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Joy Jordan, Extension 4-H Youth Development Specialist and Tiffany Browning 4-H Project Coordinator, Department of Family, Youth & Community Sciences.
Know Fibers and Fabrics!
Know the generic names of man-made fibers. These are approved and assigned by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Too frequently a fiber is referred to by a trademark or brand name instead of the generic name.
Manufactured (from chemicals) . Natural (from plants and animals) 2.Types of Fabrics There are two basic types 1.
This chart classifies fibers into natural and man-made. .NATURAL Wool Silk Ramie Cotton Protein Angora Mohair Cellulosic Linen/Flax MAN-MADE Rubber Sulfar PBI Glass Azlon* Aramid Anidex* Acrylic Vinyon Vinal* Spandex Saran Polyester Acetate Rayon Lastrile Metallic Modacrylic Novalid* Cellulosic Lyocell Triacetate Nylon Nytril* Olffin * Not currently produced in the US.
.FABRIC CHARACTERISTICS When selecting fabric or a garment you want to inspect ² Durability ² Performance ² How to Care for the fabric.
thickness. The ´handµ of a fabric is its weight. and sound. Every fabric has its own feel. .Texture Characteristics Texture is determined by the way fabric is constructed and the type of yarn used. look. and how the fabric drapes.
Dyeing methods include: ² Fiber Dyed before yarn spinning ² Yarn Dyed ² Fabric Dyed (also called Piece dyeing) ² Garment Dyed (also called Product dyeing). When color is introduced depends on the fiber content and the intended end use.Color Characteristics Color can be introduced at many stages. .
or screen printing) ² Stencil Printing (is when a design is cut from thin metal sheets) ² Jet Printing (which uses a continuous stream of dye that is forced through jets to color the fibers. tiedye.Printing Color Printing methods include: ² Direct Dyeing (directly adds color to the fabric in the pattern desired by a stamp or roller) ² Discharge Printing (where the fabric is dyed. then a chemical is used to remove color) ² Resist Printing (when color is prevented from entering a piece of fabric such as batik. .
² Bleeding (fading or loss of color in water). or bleaching). ² Fading (loss of color by sunlight. . Ways that color may be changed or destroyed are: ² Crocking (the rubbing of color from fabric).Colorfastness Colorfastness refers to the durability and performance of the fabric color. washing. ² Migration (when color shifts from one area of a printed fabric to another). perspiration. ² Frosting (localized change or loss in color caused by abrasion during wear or cleaning).
. Placing fabric in a bowl of water and using varying temperatures will tell you if the fabric is colorfast to water. To see if a garment is faded check the shoulders of garments in retail stores to see if any color has been lost.Colorfast Tests To determine if crocking will occur use a white cloth or white paper towel and rub lightly to see if the color rubs off. This test can be done with a dry cloth and a wet cloth. To test if migrating will occur placing a printed fabric in a bowl of water at varying temperatures will tell you in the color will transfer to other parts of the fabric.
How breatheable a fabric is relates to how comfortable it will be. If you cannot feel your breath on the other side it is not. Wicking is the ability of water to travel along a fiber without being absorbed.Comfort Characteristics Absorbency is the ability of fiber to take up moisture from the body or environment. This fabric is more comfortable to wear. ² To test if a fabric is breatheable hold it up and breathe through it. and Hygroscopic is water loving fiber. . Hydrophobic is water hating fiber.
Residual shrinkage is when fabric decreases in size after washing or dry cleaning. Resiliency. . Preshrunk means that a fabric has gone through a preshrinking treatment.Care Characteristics Dimensional stability ² the tendency of fabric to maintain its original shape and size. To conduct a wrinkle recovery test crush the fabric in your hand and find out if the fabric wrinkles a lot of not at all. Some fabrics will recover and others will not.is the ability of a fabric to spring back after crushing or wrinkling.
nylon. linen.) . Natural fibers (cotton.refers to the sensitivity of fibers to heat such as an iron. rayon. ramie. Lighter weight fabrics will be more heat sensitive than heavier and more closely woven or knitted fabrics. (use scrap fabric for this test. silk. polyester. and wool) are not as heat sensitive as man-made fibers (acetate.Care Characteristics Heat Sensitive . A test to determine if a fabric is heat sensitive is to press with a cool iron and gradually increase the heat until the fabric begins to crinkle or change color. and acrylic).
Strong yarns have a high tensile strength. . Pilling ² little balls of fibers caused by abrasion and wearing. Abrasion ² the surface wearing of fabric due to rubbing or friction.Fabric Durability and Performance Characteristics Tensile (fabric) strength ² the breaking of yarns. Tenacity ² the stress required to break a fiber. Flexibility ² the ability of a yarn to bend without breaking. Elasticity ² the ability to recover original size and shape after stress.
or fabric which changes the appearance and behavior of the fabric. to increase the functional value or its serviceability. hand. to increase the aesthetic value either by appearance. The purpose of a finish is: 1. and 2. yarn. .FABRIC FINISHES A fabric finish is any treatment to the fiber. or drape.
. ² Durable ² these finishes will last through several washings or dry cleanings.Fabric Finishes Fabric finishes may be: ² Temporary ² these type of finishes will last only until the first washing or dry cleaning. ² Permanent ² these type of finishes will last the life of the fabric.
Types of Finishes These are a few of the most common finishes. Permanent Press/ Durable Press Sanforizing Sizing Soil Release Spot and Stain-Resistant Water Repellent Waterproof Abrasion Resistant Absorbent Anti-Bacterial Anti-Static Calendering Crease-Resistant FireResistant/Retardant Fire-Proof . the hangtag or garment label should tell you if the fabric has been finished.
.FABRICS THE FOLLOWING FABRICS WILL EXPAND YOUR KNOWLEDGE AND IS CONTINOUS FROM THE INTERMEDIATE LIST. YOU WILL WANT TO KNOW AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THESE FABRICS.
contrasting pattern. Floral or geometric patterns are reversible. CHARMEUSE ² is a satin with a crepe back sometimes called crepe-backed satin. silk. or man-made fibers and is used for upholstery and evening wear. Brocade is a jacquard that has a colored. worsted wool. sheer fabric. Can also be woven from silk. Can be wool. dresses. . usually made of cotton and used for blouses. rayon. Note: Damask tends to be 2 sidedreversible and one color. BROCADE ² is a jacquard weave with raised designs and contrasting surfaces. linen. acetate. DAMASK ² jacquard woven fabrics of various fiber content.BASTISTE ² a soft. and nightwear.
Heavier yarns are used in the filling or weft. Example of faille is grosgrain. WORSTED FLANNEL ² It is a twill weave that is very closely woven.FAILLE ² A ribbed fabric with a low luster. much more so than the wool flannels. . Silk faille has wider ribs than seen in grosgrain ribbon and is slightly glossy. heavier than chiffon and with the same pebbly surface of crepe but with the sheerness of chiffon. GEORGETTE ² a sheer silk or synthetic fiber. It is used for dressy clothing. it presses well and holds a hard crease. Also unlike the wool flannels. It can have a very slight nap on one side of the fabric.
not pique. Warpwise wale fabric often seen in the US is actually considered Bedford cord. one fine) and two wefts or fillings (one heavy. combed cotton fabric with a crisp finish. spiral pique and pigskin pique. Often described by appearance. durable cotton or woolen plain weave fabric. The fabric is heavy and unravels easily. as bird·s-eye pique. skirts and in jackets. ORGANZA ² is similar to cotton organdy except it is made with silk or rayon and is transparent. LAWN ² is a plain weave. strong. very light. .HOMESPUN ² is a loose. PIQUE ² Double cloth with two warps (one heavy. when woven of cotton. soft. one fine). It is used in dresses.
means crinkled or pleated. heavy canvas or duck made in plain weave. silk or rayon. In French.PLISSE ² A cotton fabric that has been chemically shrunk in stripes. twill-weave fabric with a diagonal rib on both sides. It is used in suits. . SERGE ² a sturdy. can be made of wool. creating a rippled effect. SAILCLOTH ² is a very strong.
The underhair is best because it is light weight. however it wears better when blended. lustrous and soft. It is more like wool than any other hair fiber. Often mixed with wool or synthetics to cut costs and improve the wear. It is a very soft silky finish and is light weight. It is used in sweaters. Iraq and South West China. The wool camel hair is not as lustrous and may be spongy. sometimes blended with wool or imitated in wool. coats. CASHMERE ² The fibers come from the kashmir goat found in Kashmire India. It is woven in the twill or plain patterns. Tibet. It has quite a long nap and is very warm. Iran. and suits. .WOOLS AND WOOL BLENDS CAMEL HAIR ² This fabric is made from hair from a camel.
Angora goat is one of the oldest animals known to man and its hair is two and a half times stronger than wool.GLEN CHECKS ² are usually seen in menswear and originated in Scotland. There is a smooth. even check designs. HARRIS TWEED ² is a hand woven fabric from Scotland with a soft feel. Imitation mohair is made from wool or other blends. creating a sawtooth line. HERRINGBONE WOOL ² is woven in a twill that is reversed at regular spacing. glossy and wiry finish. HOUNDSTOOTH CHECK ² has a four pointed star check in a broken twill weave. MOHAIR ² is hair from the angora goat. but may have some cotton warp blend. . It is characterized by a variety of small.
Also called paduasoy.SILK FABRICS SILK DOUPION ² is reeled from double cocoons nested together. Poult de siue is sometimes called faille taffeta. . PONGEE SILK ² is a plain woven. PEAU DE SOIE ² is a stout. Looks slightly corded. acetate and referred to as doupionni. It has heavy cross ribs. followed by Chinese Doupion and Indian Doupion. Italian Doupion is the finest. The threads are uneven and irregular. soft silk with fine cross ribs. Doupion is also seen in man-made fibers such as polyester. Silk Doupion is most often found in men·s and women·s fine suits and also dresses in lighter weight silk Doupion. naturally tan silk fabric that has a rough weave effect. thin.
with silk from the wild.SILK SHANTUNG ² is a dupionni type of silk that comes from the Shantung Province of China. Wild silkworms feed on leaves other than mulberry leaves. It has irregular thick and thin yarns creating uneven surface and color. Color is often uneven. . usually referred to as ´rawµ silk. TUSSAH SILK ² (tussah means wild) is a plain weave silk fabric from ´wildµ silk worms. Tussah silk is similar to shantung.
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