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power system opration

Voltage and reactive

power control
Code: EEE 574

Presented by
Ahmed ALi
 Importance of Voltage and reactive
power Control

both utility and customer equipment designed to operate at

certain voltage rating, Long time operation outside
allowable range could cause them damage

 the lamp characteristics are very sensitive to changes

of voltage. the life of the lamp may be reduced by 50%
 Also the power load consisting of induction motors, the
voltage variations may cause stray operation.
 Too wide variations of voltage cause excessive heating
of electrical device such as distribution transformers
 System stability is satisfactory

voltage levels and reactive power control have

significant impact on stability

 The reactive power flow is minimized so as to reduce I 2R

and I 2X losses to a practical minimum that

 ensures transmission system operates efficiently

 Reactive power generated
• Reactive power generated by the ac power source is stored in a

capacitor or a reactor during a quarter of a cycle and in the

next quarter of the cycle it is sent back to the power source.

Therefore the reactive power oscillates between the ac source

and the capacitor or reactor So to avoid the circulation

between the load and source it needs to be control

• Reactive power does not travel very far Usually necessary to

produce it close to the location where it is needed A

supplier/source close to the location of the need is in a

much better position to provide reactive power

 When the load on the system increases,
 the voltage drop increased in

 alternator synchronous impedance

 Transmission line

 transformer impedance

 feeders

These voltage variations are undesirable and must be kept


the limits
 Reactive power formulas

Q = VAR Q α v2

For heavy load condition s required

+ve var C- bank
For light load condition required
-ve var L –bank
Receive power Injection
Ps+ JQs
PR+ J(QR +Qc )
Power sending JQc

Shunt compensation

Than Total reactive power in


QR = QS + QC
 Methods of control voltage Reactive Power
Control of voltage levels is accomplished by controlling the
production, and absorption, of reactive power flow at all
levels in the system

 Generating units provide the basic means of voltage control

Additional devices to control voltage:

o Static sources or sinks of reactive power

o Voltage regulating such as tap transformers,

o Dynamic source such as Synchronous motor

 Static sources or
• Shunt compensation
• Series compensation
• Static (VAR) compensators
• Static compensators
All these devices compensate reactive power using a similar
operating principle.
 Shunt compensators
• The device that is connected in parallel with the

transmission line is called the shunt compensator.

• A shunt compensator is widely used in transmission system

to regulate the voltage magnitude. It can be provided by

either a current source ,or voltage source

• The Shunt connected reactors are used to reduce the line

over voltages by consuming the reactive power,

• The shunt connected capacitors are used to maintain the

voltage levels by compensating the reactive power to

transmission line.
Figure 1 : Transmission line with shunt compensation
 Series compensators
 When a device is connected in series with the transmission

line or feeder it is called a series compensator.

 A series compensator can be connected anywhere in the

transmission It works as a controllable voltage source.

 Series inductance exists in all AC transmission lines.

 when a large current flows, this causes a large voltage

drop. To compensate, series capacitors are connected, to

decreasing the effect of the inductance.

Xc serise
V Sending
V receiving

Figure 2 : Transmission line with series compensation

 static VAR compensator
A static VAR compensator (or SVC) is an electrical device for

providing reactive power

The term static is used to denote that there are no moving or rotating

components The SVC designed to bring the system closer to unity power

factor. (usually use thyristor to Controlled Reactors and


• If the power system's reactive load is capacitive (leading),

 the SVC will use reactors lowering the system voltage.

• also Under inductive (lagging) conditions,

 the capacitor banks are automatically switched to providing a

Figure 3 : static VAR compensator. use thyristor switched
 Advantage and disadvantage
a) They are more reliable .
b) Faster in operation .
c) Smoother control and more
flexibility can be provided
with the help of thyristors.
Need a transformers steps the
transmission voltage down to a
much lower level
the size and number of
components. more expansive
compered with shunt capacitive
 Static Compensator
The devices use synchronous voltage sources for generating or

absorbing reactive power.

A synchronous voltage source (SVS) is constructed using a

voltage source converter (VSC).

 A STATCOM usually contains an ( SVS) A synchronous voltage

source that is driven from a dc storage capacitor and the

(SVS) is connected to the ac system bus through an interface

transformer. The transformer steps the ac system voltage

The STATCOM can be operated in two different modes:
 When the feeder voltage is lower than the voltage of the
converter the STATCOM generates reactive power.
 When the converter voltage is higher than the feeder
the STATCOM absorbs reactive power

Figure 4 : STATCOM Static synchronous Compensator

 Voltage regulating
 tap changing transformers
 Auto transformer

Tap Changing transformer

In this method, a number of tapping's are provided on the
secondary of the transformer.
 The tap selection may be made on automatic or manual
tap changer mechanism.
 the number of tapping have been provided a variation
voltage on the secondary.
 When the position of the tap is varied, the number of
secondary turns is varied the voltage varied
Tap/changing transformer works
 when the movable arm makes contact with lower positions such as
1, the secondary voltage is minimum
• this during the period of light inductive load
 When the movable arm contact with higher position such as 5
,the secondary voltage is maximum
• This during the period of high inductive load,
 Advantage of tap changing transformer

During high system load conditions, network voltages are kept


highest practical level to

• minimize reactive power requirements

• increase effectiveness of shunt capacitors to

compensated reactive power

During light load conditions, it is usually required to lower

network voltages

• avoid under excited operation of generators

 autotransformer
• autotransformer has a single winding with two end

terminals, one or more terminals at intermediate tap


• The primary voltage is applied across two of the


• the secondary voltage taken from two terminals,

• always having one terminal is common with the primary and


• the current flows directly from the input to the output,

and only smaller part inductively

 In a step down transformer the source is usually

connected across the full winding while the load is

connected by a tap across the desired voltage

 In a step up transformer, the source is connected to a

tap across desired voltage ,while load is attached

across the full winding

 Induction Regulators
 There are two types of induction regulators single phase and 3


 The construction it is similar to a induction motor except that

the rotor is not allowed to rotate continuously but can be

adjusted in any position either manually or by a small motor.

 The adjustable output voltage by varying the inductive

coupling between a rotor and a stator winding

 induction Regulators are used for voltage control of

distribution primary feeders.

 Single phase induction regulator.
 The primary winding terminals of the stator and is
connected across the supply line.
 The secondary winding is for rotor is connected in series
with the line whose voltage is to be controlled.

Figure 5 :single induction Regulators

 Three phase induction regulator
 The primary windings either in star or delta are wound of the

stator and are connected across the supply.

 The secondary windings are wound of the rotor and the six

terminals are connected in series with the line whose voltage

is to be controlled.

 Three phase induction regulators are used to regulate the

voltage of feeders and connection with high voltage

Figure 6 : Three phase induction regulator Y_ Connected
 Synchronous Condenser dynamic
• A synchronous machine running without a prime mover or a

mechanical load

• the reactive power control depending on field excitation,

Started as an induction motor ,

• the main function is the improvement of p.f of the electrical

system is known as the synchronous condenser.

• It is installed at the receiving end of the line .

figure 5 : Synchronous Condenser
 Advantages
1 Reliability is very high.

2. No generation of harmonics.

3. Low maintenance and not affected by harmonics.

 Benefit of reactive power and voltage controlled

 Better efficiency of power generation, transmission and distribution

 Improvement in voltage

 Reduced KVA demand

 Reduced system losses.

 Summary of reactive power
 why capacitors are used as reactive power compensation


 A capacitor is said to be generator of reactive power.

When a capacitor is connected across a load, it provides

reactive power to the load. Its cheep type of


 By reactive power compensation we can control the power

factor and stability of voltage and reduce the

consumption of electricity.
FOR listening

any question

1. The raja Electrical Technology chapter 15 voltage

controlled of Twenty Third edition
POWER SYSTEMS Peter W. Sauer University of Illinois at
3. renewable academy