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or information engineering

methodology (IEM) is a software

engineering approach to designing
and developing information systems.
It can also be considered as the
generation, distribution, analysis and
use of information in systems.
It is also defined as the generation,
distribution, analysis and use of
information in systems. This definition
involves the usage of machine learning,
data mining and other computational
methods to enhance the presentation and
understanding of the high-throughput data
that is generated by different systems.
Examples include bioinformatics, in which
information engineering tackles biological
data for analysis and better biological
1. organization planning
2. business re-engineering
3. application development
4. information systems planning
5. systems re-engineering.
 It originated in Australia between 1976
and 1980
 Information engineering first provided
data analysis and database design
techniques that could be used by database
administrators (DBAs) and by systems
analysts to develop database designs and
systems based upon an understanding of
the operational processing needs of
organizations for the 1980s
Clive Finkelstein
is acknowledged as the "Father" of
Information Engineering (IE), having
developed its concepts from 1976 to 1980
based on original work carried out by him
to bridge from strategic business planning
to information systems.
There are two variants of information engineering.
These are called the DP-driven variant and the
business-driven variant.
1. DP-driven : The DP-driven variant of Information
engineering was designed to enable IS
Departments to develop information systems that
satisfied the information needs of the 1980s - which
was largely a DP-driven development
environment. Most of the CASE tools available
today support this DP-driven variant of IE.
2. Business-driven: IE was extended into
strategic business planning for the
business-driven variant of information
engineering. This variant was designed
for rapid change in the client/server,
object-oriented environment of the
business-driven 1990s.
 Information Strategy Planning : The
fundamental objective of Information Strategy
Planning (ISP) is to develop a plan for
implementing business systems to support
business needs.
 Outline Business Area Analysis : For each
development project, business analysts define
the business processes and data potentially
required in the new system.
 Detailed Business Area Analysis : The
purpose of a DBAA phase is to provide
detailed models as a solid basis for system
 Business System Design : The purpose of a
Business System Design project is to specify
all aspects of a system that are relevant to its
users, in preparation for the technical design,
construction, and installation of one or more
closely related databases and systems.
 Technical Design : A Technical Design
project prepares an implementation area
for construction and installation.
 Construction : The objective of the
Construction stage is to produce a system,
as defined in the technical specification, on
time and within budget.
 Transition : Transition is defined as the
period during which newly developed
procedures gradually replace or are
interfaced with existing procedures. The
execution of a Transition project obviously
demands a thorough understanding of
both the system to be installed and the
systems to be replaced.
 Strategy Analysis: This is a rapid delivery
method for senior managers and business
unit managers for refinement of existing
strategic business plans, or development of
new strategic business plans if none exist
 Strategic Modeling: This uses a facilitated
modeling session with senior business
managers who review the strategic business
plans to develop a strategic model.
 Tactical and Operational Modeling: This uses
the same approach as for strategic modeling,
but focuses on tactical business units -
expanding into tactical attribute detail and later
operational attribute detail for physical
database generation and installation.
 Activity Modeling: Activity models, based
on IDEF0 and activity-based costing, are
used to document priority business
activities for rapid delivery.
 Process Modeling: Business Process
Modeling Notation (BPMN) is used,
supported by modeling tools, to define
process model diagrams in BPMN of
priority activities for rapid delivery into
 Code Generation: BPMN process
model diagrams are used to generate
XML-based code in Business Process
Execution Language (BPEL) for
 Entity analysis : identifies all the things
that the enterprise may want to hold data
about. The analysis classifies all of the
things into different entity types,
revealing how they relate to each other.
 Function analysis and process
dependency : takes a function (a major
business activity) of the enterprise and
breaks it down into elementary business
 Process logic analysis : describes the
sequences of actions carried out by a
business process and shows which data are
used by each action.
 Entity type lifecycle analysis : describes
the significant business changes to entities
and confirm that processes have been
modelled to effect these changes
 Matrix cross-checking : creates cross-
references between data objects and
processes to verify that they are necessary
and complete.
 Normalization : provides a formal means
of confirming the correctness of the entity
 Cluster analysis : helps define the scope of
design areas for proposed business
 Data flow and data analysis : makes a
comparison possible between the business
area models and the systems currently
supporting this area, these current systems
are analyzed using data flow and data
analysis techniques.

 Metastorm's ProVision product provides support

for many types of modeling techniques using a
repository based tool.
 Microsoft Visio provides diagramming support for
some diagrammatic techniques, such as ER
modeling using Crow’s Foot Notation, data flow
diagrammng, process modeling and swimlane
 Bachman's Data Analyst
 Excelerator
is both the process and the product of
planning, designing, and constructing
buildings and other physical structures.

Architectural works, in the material form of

buildings, are often perceived as cultural
symbols and as works of art.
is both the process and the product of
planning, designing, and constructing
buildings and other physical structures.

Architectural works, in the material form of

buildings, are often perceived as cultural
symbols and as works of art.
 A general term to describe buildings and other physical
 The art and science of designing buildings and (some)
nonbuilding structures.
 The knowledge of art, science & technology and humanity.
 The practice of the architect, where architecture means
offering or rendering professional services in connection
with the design and construction of buildings, or built
 The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level
(urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level
(construction details and furniture).
Architecture has to do with planning,
designing and constructing form, space and
ambience to reflect functional, technical,
social, environmental and aesthetic
considerations. It requires the creative
manipulation and coordination of materials
and technology, and of light and shadow.

The word "architecture" has also been

adopted to describe other designed systems,
especially in information technology.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of
architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect
Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to
Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three
principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas, commonly known
by the original translation – firmness, commodity and

An equivalent in modern English would be:

 Durability – a building should stand up robustly and

remain in good condition.
 Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it
is used.
 Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing.
Building first evolved out of the dynamics between
needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means
(available building materials and attendant skills).
As human cultures developed and knowledge
began to be formalized through oral traditions and
practices, building became a craft, and
"architecture" is the name given to the most highly
formalized and respected versions of that craft.
It is widely assumed that
architectural success was the
product of a process of trial and
error, with progressively less
trial and more replication as the
results of the process proved
increasingly satisfactory. What
is termed vernacular
architecture continues to be
produced in many parts of the
VERNACULAR world. Indeed, vernacular
ARCHITECTURE buildings make up most of the
IN built world that people
NORWAY experience every day.

In many ancient civilizations,

such as those of Egypt and
Mesopotamia, architecture and
urbanism reflected the constant
engagement with the divine
and the supernatural, and
many ancient cultures resorted
to monumentality in
THE PYRAMIDS architecture to represent
AT symbolically the political
GIZA, EGYPT power of the ruler, the ruling
elite, or the state itself.

In many Asian countries,

pantheistic religion led to
architectural forms that were
designed specifically to
enhance the natural landscape.


Islamic architecture began in the

7th century CE, incorporating
architectural forms from the
ancient Middle East and
Byzantium, but also developing
features to suit the religious and
social needs of the society.
Examples can be found throughout
the Middle East, North Africa,
Spain and the Indian Sub-
TAJ MAHAL continent. The widespread
IN application of the pointed arch was
INDIA to influence European architecture
of the Medieval period.

The major architectural undertakings were the buildings of

abbeys and cathedrals.


A revival of the Classical style in architecture was

accompanied by a burgeoning of science and engineering
which affected the proportions and structure of buildings.


With the emerging knowledge in

scientific fields and the rise of new
materials and technology,
architecture and engineering began
to separate, and the architect began
to concentrate on aesthetics and the
humanist aspects, often at the
expense of technical aspects of
building design.

Around the beginning of the 20th

century, a general dissatisfaction
with the emphasis on revivalist
architecture and elaborate
decoration gave rise to many new
lines of thought that served as
precursors to Modern
Architecture. Buildings displayed
their functional and structural
elements, exposing steel beams
and concrete surfaces instead of
hiding them behind decorative

Many architects resisted

Modernism, finding it devoid of
the decorative richness of
ornamented styles and as the
founders of that movement lost
influence in the late 1970s.

Since the 1980s, as the complexity of buildings began
to increase (in terms of structural systems, services,
energy and technologies), the field of architecture
became multi-disciplinary with specializations for
each project type, technological expertise or project
delivery methods.
There has been an acceleration in the number of
buildings which seek to meet green building
sustainable design principles. Sustainable practices
that were at the core of vernacular architecture
increasingly provide inspiration for environmentally
and socially sustainable contemporary techniques.