Role of Communication
Helps us understand:

What factors are relevant to this situation. Objective What do I want to accomplish in this situation. Approach Which is the Better way of doing it. Technique What specific methods should I use to solve it.   

Communication Defined  

³Communication is interchange of thoughts , opinions, information, by speech, writing or signs´ - Robert Anderson (Professional Selling) ³Purposive interchange, resulting in workable understanding and agreement between the sender and receiver of a message´ - George Vardman (Effective Communication of

Business Communication Defined 

³Business communication is any communication used to build partnerships, intellectual resources, to promote an idea, a product, service, or an organization ± with the objective of creating value for your business.´

Internal and External Communication 

Business Communication encompasses a huge body of knowledge both internal and external for any business. Internal communication includes communication of corporate vision, strategies, plans, corporate culture, shared values and guiding principles, employee motivation, cross pollination of ideas etc«   

External communication includes branding, marketing, advertising, customer relations, public relations, media relations, business negotiations, etc. Whatever form it takes, the objective remains the same ± to create a business value

Major Classifications:    

Can be classified on basis of..«.. A) number of persons/ receivers to whom message is addressed:i) Intrapersonal:- talking to one¶s own self. E.g. Dramatic works. ii) Interpersonal :- exchange of messages between two persons. E.g. conversation, dialogue, an interview, some other cases like« an author, a letter etc. iii) Group:- Can be among small groups like organization, club, class rooms where all individuals retain their individual 

iv) Mass:- occurs when the message is sent to large groups of people E.g. news paper, radio, T.V etc.

B) On basis of medium employed««  i) Verbal:- means communicating with words, written or spoken  ii) Non verbal :- includes using of pictures signs, gestures and facial expressions for exchanging information between persons  E.g. personal space, touch, eyes, sense of smell and time.  iii) Meta communication:- the speaker¶s choice of words unintentionally communicates something more than what the actual words state.

Purpose of communication 

We generally communicate to : Inform ± directed by desire to expose, develop, and explain the subject E.g. A simple statement intending to convey the information like an ad on face creams etc. Persuade ± the focus is on the receiver and not the message E.g. Home loans ad by banks. 


The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others clearly and unambiguously. Involves effort from both the sender of the message and the receiver. Is a process that can be fraught with error, with messages often misinterpreted by the recipient. When not detected, it can cause tremendous confusion, wasted effort and missed opportunity.   

Process of communication 


The Linear Model:Involves 5 basic questions ± who?, says what?, on which channel?, to whom?, with what effect? One way process Intended to control and manipulate the receiver. Assumptions that no distortions while the message passes sender media receiver action 


Shannon Weaver Model :First to point that messages can change or be blocked Brought in the concept of noise Introduced feedback as corrective to noise which may again not be an integral part of communication process Viewed as another act of communication 

Two Way Communication Process:Concept is more contemporary Receiver also acts as sender of feedback to complete the two way flow of communication Also known as transactional communication message receiver
Communication channel Communication symbols 



Common Problems in Two way communication: No perceived benefit to the audience Noise, disturbances-hard to hold attention Variations in listening skills Complexity of subject matter/message Time restraints Personal biases, hostility Responding to difficult questions Sidestepping sensitive issues 


Barriers to 


Noise Selective perceptions Filtering Information overload Loss by transmission Poor retention Poor listening Emotions Lack of planning 

Unclarified assumptions Semantic problems Cultural barriers Socio psychological barriers Goal conflicts Offensive style Time and distance Abstracting Slanting Inferring 


Characteristics of successful


Candidness Clarity Completeness Conciseness Concreteness Correctness Courtesy

Importance of communication in management   

Communication skills constitute an important aspect of effective management. Some important functions of managing are forecasting , planning , organizing, instructing, coordinating, controlling. Communication is the system by which these operations are led and coordinated and the results fed back 

Need for communication in management :(Advantages) To increase job performance and effectiveness To promote employee commitment To effect changes smoothly Inform and persuade employees regarding certain decisions and reasons behind. To help understand role of an individual in an organization To update employees information about the developmental activities 


Reasons facilitating need for corporate communication:Size of an organization New developments in IT The concept of human capital Need to learn corporate etiquette - how to greet, shake hands, dress for success, listen converse with seniors, clients, ladies etc« Hence the need for man power equipped with these skills are necessary. 


Why managers need communication skills To perform the following rolesInterpersonal role Informational role Decisional role All these functions are performed with the knowledge of human needs 


Communication structure in an organization Vertical -

Board of directors

Managing directors

Senior mgmt

Middle mgmt

Senior spvsr

Line managers 

Communication can be divided into two types:  

I) Formal:
a) Line relationshipLine of authority sets down the path of communication ( general indication can be ³through proper channel´ etc..) b) Functional RelationshipOccurs when departments inform work and related organizational matters to each other  

c) Staff relationship:Supports line management, marketing, and production. For e.g. communication relating to personnel, public relations, administration etc. II) Informal :Usually flows through ---Chat :Grapevine:- can be attributed to a reliable source 


Merits of informal communication:Uniting force Speed Creation of ideas Good personal relations Limitations: Rumors Inadequacy Changing interpretations 



Crisis Communication

³A crisis is unpredictable but not unexpected´ - Timothy Combs

Communication in crisis  

Definition of a Crisis
Any situation that«
± ± ±

Threatens the operations of an organization Negatively impacts the reputation of an organization Affects the lives of beneficiaries, employees or other stakeholders Weather-related, terrorist attacks, arson, IT theft, etc. 

Can be a natural or man-made disaster


‡Scanning ‡Assessing situation ‡Designing Tools & Systems ‡Monitoring

‡Detecting ‡Containing ‡Recovering

Post - Crisis
‡Following -up ‡Shaping memories ‡Assessing effectiveness


Nature of Crises  

Incident is brief, but its impact is devastating Long recovery periods Response involves:
± ± ±

Reputation repair/communication Disaster recovery Continuation of business operations

PrePre-crisis Planning 

Objective - prevent or lessen the negative outcomes of a crisis and thereby protect the organization, stakeholders, and/or industry from damage
± ± ±

$ loss reputation loss identity altered



Definition - Looking out for potential sources of crises Industry-wide issue analysis Organization specific issue analysis Risk assessment (³implicit issues´) Stakeholder relationships 

Issue Sources
± ± 

Risk Assessment Sources
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

± ± ±



Newspapers Business Magazines TV News Trade Journals Public Opinion Polls Medical/Science Journals On-line (web pages, newsgroups, etc.

Safety/accident records Ethical climate surveys Financial audits Liability exposure Workers Comp. Product tampering Risk audits (70-80%) Sexual harassment exposure

Assessing situation 

Evaluate issues in two dimensions
± ±

likelihood impact 

Evaluate risks with risk mgt. grid Evaluate relational threats
± ± ±

Power(Leverage) Legitimacy (Value driven) Willingness (Desire for action)

Designing Tools & Systems 


Select Crisis Management Team Select Spokespersons Develop Crisis Management Plan Prepare Crisis Communication System

Crisis Communication Mission 


Act in a decisive and timely manner Educate those affected with accurate, up-to-date information (Proactive Approach) Involve senior management Manage reputation of organization Establish Crisis Communication Team

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