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You are on page 1of 24

Lecture: Professor John G. Cramer

Textbook: Physics, Vol. 1 (UW Edition), James S. Walker

Week Date L# Lecture Topic Pages Slides Reading HW Due Lab

30-Mar-09 1 Introduction to Physics 12 21 Chapter 1

31-Mar-09 2 Position & Velocity 8 22 2-1 to 2-3

1 2-Apr-09 3 Velocity & Acceleration 10 18 2-4 to 2-5

No Lab 1st week

6-Apr-09 5 Vectors 8 24 3-1 to 3-3

7-Apr-09 6 r, v & a Vectors 5 24 3-4 to 3-5

2 9-Apr-09 7 Relative Motion 3 18 3-6 HW1

1-D Kinematics

We are here.

10-Apr-09 8 2D Motion Basics 5 19 4-1 to 4-2

13-Apr-09 9 2D Examples 13 22 4-3 to 4-5

14-Apr-09 10 More 2-D Motion - 19 -

3 16-Apr-09 R1 Review & Extension - 35 - HW2

Free Fall & Projectiles

Scalars Versus Vectors

Scalar: number with

units

Vector: quantity

with magnitude and

direction

How to get to the

Library: you need to

know how far and

which way.

The Components of a Vector

know how far and

in which direction

the library is, you

may not be able

to walk there in a

straight line:

2D Cartesian and Polar

Coordinate Representations

The Components of a Vector

Length, angle, and components can be

calculated from each other using trigonometry:

Ax A cos Ay A sin

A Ax 2 Ay 2

tan 1 Ay / Ax

The Components of a Vector

We can resolve vector into perpendicular

components using two-dimensional coordinate

systems:

Polar Coordinates Cartesian Coordinates

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 6/26

The Components of a Vector

Signs of vector components:

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 7/26

Example: Height of a Cliff

In Jules Vern’s Mysterious Island,

Capt. Cyrus Harding wants to find the

height of a cliff. He stands with his

back to the base of the cliff and

marches straight away from it for 500 ft.

At this point, he lies on the ground and

measures the angle from horizontal to

the top of the cliff.

(b) What is the straight line distance d from Capt. Harding to the top of the

cliff? b (500 ft)

d 603 ft

cos cos 34

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 8/26

Adding Vectors Graphically

Adding vectors

graphically:

Place the tail of

the second at the

head of the first. The

sum points from the

tail of the first to the

head of the last.

Combining Vectors Graphically

Adding Vectors

Adding Vectors by Components

1. Find the components of each vector to be

added.

2. Add the x- and y-components separately.

3. Find the resultant vector.

Adding Vectors by Components

Subtracting Vectors

Subtracting Vectors: The negative of a vector

is a vector of the same magnitude pointing in

the opposite direction. Here, D = A – B.

Subtracting Vectors

Clicker Question 1

A vector has a negative x-component and a

positive y-component. The angle that specifies

its direction is measured counterclockwise from

the x axis. Then:

(a) 0 90

(b) 90 180

(c) 180 270

(d) 270 360

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 16/26

Multiplication by a Scalar

Properties of Vectors

Properties of Vectors

have the same magnitude

and direction.

Vector Summary

Scalar: number, with appropriate units

Vector: quantity with magnitude and direction

Vector components: Ax = A cos θ, By = B sin θ

Magnitude: A = (Ax2 + Ay2)1/2

Direction: θ = tan-1 (Ay / Ax)

Graphical vector addition: Place tail of

second at head of first; sum points from tail of

first to head of last

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 20/26

Multiplying Vectors*

A Axiˆ Ay ˆj Az k

Given two vectors:

B Bxiˆ By ˆj Bz kˆ

Dot Product (Scalar Product) Cross Product (Vector Product)

A B Ax Bx Ay By Az Bz A B Ay Bz Az By iˆ

A B Cos AB Az Bx Ax Bz ˆj

Ax By Ay Bx kˆ

A B Sin AB (aˆ bˆ)

A·B is the magnitude of B

times the projection of A iˆ ˆj kˆ

on B (or vice versa). Ax Ay Az (determinant)

Bx By Bz

Note that A·B = B·A

Note that A B A, A B B,

and A B B A.

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 21/26

3D Spherical Coordinates*

z

Spherical: One length + two angles.

Az Ay= R Sin Sin f

Az= R Cos

R

R = [Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2]½ = |A|

Ay = Tan-1{[Ax2 + Ay2]½/Az}

y f = Tan-1[Ay/Ax]

Ax f

f

x

3D Cylindrical Coordinates*

z

Cylindrical: Two lengths + one angle

A Ax= r Cos

Az Ay= r Sin

Az= z

z r = [Ax2 + Ay2]½

Ay f = Tan-1[Ay/Ax]

y z = Az

Ax r

x

End of Lecture 5

Before the next lecture, read Walker

Chapter 3.4-3.5

Homework Assignments #1 should be

submitted using the Tycho system by

11:59 PM on Thursday, April 9.

(24 hours late 70% credit)

We will have a clicker test session right

now.

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