UWB indoor Mapping on FPGA/VHDL

OFDM TX/RX

I am using the above OFDM Transmitter-Receiver in an application area of UWB indoor mapping as follows...

UWB Indoor Mapping System
Other Names... Short range radar(SRR) High-resolution positioning Localization and tracking (LT) UWB ranging Sensor, positioning, and identification network (SPIN) precision asset location system(PALS) 
Positioning and RFID

UWB Indoor Mapping System

In indoor environments the GPS signal is typically unavailable. So we can use the above system to map the Tag at x=26.3,y=26.2
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Short-pulse RF emissions from the tags are subsequently received by receivers and processed by the central hub CPU. A typical tag emission consists of a short burst, which includes synchronization preamble, tag identification (ID), optional data field (e.g., tag battery indicator), and FEC bits. Time differences of arrival (TDOA) of the tag burst at the various receiver sites are measured and sent back to the central processing hub for processing. Calibration is performed at system startup by monitoring data from a reference tag, which has been placed at a known location.

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Components
‡ SMALL SCALE ENVIRONMENT(PICONET) ‡ U W B TA G / M O B I L E D E V I C E ( M D ) / S E N S O R

TX

‡ U W B S L AV E A C C E S S P O I N T ( A P ) / S TAT I O N A R Y UNIT/ R FD T X _ R X ‡ D I G I TA L P R O C E S S I N G U N I T/ M A S T E R A P/ F F D ‡ PC AS SECONDARY PROCESSING UNIT

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TAG

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ceiling mounted UWB AP Master AP (Hub)

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THE MEASURING METHOD OF UWB RADAR

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The time-digitizer converter (TDC) estimate signal parameters,such as Angle-of-Arrival(AOA), Time of Arrival (TOA), Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), RTD (Round Trip Delay) and/or Received Signal Strength(RSS).

Then,in the second step,the Microprocessor-Controlled unit(MC) directs the work of the radar on given algorithms, based on the signal parameters obtained from the first step and provides data output for further digital processing in the computer(secondary processing). Fast Fourier transform, and digital filtration are software-programmable at the computer.

Display results to the display of a personal computer is made.

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Three Principles of Positioning

By estimating.............
‡ TOA (Time of Arrival) & RTD (Round Trip Delay) ‡ TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) ‡ AOA (Angle of arrival)

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TOA ranging

known nodes (anchors)

TOA one-way-ranging (TOA-OWR) and TOA two-way ranging (TOA-TWR). The former requires perfect synchronization between TX and RX, while the latter does not require synchronization between TX and RX.

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Another example

In an automotive environment, the localization of a wireless key, inside or outside a car and its distance from the car, could be estimated by UWB radar technique.

detection of on-board items inside vehicles. Precision Asset Location (PAL)System
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Precision automobile parking
Sensors

UWB AP (Access Point)

To identify whether a particular slot in parking area has been occupied. Sensors produce LDR pulses to indicate slot occupancy. Pulses are guided to Master AP at security cabin, through Slave APs. Master AP will display exact vacant slot, thus security person can guide the incoming vehicles to the correct direction.
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UWB radar Detection of people in an open area

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OPEN AREA PICONET PEOPLE AS UW B TAG/SENSOR AP -RX DIGITAL PROCESSING UNIT/MASTER AP W ITH PC

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output data at pc display

Detection of two persons moving at a distance of 50 meters

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UWB radar monitoring of the level of a liquid
This radar provides measurements of a liquid's level in tankage which can have a depth from I to 20 meters. Accuracy of measurements is 5mm.

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TANK PICONET LIQUID AS UW B TAG/SENSOR AP -RX DIGITAL PROCESSING UNIT/MASTER AP W ITH PC
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through-wall detection UWB radar

20cm

GPR- Ground Penetrating Radar
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Radar cross section (RCS)

1GHz R3 R1 1m

Here strongest clutter signal occurs by reflection from a wall and the weakest expected reflection from a target at the maximal range. As key functional requirements to the radar we select the separation of a breathing target from a stationary clutter.
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GPR
GPR was deployed as a backup sensor for a large mining vehicle

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GPR system block diagram

nicknamed SPIDER

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vehicular collision avoidance
Unmanned Vehicles

In this application, an approaching car is detected by using SRR as well as delivery of warning messages by wireless communication from the approaching car.
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Smart highways- UWB devices placed inside the vehicles enable them to communicate and, thus, provide real time local intelligence in order to avoid accidents.

The 2006 Mercedes S-Class uses 24 GHz short range UWB radar as part of its driver assistant systems. Elapsed time of pulsed signals is used to detect objects within 0.2 to 30 m. It can detect and track up to 10 objects with a range accuracy of 7.5 cm.

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guarding of objects

The output signals of the guarding sensors

QUick response Perimeter Intrusion Detection QUPID used to protect a perimeter from unauthorized intruders.

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UWB Localization Techniques for Precision Automobile Parking System Mary-IEEE UWB Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks- Zhang, Sahinoglu- IEEE Proceedings

The application should be in this fashion, consider in an indoor environment there will be more than one UWB Tags and each have to access a single Acess Point through Multi-Band OFDM acess scheme.

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