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Lecture Schedule (Part 1)

Physics 114B - Introduction to Mechanics


Lecture: Professor John G. Cramer
Textbook: Physics, Vol. 1 (UW Edition), James S. Walker
Week Date L# Lecture Topic Pages Slides Reading HW Due Lab
30-Mar-09 1 Introduction to Physics 12 21 Chapter 1
31-Mar-09 2 Position & Velocity 8 22 2-1 to 2-3
1 2-Apr-09 3 Velocity & Acceleration 10 18 2-4 to 2-5
No Lab 1st week

3-Apr-09 4 Equations of Motion 9 16 2-6 to 2-7


6-Apr-09 5 Vectors 8 24 3-1 to 3-3
7-Apr-09 6 r, v & a Vectors 5 24 3-4 to 3-5
2 9-Apr-09 7 Relative Motion 3 18 3-6 HW1
1-D Kinematics
We are here.
10-Apr-09 8 2D Motion Basics 5 19 4-1 to 4-2
13-Apr-09 9 2D Examples 13 22 4-3 to 4-5
14-Apr-09 10 More 2-D Motion - 19 -
3 16-Apr-09 R1 Review & Extension - 35 - HW2
Free Fall & Projectiles

17-Apr-09 E1 EXAM 1 - Chapters 1-4

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 1/26


Scalars Versus Vectors
Scalar: number with
units
Vector: quantity
with magnitude and
direction
How to get to the
Library: you need to
know how far and
which way.

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 2/26


The Components of a Vector

Even though you


know how far and
in which direction
the library is, you
may not be able
to walk there in a
straight line:

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 3/26


2D Cartesian and Polar
Coordinate Representations

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 4/26


The Components of a Vector
Length, angle, and components can be
calculated from each other using trigonometry:

Ax  A cos  Ay  A sin 

A  Ax 2  Ay 2
  tan 1 Ay / Ax

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 5/26


The Components of a Vector
We can resolve vector into perpendicular
components using two-dimensional coordinate
systems:
Polar Coordinates Cartesian Coordinates

rx  r cos 25.0  (1.50 m)(0.906)  1.36 m

ry  r sin 25.0  (1.50 m)(0.423)  0.634 m

r  rx 2  ry 2  (1.36 m)2  (0.634 m)2  2.25 m2  1.50 m

  tan 1 (0.634 m) / (1.36 m)  tan 1 (0.466)  25.0


April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 6/26
The Components of a Vector
Signs of vector components:

1st quadrant 2nd quadrant 3rd quadrant 4th quadrant


April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 7/26
Example: Height of a Cliff
In Jules Vern’s Mysterious Island,
Capt. Cyrus Harding wants to find the
height of a cliff. He stands with his
back to the base of the cliff and
marches straight away from it for 500 ft.
At this point, he lies on the ground and
measures the angle from horizontal to
the top of the cliff.

(a) If the angle is 34.0°, how high is the cliff?

h  b tan   (500 ft) tan 34  337 ft


(b) What is the straight line distance d from Capt. Harding to the top of the
cliff? b (500 ft)
d   603 ft
cos  cos 34
April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 8/26
Adding Vectors Graphically
Adding vectors
graphically:
Place the tail of
the second at the
head of the first. The
sum points from the
tail of the first to the
head of the last.

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 9/26


Combining Vectors Graphically

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 10/26


Adding Vectors

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 11/26


Adding Vectors by Components

Adding Vectors Using Components:


1. Find the components of each vector to be
added.
2. Add the x- and y-components separately.
3. Find the resultant vector.

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 12/26


Adding Vectors by Components

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 13/26


Subtracting Vectors
Subtracting Vectors: The negative of a vector
is a vector of the same magnitude pointing in
the opposite direction. Here, D = A – B.

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 14/26


Subtracting Vectors

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 15/26


Clicker Question 1
A vector has a negative x-component and a
positive y-component. The angle  that specifies
its direction is measured counterclockwise from
the x axis. Then:
(a) 0    90
(b) 90    180
(c) 180    270
(d) 270    360
April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 16/26
Multiplication by a Scalar

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 17/26


Properties of Vectors

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 18/26


Properties of Vectors

Vectors are equal if they


have the same magnitude
and direction.

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 19/26


Vector Summary
 Scalar: number, with appropriate units
 Vector: quantity with magnitude and direction
 Vector components: Ax = A cos θ, By = B sin θ
 Magnitude: A = (Ax2 + Ay2)1/2
 Direction: θ = tan-1 (Ay / Ax)
 Graphical vector addition: Place tail of
second at head of first; sum points from tail of
first to head of last
April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 20/26
Multiplying Vectors*
A  Axiˆ  Ay ˆj  Az k
Given two vectors:
B  Bxiˆ  By ˆj  Bz kˆ
Dot Product (Scalar Product) Cross Product (Vector Product)
A  B  Ax Bx  Ay By  Az Bz A  B   Ay Bz  Az By  iˆ

 A B Cos  AB   Az Bx  Ax Bz  ˆj
  Ax By  Ay Bx  kˆ
 A B Sin  AB (aˆ  bˆ)
A·B is the magnitude of B
times the projection of A iˆ ˆj kˆ
on B (or vice versa).  Ax Ay Az (determinant)
Bx By Bz
Note that A·B = B·A
Note that A  B  A, A  B  B,
and A  B  B  A.
April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 21/26
3D Spherical Coordinates*
z
Spherical: One length + two angles.

A Ax= R Sin  Cos f


Az Ay= R Sin  Sin f
Az= R Cos 
 R
R = [Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2]½ = |A|
Ay  = Tan-1{[Ax2 + Ay2]½/Az}
y f = Tan-1[Ay/Ax]
Ax f


f
x

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 22/26


3D Cylindrical Coordinates*
z
Cylindrical: Two lengths + one angle

A Ax= r Cos 
Az Ay= r Sin 
Az= z

z r = [Ax2 + Ay2]½
Ay f = Tan-1[Ay/Ax]
y z = Az
Ax  r


x

April 6, 2009 Physics 114B - Lecture 5 23/26


End of Lecture 5
 Before the next lecture, read Walker
Chapter 3.4-3.5
 Homework Assignments #1 should be
submitted using the Tycho system by
11:59 PM on Thursday, April 9.
(24 hours late  70% credit)
 We will have a clicker test session right
now.