristic: disquietude of mind Function: make mind unsteady Manifestation: turmoil Proximate cause: unwise attention to mental disquiet

Lobha-Tri (Greed-3)
5. Lobha (Greed) y All degrees of greed or desire for sensuous objects and jhàna happiness attachment, longing, clinging y The nature of desiring or greed is such that it can never be satiated ± one cannot be truly happy unless lobha is eliminated y Because of lobha, worldlings cannot renounce their worldly µpossessions¶ or bondages of all kinds
y lobha, diññhi and màna

y y y y

(papa¤ca dhamma) keep worldlings bound to rebirths and saÿsara Characteristic: grasping the object Function: sticking Manifestation: not giving up Proximate cause: seeing enjoyment in things that lead to bondage

Lobha-Tri (Greed-3)
7. Màna (conceit) y µI am the best; I have no equals in the world¶ etc Three kinds of conceit: y equality-conceit (màna) (µI am equal¶), y inferiority-conceit (omàna) (µI am worse¶) y superiority-conceit (atimàna) (µI am better¶)
y y y y y

One of the 10 fetters, eliminated in arahatta magga Characteristic: haughtiness Function: self-exaltation Manifestation: vainglory (µself-advertisement¶) Proximate cause: greed dissociated from wrong view

Lobha-Tri (Greed-3)
6. Diññhi (wrong view) = Diññhi as a cetasika is used in the sense of wrong view or seeing wrongly y Sakkàya-diññhi ± µpersonality-belief¶: combination of mind and body = µI¶, µyou¶, µhe¶, etc = one of 10 fetters; fetter eliminated in path of stream-entry (sotàpattimagga)
y

y y y y

Atta-diññhi ± µego-illusion¶: belief in the existence of an µatta or soul¶ or µego¶ or µlife-entity¶ in the body. Characteristic: unwise interpretation Function: to pre-assume Manifestation: wrong belief or interpretation Proximate cause: unwillingness to see noble ones

Dosa-Catukka (Aversion-4)
8. Dosa y y y y y

y

Anger, aversion, hatred Depression, sadness Most destructive element in the world ± destroys one foirst before it destroys the others One who retaliates an insult is more foolish than one who starts it

y y

Characteristic: ferocity Function: spread or burn up support ± citta and cetasikas Manifestation: persecuting Proximate cause: ground for annoyance

Dosa-Catukka (Aversion-4)
9. Issà (envy) y Characteristic: jealous of other¶s success y Function: unhappy with other¶s success y Manifestation: aversion towards other¶s success y Proximate cause: other¶s success y Looks not to oneself but to others objective 10. Macchariya (avarice) (stinginess or meanness) y Characteristic: concealing one¶s property y Function: not to bear sharing with others y Manifestation: shrinking away from sharing y Proximate cause: one¶s own success y Meanness with respect to dwelling places, families, gains, recognition, knowledge

Dosa-Catukka (Aversion-4)
11. Kukkucca (worry/remorse) y Characteristic: subsequent regret y Function: grieving over evil done or good not done y Manifestation: remorse y Proximate cause: what has and what has not been done

End-Tri (End-3)
12. Thãna (Sloth) y

y y y y

Sluggishness or dullness of mind (µshrinking state of mind¶) Characteristic: lack of driving power or viriya Function: dispel energy Manifestation: sinking of the mind Proximate cause: unwise attention to boredom, drowsiness, etc

13. Middha (torpor) y Morbid state of mental concomitants eg feeling inert or inactive y Characteristic: unwieldiness y Function: smother y Manifestation: drooping, sleepiness y Proximate cause: unwise attention to boredom, drowsiness, etc

End-Tri (End-3)
14. Vicikicchà (sceptical or spiritual doubt) y Doubt about the Triple Gem, about Laws of Dhamma, Four Noble Truths, etc y Characteristic: doubting y Function: waver y Manifestation: indecisiveness; taking various sides y Proximate cause: unwise attention

I.

Sobhana sàdhàraõa or beautiful universals (19) II. Virati or abstinence (3) III. Appama¤¤à or illimitables (2) IV. Pa¤¤indriya or wisdom (1)

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
Beautiful universals ± mental concomitants associated with all beautiful cittas 1. Saddhà ± faith, confidence 2. Sati ± mindfulness, attentiveness 3. Hirã ± moral shame 4. Ottappa ± moral dread 5. Alobha ± non-attachment, non-greed or greedlessness, generosity 6. Adosa ± non-hatred or hatelessness, goodwill/metta Tatramajjhattatà ± equanimity, mental balance 8. Kàya-passaddhi ± tranquillity of mental concomitants 9. Citta-passaddhi ± tranquillity of consciousness 10. Kàya-lahutà ± agility or lightness of mental concomitants 11. Citta-lahutà ± agility or lightness of consciousness
7.

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
12. Kàya-mudutà ± 16. Kàya-pagu¤¤atà ±

elasticity of mental concomitants 13. Citta-mudutà ± elasticity of consciousness 14. Kàya-kamma¤¤atà ± adaptability of mental concomitants 15. Citta-kamma¤¤atà ± adaptability of consciousness

proficiency of mental concomitants 17. Citta-pagu¤¤atà ± proficiency of consciousness 18. Kàyujjukatà ± uprightness of mental concomitants 19. Cittujjukatà ± uprightness of consciousness.

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
1. Saddhà ± faith, confidence y

y y

y

faith that is rooted in understanding, not blind faith Open to inquiry Citta rooted in faith is pure and clear, all the defilements disappear Leader of all sobhana cetasikas

One of 5 spiritual faculties and one of 5 powers Characteristic: trusting Function: to clarify as waterclearing gem clears muddy water Manifestation: nonfogginess¶ impurities removed; resolution Proximate cause: object of faith, eg. Good Dhamma
y

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
2. Sati ± mindfulness, attentiveness y Mind not floating away from the object y Can function as memory (developed to recollection of distangt past, eg past lives) y Being mindful at the six sense doors, sati acts like a gatekeeper keeping out the defilements from entering the mind

One of 5 spiritual faculties and one of 5 powers; one among 8 enlightenment factors Characteristic: not wobbling Function: non-forgetfulness Manifestation: guardianship Proximate cause: strong perception or four foundations of mindfulness Bare attention ± µseeing. Seeing..¶ µanger, anger..¶
y

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
3. Hirã ± moral shame y the mental factor that makes one recoil with moral shame from commiting immoral deeds Characteristic: disgust at immoral acts Function: not to do evil Manifestation: shrinking away from evil Proximate cause: respect for self Ottappa (moral dread) y Moral dread or fear of doing evil deeds Characteristic: dread of doing immoral acts Function: not to do evil Manifestation: shrinking away from evil Proximate cause: respect for others Hirã & ottappa regarded as Guradians of the Worlds = Lokapalà Dhamma
4.

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
5. Alobha y Non-attachment to sense objects; non-greed y Generosity; renunciation y Oversomes lobha Like water that runs off the lotus leaf without adherence, so alobha runs off sense objects without adhering to them Characteristic: non-adherence Function: not to lay hold Manifestation: detachment 6. Adosa y non-hatred, mettà, goodwill, amity, friendliness y Overcomes dosa Characteristic: mildness; forgiveness; lack of ferocity Function: to remove annoyance Manifestation: agreeableness Mettà ± its characteristic and function is to prefer welfare for others; manifests in removal of ill-will

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
7. Tatramajjhattatà y Mental balance ± balances citta and concomitant cetasikas ± neutrality of mind y Equanimity = upekkhà, state of neutrality between compassion (karunà) and sympathetic joy (mudità) = a bojjhaïga, a factor of enlightenment Different from neutral or indifferent feeling Characteristic: evenness of citta and cetasikas Function: prevent deficiency or excess; maintains impartiality Manifestation: neutrality; evenness
y

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
8. & 9. Kàya-passaddhi and Citta-passaddhi Passaddhi = calmness, quietude or serenity Kàya-passaddhi = tranquility of mental body (cetasikas) and also physical body (due to spread of cittaja-råpa) Citta-passaddhi = tranquility of consciousness (citta) Characteristic: Quieting down of disturbances (feverishness of passion) in the mental body and citta Function: crush the disturbances Manifestation: peacefulness and coolness Proximate cause: citta and associated cetasikas Passadhi is opposed to kukkucca (remorse); also a bojjhaïga

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
10. & 11. Kàya-lahutà and Citta-lahutà lahutà = lightness, buoyance, agility Kàya-lahutà = lightness of mental body (cetasikas) Citta-lahutà = lightness of consciousness (citta)
Characteristic: suppressing or subsiding of heaviness in the mental body and citta Function: crush heaviness Manifestation: nonsluggishness Proximate cause: citta and associated cetasikas Lahutà is opposed to thãnamiddha (sloth & torpor) which cause heaviness of the citta and mental

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
12. & 13. Kàya-mudutà and Citta-mudutà mudutà = elasticity or malleability Kàya-mudutà = elasticity of mental body (cetasikas) Citta-mudutà = elasticity of consciousness (citta)
Characteristic: subsiding of stiffness in the mental body and citta Function: crush or remove stiffness or rigidity Manifestation: non-resistance Proximate cause: citta and associated cetasikas mudutà is opposed to wrong view (diññhi) & conceit (màna) which cause stiffness of citta and mental body

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
14. & 15. Kàyakamma¤¤atà and Citta-kamma¤¤atà kamma¤¤atà = wieldiness or adaptibility Kàya- kamma¤¤atà = wieldiness of mental body (cetasikas) Citta- kamma¤¤atà = wieldiness of consciousness (citta) Characteristic: subsiding of unwieldiness or unworkability of the mental body and citta Function: crush unwieldiness Manifestation: success of citta and cetasikas in making something an object Proximate cause: citta and associated cetasikas kamma¤¤atà is opposed to the remaining hindrances (restlessness etc)

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
16. & 17. Kàyapàgu¤¤atà and Cittapàgu¤¤atà pàgu¤¤atà = proficiency or skillfulness or healthiness Kàya-pàgu¤¤atà = proficiency of mental body (cetasikas) Citta-pàgu¤¤atà = proficiency of consciousness (citta)
Characteristic: suppression of sickness in the mental body and citta Function: crush unhealthiness Manifestation: absence of disability Proximate cause: citta and associated cetasikas pàgu¤¤atà is opposed to lack of faith etc

Sobhana s¤dh¤ra¼¤ (19)
18. & 19. Kàyajjukatà and Cittajjukatà Ujjukata = rectitude, uprightness or straightness Kàyajjukatà = uprightness of straightness of mental body (cetasikas) Cittajjukatà = uprightness of consciousness (citta)
Characteristic: uprightness of sickness in the mental body and citta Function: crush tortuousness Manifestation: noncrookedness Proximate cause: citta and associated cetasikas Opposed to crookedness, craftiness, deception due to illusion or deceit or treachery, hypocrisy & fraudulence

II. Virati Cetasika (3) (Abstinence)
Morality Components of the Noble Eightfold Path 1. Sammà-vàcà ± right speech 2. Sammà-kammanta ± right action 3. Sammà-ajãva ± right livelihood

Viratis (Abstinences) (3)
Sammà-vàcà (right speech) fourfold,deliberate abstinence from y Musavàdà ± lying y Pisunavàcà ± slandering y Pharusavàcà ± harsh speech y Samphappalàpa ± frivolous talk
1.

2. Sammàkammanta (right action) Threefold: deliberate abstinence from ‡Pànàtipàtà ± killing ‡Adinnàdànà ± stealing ‡Kàmesumicchàcàrà ± sexual misconduct

3. Sammà-àjiva (right livelihood) deliberate abstinence from Wrong livelihood: eg. y Trading in arms, poisons, intoxicants y Fortune-telling or soothsaying, trickery y Butchery, fishing y Slavery & huamn trafficking, etc

Viratis (Abstinences)
y

Viratis as cetasikas (in mundane cittas) here are deliberate or intentional abstinences from wrong conduct by way of speech, action and livelihood when opportunities for such wrong conduct arise (different from abstinences out of pure moral conduct or sãla in the absence of opportunity to do wrong) Characteristic: non-transgression by bodily conduct, speech and livelihood Function: shrink back from evil deeds Manifestation: Abstinence from evil deeds Proximate cause: mind s aversion to wrong-doing eg fear, shame , faith etc

Viratis (Abstinences)
Three types of abstinences 1. Natural abstinence abstinences from wrongdoing when opportunities arise out of such consideration as social position (seniority, education level etc), eg refrain from theft because one s reputation would be hurt if caught 2. Precepts abstiain fromw rongdoing because on ehas taken the precepts 3. Eradication associated with supramundane path citta (magga) dispositions towards evil deeds eradicated

III. Appama¾¾¤ Cetasikas (Illimitables ± 2)
1. Karunà ± compassion 2. Mudità ± sympathetic joy

Two of the 4 illimitables, - cetasikas in their own right, associate with some but not all beautiful cittas -

Illimitables (4)
Four illimitables because they are potentially limitless: 1. Mettà: (loving-kindness), expressed in the form of adosa. Adosa is a universal beautiful cetasika y Practice ± focus on one or all beings, µmay all beings be happy¶ y Enemies: ill-will (direct); affection (pema) (indirect) y Characteristic: benevolent attitude 2. karunà (compassion) 3. Mudità (sympathetic joy) 4. upekkhà (equanimity) expressed in the form of tatramajjattatà ± another beautiful universal cetasika y µAll beings are conditioned by their kamma, owners of their kamma.¶ y Enemies: passion (ràga) (direct); unintelligent indifference (indirect) The four brahmavihàras ± sublime modes of living

Appama¤¤à Cetasikas (2 Illimitables)
1. Karunà - Compassion ± µheart quivers when others are afflicted with sorrow¶

Practice: µmay all beings be free from sufferings¶ Characteristic: wish to remove sufferings of others Function: not being able to bear others¶ suffering Manifestation: non-cruelty

Proximate cause: seeing helplessness in those overwhelmed by suffering Enemies: cruelty or wickedness; grief Succeed when it causes cruelty to subside Fails when it produces sorrow

Appama¤¤à Cetasikas (2 Illimitables)
2. mudità ± appreciative joy Practice: µmay all beings not be parted from the good fortune they have attained¶ Characteristic: Rejoice in others¶ prosperity or success Function: being unenvious of others¶ success Manifestation: elimination of aversion Proximate cause: seeing others¶ success Enemies: jealousy (issà) and its indirect enemy is exultation (pahàsa). Succeed when it causes aversion to subside Fails when it produces merriment

IV. Paññindriya Cetasika (Wisdom Faculty ± 1)
Pa¤¤à ± wisdom, insight, indriya or controlling faculty

Paññindriya
y pa¤¤à cetasika: wisdom or insight, indriya or controlling faculty y Amoha (non-delusion), pa¤¤à (wisdom, insight), ¤àõa (knowledge) are synonyms y Indriya = faculty, control over the understanding of things as they are ± anicca, dukkha, anatta y Vijja (higher knowledge) because it overcomes moha (avijja)(ignorance) y As vimaüsa (analystical wisdom), one of the 4 means of accomplishing one¶s ends (iddhipàda) y Developed into abhi¤¤à (supernormal knowledge)

Paññindriya
y As dhamma-vicaya, bojjhaïga (enlightenment factor) y As sammàdiññhi (right view), one of the factors of the Path y Highest level of pa¤¤à - developed into omniscience of Buddha

Characteristic: wisdom penetrates things according to their intrinsic nature Function: illuminate the objective field like a lamp Manifestation: non-bewilderment Proximate cause: wise attention (yoniso manasikàra)

Cetasikasampayoganaya

Association of Cetasikas With Cittas
In general: 1. The 7 sabbacitta-sàdhàraõas (Essentials) associate with all cittas. 2. The 6 pakiõõakas (Particulars) associate with certain sobhaõa and asobhaõa cittas. 3. The 14 akusala cetasikas (immoral) associate only with immoral cittas. 4. The 4 akusala sàdhàraõas are linked with all immoral cittas. 5. The 19 sobhaõa sàdhàraõas are linked with all sobhaõa cittas. 6. The remaining 6 sobhaõa cetasikas (beautiful ones) associate only with sobhaõa cittas.

Association of Cetasikas With Cittas
1. Pãti absent in all upekkhà or domanassa cittas 2. Thãna and middha present in all akusala cittas

which are prompted 3. Thãna and middha absent in all kusala cittas (prompted or unprompted ± here the difference lies in the strengths of the cetanàs) 4. Mahàkusala Vipàka cittas are resultants of past kamma, they do not give rise to meritorious deeds these cittas are not associated with the 3 viratis and the 2 appama¤¤às

Association of Cetasikas With Cittas
1. 2. 3.
y y y

3 viratis (give rise to meritorious deeds) are not associated with the kammically neutral mahàkiriya cittas 2 appama¤¤às are associated withl mahàkiriya cittas when arahats meditate on karunà and mudità Mahaggata cittas jhàna factors successively eliminated from 1st to 5th jhàna 3 viratis not present because the object of these cittas are pañibhàga nimita 2 appama¤¤às may be associated in the first 4 jhànas whenthey are developed by meditating on karunà or mudità

Association of Cetasikas With Cittas
Lokuttara cittas
y y

3 viratis present together as factors of the Nobkle Eightfold Path 2 appama¤¤às do not associate with lokuttara cittas which concentrate on Nibbàna, and cannot take objects associated with karunà or mudità

Cetasikasampayoganaya

Fixed adjuncts (cetasikas) and Unfixed adjuncts (cetasikas)

Niyata-yogis and Aniyata-yogis
Of the 52 cetasikas: 1. Niyatayogis ² fixed adjuncts = 41 Invariably associate with those cittas they are known to associate with 2. Aniyatayogis = unfixed adjuncts =11 Do not always associate with the cittas they are known to associate, but they arise in those cittas when they should or when there are opportunities or occasions for them to arise: envy; stinginess; remorse; conceit; sloth & torpor; 3 abstinences; 2 illimitables)

Aniyata-yogis
Issà arises when one envies other¶s success. When issà arises, macchariya and kukkucca do not arise. Macchariya arises when one feels stingy; when macchariya arises, issà, & kukkucca do not arise kukkucca, arises when one feels remorse over the good that is not done; when kukkucca arises, issà and macchariya do not arise. Màna arises in lobhamåla citta dissociated with wrong view only when there is conceit. When one does not think highly of oneself or lowly of others, it does not arise in those cittas dissociated with wrong view. Thãna & middha are associated with the 5 sasaïkhàrika cittas only when the cittas and the associated cetasikas are dull, inert & morbid.

Aniyata-yogis
three viratis (sammà-vàcà, sammàkammanta and sammààjãva) arise separately and occasionally in mundane cittas Each of the viratis arises only when one deliberately refrains from any of those misconducts when there is opportunity for it to arise, otherwise it does not arise Invariably arise together in lokuttara citta as Path factors two appaman¤¤às (karunà and mudità) also arise separately and individually. Karunà arises only when one is having compassion for someone; otherwise it does not. Mudità arises only when one is rejoicing over someone¶s success or prosperity; otherwise it does not.

Examples
A man is instantly angry when he sees the food served is not good. What is the type of this man¶s citta and what are the cetasikas that associate with that citta? Since the man is angry, he is having dosa-måla citta. The name of this citta is ³Domananassasahagataü patighasampayuttaü asaïkhàrika citta´. The cetasikas that associate with this cittas are 12 a¤¤asamàna cetasikas (pãti being excepted), 4 akusalasàdhàraõa cetasikas and dosa. Total of 17 associated cetsikas (Issà, macchariya and kukkucca do not associate with this citta.)

Examples
One feels bad because another person gets a better job than oneself. What is the type of this citta and what are its concomitants? The name of this citta is ³Domananassasahagataü patighasampayuttaü asaïkhàrika citta´. But now one is envying another¶s success, so issà will also associate with the citta in addition of 17 cetasikas mentioned in the previous example. Total of 18 associated cetasikas (macchariya and kukkucca do not associate with this citta.)

Cetasikasangahanaya

Right Analyses understandi n mar pa ng

µSeeing Practice reality as it is with clear mind¶

Liberation from saÿsara

Ultimate Analyses of the Mind
€ € €

€ €

€

Mind = ultimate realities of citta + cetasikas (conditioned dhammas, non-self) (seeing, thing, hearig are real..) By the different combinations and associations of 52 cetasikas, there are 89 or 121 types of citta Unwholesome cittas are associated with immoral cetasikas defiled mind ± when we have a defiled mind, we know it as we experience dukkha Wholesome cittas are associated with moral cetasikas beautiful mind, at peace with itself Abhidhamma presents the ultimate analyses of the mind for laying down the foundation for correct understanding for the practice to attain liberation, realisation of the Ultimate Truth Understanding and seeing reality as it is, wrong view can be discarded, faith in the Path to liberation is strengthened

notes
€ € € € € 1. 2. 3.

4.

Iddhipàda: chanda-samàdhi; viriya-samàdhi; citta-samàdhi; & vimaüsa-samàdhi (pdic, p127/402) Four Iddhipàdas (Four Foundations of Accomplishment) µIddhi¶ means µaccomplishment¶ while µpàda¶ signifies µfoundation¶. µaccomplishment¶ = the arising of jhànas, maggas and phalas. foundations to achieve these ends = chanda, vãriya, citta and vãmaüsa ± the same as the four adhipatis. Chandiddhipàda ± will; it is chanda present in 21 kusala cittas. Vãriyiddhipàda ± energy or effort; it is vãriya present in 21 kusala cittas. Cittiddhipàda ± consciousness or thought; it is 21 kusala cittas consisting of 8 mahà-kusala cittas, 9 mahaggata-kusala cittas and 4 lokuttara-kusala cittas. 4 Vãmaüsiddhipàda ± wisdom; it is pa¤¤à present in 21 kusala cittas.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.