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Sreedhar Reddy, Assistant Professor University of Nizwa, Nizwa
Plumbing in general refers to the system as well as the material fixtures and the apparatus used inside a building for supplying water, removing the used water with other liquid and water borne wastes as also connected ventilating system. In practice, it also includes the system of storm water or roof drainage and exterior system components connecting to source, such as a public or a private water system or a point of disposal of waste or used water, a public sewer system or an individual disposal system, namely, a domestic septic tank with arrangements for disposal of its effluent through a leaching cesspool or a collecting well with arrangements for removal of its contents by means of a vacuum car.
The plumbing systems include: Water supply and distributing pipes from a public water system or a private water supply system from a bore well or other sources Plumbing fixtures for the use in water supply as well as the collection and disposal of used waters Sanitary drainage system to carry the wastes from the plumbing fixtures to the public or private disposal system Anti-siphonage system which carry only the air for the purpose of ventilation and preventing the failure of the water seals in traps thereby preventing the entry of foul air from the public or private drainage system in to the building, and Storm water drainage system to collect and carry rain water or water not used by occupants of the building to a public storm water drain or to a local garden or a pond
Planning for Plumbing Buildings whether they are for residential purposes or business purposes or industrial purposes or public recreation places. should be built with an eye for general sanitation and an effective and intelligently planned plumbing. The location of the plumbing equipment including the washing and sanitary appliances. hot water heaters. 6 . The layout of the building should be such as to allow for good and economical plumbing to be carried out. in a building may have marked effects on the efficiency and cost of plumbing. Early consideration of to the layout of the plumbing installation should remove many of the disadvantages to emphasize that close grouping of plumbing equipment is desirable. storage cisterns etc.
particularly in the case of flats is to be noted. Another important factor to be considered is the noise in plumbing. The serious annoyance and even ill effects on health of residents due to noise caused by the operation of plumbing systems. the possibility of contamination of the protected water supply through cross connections between piping systems and at the plumbing fixtures has to be borne in mind in the design of plumbing system and effective steps taken to avoid such a contingency.As the building is a place where protected water supply terminates so far as the building is concerned for the user and where the used or wastewater starts collecting for passing outside. 7 .
sufficient precaution and safeguards are to be taken in the event of leakages. protection against frost where pipes are buried in outside walls and the possible harboring of vermin behind casings.The modern design lays emphasis on the concealment of plumbing like other services. Before the actual concealment work is done. While realizing the advantages from the point of view of external and internal appearance of buildings of concealing plumbing work within walls or ducts. 8 . Any pipe of fittings which is proposed to be concealed either in the wall or below the flooring has necessarily to be wrapped with Hessian cloth dipped in bitumen. it is also necessary to test these fittings for adequate water tightness.
But for ultimate economy and efficiency. be it for selection of materials or equipment or construction or testing of the installations to achieve the best results by way of good materials at reasonably low cost. reliable and approved workmanship. the orthodox system is to be favored.There is a change in the adoption of Single Pipe system and Single Stack System from the orthodox type of Two-Pipe System with a view to economize on the cost of plumbing and improvement of appearance. Above all it is important to stress on the adoption of national standards. 9 . For low cost housing this may be considered. and uniformity and interchangeability of the several similar components of the system.
acceptably installed and adequately maintained plumbing systems. These relate to the plumbing fixtures. 12 .Principles of Plumbing The principles usually enunciated are the basic goals in environmental sanitation worthy of accomplishment through properly designed. the plumbing pipes and the plumbing systems as a whole. Constant reference to sound principles is the surest way of maintaining good standards. The essentials of good plumbing necessitate the observance of the principles detailed below. guiding developments along the right lines and discouraging unwise departures from traditional practice.
and (e) tested for leaks. where necessary. connected by suitable and satisfactory joints of good workmanship to give satisfactory service during its reasonable life expectancy. defects etc. 13 . (b) located in places avoiding dead spaces which are not easily cleared (c) easily accessible for inspection. (d) made rodent proof. etc.The plumbing fixtures are to be (a) Made up of smooth and non-absorbent material (b) located in well ventilated enclosures (c) free from concealed fouling spaces (d) easily accessible for the intended use (e) able to withstand adequate pressure (f) connected to a drainage system with water seal traps (g) tested for leaks. where necessary. The plumbing pipes are to be (a) Made of durable material. working and repairs. and (h)heating and storage water cisterns are to be proofed against contamination and explosions through overheating. and promptly rectified. and rectified promptly. defects.
(d) to be well designed according to national standards and statutory provisions of the local administrative authority concerned.The plumbing system are: (a) required for minimum amount of water for proper performance and cleaning (b) to avoid cross connections between protected water supply system and the wastewater system (c) to be well ventilated with no danger of siphonage. 14 .
Non-potable water shall not be supplied to fixtures or equipment unless specially approved by the health authority having jurisdiction and the supply of. and other fixtures and equipment which do not require potable water supply. an approved source of private water supply shall be provided. non-potable water shall be limited to water-closets. washing of dishes and kitchen utensils. Where a public water supply system is not available. In the case of supply from a public water supply system. Only potable water shall be supplied to fixtures and equipment at which water is provided for purposes. urinals. . cooking. it shall be ensured that the system has been adequately designed to provide for a potable and adequate water supply made available at the street mains with adequate 16 pressure supply to the building. food preparation.General Buildings in which plumbing fixtures are installed shall be provided with ample supply of potable water by connection to a public water supply system. such as drinking.
social and administrative spheres. commercial. educational. The population to be served during such period will have to be estimated with due regard to all factors governing the future growth and development of the city in the industrial. 17 . Usually for a city with unlimited scope for expansion and where a constant rate of growth is anticipated. the geometrical progression method is adopted. Special factors causing sudden emigration or influx of population should also be foreseen to the extent possible.Public Water Supply The public Water supply system is usually designed to meet the requirements over a thirty-year period after their completion.
the industrial and commercial importance of the 18 city. .Per Capita Supply Piped water supplies for communities should provide adequately for the following as applicable: A) domestic needs. such as. flushing of toilets. B) Institutional needs C) Public purposes. gardening and individual air-conditioning. etc. flushing of sewers and watering of public parks. D) Industrial and commercial uses including central air-conditioning. availability of private water supplies. peoples¶ habits and standard of living. climatic conditions. E) Fire fighting. such as street washing or street watering. cooking. bathing. drinking. In assessing these requirements due consideration should be given to the local needs. washing. and G) Likely waste amongst all users. F) Requirement for live-stock.
Per Capita Water Supply a) For communities with population up to IO000 ----------------------------70 to 100 liters b) For communities with population IO 000 to 50 000 -------------------100 to 125 liters c) For communities with population above 50 000 ------------------------125 to 200 liters 19 .
Water Supply for Buildings other than Residences Table-1 Requirements for water supply for buildings other than residents Consumption per day in Liters Type of Building Factories where bathrooms are provided Hospitals Hostels Restaurants Schools( Boarding) Schools( Day Schools) International and domestic airports 45per head 340 per bed 135 per head 45 per head 135 per head 45 per head 70 per head 20 .
and where 3-storeyed buildings are prevalent. The pressure required for fire fighting will have to be boosted by fire fighting units. 21 . the minimum residual pressure should be 7 meters 2. where two storeyed buildings are common. 17 meters 3.Pressure Requirements Piped water supplies should be designed on a continuous 24 hours basis to distribute water to consumers at adequate pressure at all points. For direct supply. The pressure requirements for the distribution system should be as given below 1. For towns where one-storeyed buildings are common and for supply to the ground level storage tanks in multi-storeyed buildings. it may be 12 meters. Intermittent supplies are either desirable from the public health point of view nor economical.
of reasonable temperature.Quality requirements The water supplied should be free from pathogenic organisms.0-8. clear. Physical Chemical standards Acceptable limit Parameter Turbidity (JTU) Color (Platinum Cobalt Scale) Taste and Odor pH Total dissolved Solids Total hardness Chlorides Fluorides 2. neither corrosive nor scale forming and free from minerals which could produce undesirable physiological effects. free from undesirable taste and odor.0 Un objectionable 7. Table 2.5 5.0(mg/l) 22 . Physical and chemical standards: The physical and chemical quality of water should not exceed the limits shown in Table 2. palatable.5 500(mg/l) 200 (mg/l) 200 (mg/l) 1.
Water in -the distribution system shall satisfy all the three criteria indicated below E. Virological aspects 0. 28 .Bacteriological standards Water entering the distribution system shall satisfy the following criteria Coli form count in any sample of 100 ml should be zero. For other areas 0. Coli form organisms not more than IO per 100 ml shall be present in any sample. Coli form organisms should not be detectable in 100 ml of any two consecutive samples or more than 50 percent of the samples collected for the year.2 mg/l of free chlorine residual for half an hour should be insisted. This free chlorine residual is to be insisted in all disinfected supplies in areas suspected of endemicity of infectious hepatities to take care of the safety of the supply from virus point of view which incidentally takes care of the safety from the bacteriological point of view as well. coli count in 100 ml of any sample should be Zero. A sample of the water entering the distribution system that does not conform to this standard calls for an immediate investigation into both the efficacy of the purification process and the method of sampling.5 mg/ 1 of free chlorine residual for one hour is sufficient to inactivate virus. even in water that was originally polluted.
Escherichia. Typical generally include Citrobacter. Enterobacter. In most instances. viruses. Hafnia. can be distinguished from most other coliforms by its ability to ferment lactose at 44°C. Fecal pathogens include bacteria. coli). coliforms themselves are not the cause of sickness.Coliform bacteria are the commonly-used bacterial indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. 31 . but can also be found in the aquatic environment. and by its growth and color reaction on certain types of culture media. Coliforms are abundant in the feces of warm-blooded animals.or protozoa many of which are parasites. Klebsiella Serratia Escherichia coli (E. in soil and on vegetation. but they are easy to culture and their presence is used to indicate that other pathogenic organisms of fecal origin may be present. a rod-shaped member of the coliform group.
33 . Water can be collected as it falls as rain before it reaches the ground. Water from precipitation Rain water collected from roofs or prepared catchments for storage in small or big reservoirs is soft. but the collecting cisterns or reservoirs are liable to contamination. saturated with oxygen and corrosive. or as ground water when it percolates into the ground and flows or collects as ground water. or as surface water when it flows over the ground or is pooled in lakes or ponds.Sources of Water Kinds of Water Sources and their Characteristics The origin of all sources of water is the rainfall. Microorganisms and other suspended matters in the air are entrapped but ordinarily the impurities are not significant. or from the sea into which it finally flows.
The water cycle Transpiration 34 .
Distribution of Global Water 35 .
Long storage permits sedimentation of suspended matter. The microscopic organisms may be heavy in such waters on occasions. If the catchment is protected and unerodible. 36 . bleaching of color and the removal of bacteria. Self purification which is an inherent property of water to purify itself is usually less complete in smaller lakes than in larger ones. the stored water may not require any treatment other than disinfection.Surface waters Natural quiescent waters as in lakes and Ponds These waters would be more uniform in quality than water from flowing streams.
Resuspension of nutrients and sediments Resuspension important particularily in shallow lakes but also in deep lakes 37 .
seasonal variations and weather conditions. Soil stripping before impounding of water would reduce the organic load in the water. The natural and man-made pollution results in producing color. While top layers of water are prone to develop algae.Artificial quiescent waters as in impounding reservoirs Impounding reservoirs formed by hydraulic structures thrown across river valleys are subject more or less to the same conditions as natural lakes and ponds. manganese and on occasions hydrogen sulphide. carbon dioxide. tastes and 38 odors. hardness. turbidity. The quality of the water depends upon the character and area of the watershed. and other microorganisms in the water supplies. In populated regions. bacterial. pollution by sewage and industrial wastes will be direct. streams and irrigation canals are generally more variable in quality and less satisfactory than those from lakes and impounding reservoirs. streams and irrigation canals Water from rivers. . bottom layers of water may be high in turbidity. its geology and topography. the extent and nature of development by man. Flowing waters as in rivers. iron.
fire fighting and for certain industrial purposes after giving the necessary treatment to suit the nature of use. parks. flushing.5 percent of salts in solution and it involves costly treatment to desalt the water.Sea Water Though this source is plentiful. Wastewater reclamation Sewage or other waste water of the community may be utilized for non-domestic purposes such as water for cooling. lawns. it is difficult to extract economically water of potable quality because it contains 3. The supply from this source to residences is prohibited because of the possible crossconnection with the potable water supply system. Yet it has to be adopted in places where sea water is the only source available and potable water has to be obtained from it such as ships on the high seas or a place where an industry has to be set up and there is no other source of supply. 39 .
tends to form deposits in pipes and are relatively non-corrosive. In granite formations they are soft. Ground waters are generally of uniform quality although changes may occur in the 40 quality with changes in the rate of draft. In limestone formations ground water are very hard. Generally ground waters are clear and colorless but are harder than the surface waters of the region in which they occur.Ground waters Rain water percolating into the ground and escaping beyond the reach of vegetation and either collecting in underground basins or flowing underground in subsurface streams constitutes a ground water source. The water as it seeps down comes into contact with organic and inorganic substances during its passage through the ground and acquires chemical characteristics representative of the strata passed through. Bacterially ground waters are much better than surface waters except where subsurface pollution exists. low in dissolved minerals relatively high in free carbon dioxide and are actively corrosive. .
Percolation into the subsoil also results in the filtering out of bacteria and other living organisms. Water deficient in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide dissolves iron and manganese compounds in the soil.While some of the chemical substances like fluorides and those causing brackishness are readily soluble in water. Other such as those causing alkalinity and hardness are soluble in water containing carbon dioxide absorbed from the air or from decomposing organic matter in the soil. 41 . Such matter removes the dissolved oxygen from the water percolating through.
flocculation . Though the treatment of water would achieve the desired quality. softening.Methods of Treatment The aim of water treatment is to produce and maintain water that is hygienically safe. aesthetically attractive and palatable in an economical manner. filtration. The unit operations in water treatment constitute aeration. disinfection. the evaluation of its quality should not be confined to the end of the treatment facilities but should be extended to the point of consumer use. The method of treatment to be employed depends on the nature of raw water and the desired standards of water quality.clarification. defluoridation and water conditioning as may be required in any individual case. 43 .
In case there is only carbon dioxide or odorous gases. dissolved carbon dioxide and odorous gases . aeration followed by disinfection may be sufficient. 44 . Where ground water contains excessive iron. aeration followed by flocculation. sedimentation. plain disinfection by chlorination is sufficient.In the case of a ground water and well protected surface water storage where the turbidity is below 10 JTU (Jackson Turbidity Unit) and where there is no color and odor. rapid gravity or pressure filtration and disinfection may be necessary.
sedimentation. 45 . rapid gravity filtration and post-chlorination are adopted for highly polluted surface waters laden with algae or microscopic organisms. aeration. This is generally. plain sedimentation followed by slow sand filtration and disinfection could be sufficient. demineralization by ion exchange may form a part of domestic or industrial water treatment units. flocculation. adopted for ground waters used for washing clothes as in machine laundry. Water with excessive hardness needs softening. For removal of dissolved solids.In surface waters with turbidities not exceeding 50 JTU and where sufficient area is available. Conventional treatment including pre-chlorination.
Transmission of Water General Water supply involves transmission of water from the sources to the area of consumption through free flow channels or conduits or pressure mains. While water is being conveyed it is necessary to ensure that there is no possibility of pollution from surrounding areas. Transmission of water accounts for an appreciable part of the capital outlay and hence careful consideration of the economics is called for. before deciding on the best mode of conveyance. Depending on topography and local conditions. conveyance may be in free flow or pressure conduits. 46 .
47 .Sections of Channels and Mains Canals Economical sections for canals are generally trapezoidal while rectangular sections prove economical where rock cutting is involved. Open canals have a restricted use in water works practice in view of the losses due to percolation and evaporation as also the possibility of pollution and misuse of water. Pipelines Pipelines are circular in section and normally follow the profile of the ground surface quite closely.
Pre stressed reinforced concrete (PSC). These are of various types and sizes consisting of spun or cast iron (CI) steel. 48 . Polyethylene (low and high density) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are particularly used for smaller size pipes. The determination of the suitability in all respects of the pipe or joints for any work is a matter of decision by the engineer responsible for the scheme. and asbestos cement (AC). Rein forced cement concrete (RCC).Types of Pipes Pipes represent a large proportion of the capital invested in water undertakings and therefore of particular importance.
AC pipes are relatively more corrosive resistant than steel or Cl. . Their disadvantage lies in their being unsuitable for corrosive soils unless special steps are taken to combat them. Steel mains being light in weight are used for large diameter especially greater than 900 mm where Cl pipes become very heavy and costly. external corrosion. Prestressed concrete pipes are ideal for a pressure range of 0.5 to 2. their weight adding to transportation problems in hilly and difficult terrains. Hydraulic and operating conditions. Due to its strength and corrosion resistance Cl can be used in soils and for waters of slightly aggressive character.0 MPa where Cl and steel are not economical.Choice of pipe Material General factors affect the final choice of pipe material including internal pressures. light and easy 49 to handle. and any special conditions of laying. maximum permissible diameters.
50 . They have the advantage of ease and simple jointing unlike polyethylene. PVC pipes are well suited for use in mountainous terrain and undulating areas. The plasticized PVC is not recommended because of the uptake of lead by the water. Polyethylene pipes can be used successfully in river crossings.Being more flexible and more corrosive resistant compared to metallic and concrete pipes. unplasticized PVC and polyethylene pipes can be extensively used in hotels and house service connections as also plumbing systems.
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