Evolution of Strategic Management
Global considerations impact virtually all strategic decisions.
± Geographical boundaries no longer define the limits of our imaginations. ± The survival of businesses hinges on the perception of others about your business. ± The success of St. Mgt depends upon the manager¶s degree of understanding of competitors, markets, prices, suppliers, distributors, governments, creditors, shareholders, and consumers on worldwide basis.

Evolution of Strategic Management
Technological Changes Electronic Commerce (e-commerce) has become a vital St. Mgt tool.
± Companies getting competitive advantage by using internet for direct selling and comm. with suppliers, customers, creditors, partners/shareholders, clients and competitors dispersed globally. ± E- Commerce allows firms to sell products, advertise, purchase supplies bypassing intermediaries, track inventory, eliminate paperwork and share information. ± E-commerce is reducing expense, time, distance and space in doing business thus giving better customer service, greater efficiency improved product and higher profitability.

± Buyers can get best price and service by quickly scanning hundreds of vendor offerings. ± It has transferred power from businesses to individuals . friends neighbors etc. . ± It promotes endless comparison shopping thus enabling consumers worldwide to band together to demand discounts.Evolution of Strategic Management Internet and PCs are changing our lifestyle the way we interact with our families.may lead to regulation on consumers in future.

e-Trade. e-commerce. . ± Business to Business e-commerce is five time greater than consumer e-commerce. e-mail and e-toys have become integral part of everyday life worldwide. ± According to seventy four percent Americans in a survey.Evolution of Strategic Management Internet has changed the economics of business in every single industry worldwide. the Internet will change society more than telephone and television combined. ± Slogans and company¶s like e-Bay.

Strategic Management Definition The art and science of formulating implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve it¶s objectives. and computer information systems to achieve organizational objectives. ‡ It focuses on integrating management. research and development. production /operations. ‡ The purpose of strategic management is to exploit and create new and different opportunities for tomorrow. marketing. . finance/ accounting.

. ± Strategy evaluation. generating alternative strategies and choosing particular strategy to pursue. Strategy Formulation Developing a vision and mission.Strategic Management Process Strategic Management Process It is an objective. ± Strategy formulation. systematic approach for making major decisions in an organization. logical. identifying an organization¶s external opportunities and threats. Three stages of Strategic Management Process. establishing long term objectives. It attempts to organize qualitative and quantitative information in a way that allows effective decision making under uncertainty. ± Strategy implementation. determining internal strengths and weaknesses.

³ To be the first choice in the printed communication business. The first choice is the best choice. ³ Our vision is to take care of your vision´ A vision statement of Atlanta Web Printers. and being the best is what Atlanta Web pledges to work hard at being ± every day.Strategic Management Process Vision Statement What do we want to become? A vision statement of an eye clinic. .

. A clear mission statement is essential for effectively establishing objectives and formulating is a declaration of an organization¶s ³ reason for being ³answering the pivotal question ³ what is our business´. .Strategic Management Process Mission Statement An enduring statement of purpose that distinguishes one organization from other similar enterprise.

time and performance parameters can be assessed and controlled. Establish a general tone or organizational climate. Provide a basis. or standard.Strategic Management Process Importance of Vision and Mission Statements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ensure unanimity of purpose within the organization. Facilitate the translation of objectives in to work structure involving the assignment of tasks to responsible elements in organization. ‡ Specify organization¶s purpose and then translate these into objectives in such a way that cost. for allocating organizational resources. .

. Firms to formulate strategies to take advantage of external opportunities and to avoid/reduce the impact of external threats. They are largely beyond the control of a single organization-thus the word external. social. technological or competitive trends.Strategic Management Process External Opportunities and Threats The trends and events that could significantly benefit or harm an organization in the future are referred to external opportunities and threats like economic. demographic. environmental. governmental. legal. political. cultural.

finance/accounting. research and development and management information system activities of a business. . ‡ They arise in the management. marketing.Strategic Management Process Internal Strengths and weaknesses An organization¶s controllable activities that are performed especially well or poorly. production/ operations. ‡ Organizations strive to pursue strategies that capitalize on Internal strengths and eliminate internal weaknesses.

Strategic Management Process ‡ Strengths and weaknesses are determined relative to competitors. production efficiency. ‡ Strengths and weaknesses can be determined relative to a firm¶s own objectives. . ‡ Internal factors can be determined by computing ratios. ‡ Survey method could be used to determine employee morale. measuring performance and comparing to past periods and industry averages. advertising effectiveness and customer loyalty. ‡ Strengths and weaknesses can be determined by elements of being rather than performance.

measurable. reasonable and clear. organizing. reveal priorities. aid in evaluation. create synergy. . Objectives should be challenging. motivating and controlling activities. consistent. focus coordination and provide a basis for effective planning. Objectives state direction.Strategic Management Process Long Term Objectives Specific results that an organization seeks to achieve in pursuing its basic mission during a period of more than one year.

Strategic Management Process Strategy It is the means by which long-term objectives can be achieved. retrenchment. acquisition. diversification. product development. liquidation and joint venture. Strategies are potential actions thus future. .oriented having multifunctional or multidivisional consequences for the organization. Business strategies may include geographic expansion. market penetration.

Whether to expand operations or diversify. Whether to merge or form a joint venture How to avoid a hostile takeover. How to allocate resources.Strategic Management Process Strategy formulation issues ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Deciding what new business to enter What businesses to close. . Whether to enter international market.

Preparing budget. and Linking employee compensation to organizational performance . It entails establishment of annual objectives. and allocate resources so that formulated strategies can be executed. Redirecting marketing efforts. Developing a strategy-supporting culture Creating an effective organizational structure. Developing and utilizing information systems. devise policies. Strategy Implementation includes.Strategic Management Process Strategy Implementation It is also called ³the action stage of strategic management´. motivate employees.

Strategy formulation ± positioning forces before the action Strategy implementation ± managing forces during the action Strategy formulation .requires special motivation and leadership skills .focuses on effectiveness Strategy implementation .Strategic Management Process Implementing Strategies Strategy implementation is different than strategy formulation.requires good intuitive and analytical skills Strategy implementation .focuses on efficiency Strategy formulation ± primarily an intellectual process Strategy implementation ± primarily an operational process strategy formulation .

requires coordination among a few individuals Strategy implementation . large.varies substantially among different types and sizes of organizations . for profit or nonprofit organizations Strategy implementation .concepts and tools similar for small.requires coordination among many individuals Strategy formulation .Strategic Management Process Strategy formulation .

± Measuring performance. Three fundamental strategy evaluation activities are.Strategic Management Process Strategy Evaluation It is the means for management to determine whether the strategy is working or otherwise. ± Review external and internal environment factors which are bases for current strategies. All strategies are subject to future modifications because of persistent changes in the external and internal environment of an organization. Strategy evaluation is necessary because success today is no guarantee of success tomorrow . ± Taking corrective actions.

Decide who will be responsible for each step. The plan becomes obsolete when its one-time goals have been achieved. ± 4. . ± 3.Strategic Planning Types of Plans Single use plan A plan designed to fit one-time situation. Two common types of single-use plans are programs and projects. Divide the course of action into steps. Establish and provide the sources necessary to complete each step. To develop a program. ± 1. managers. Program A complex single-use plan consisting of a set of interrelated actions aimed at achieving a one-time major goal. Determine the logical sequence of steps. ± 2.

Gauge the time needed to finish each step. Three commonly used types of standing plans are policies. Projects integrate fewer activities and resources than programs and are often developed as subunits of programs. Prepare a schedule for implementation. Bhasha Dam project in the national program of provision of electricity to the whole country. and rules.Policy ± a standing plan that provides broad guidelines for directing managerial activities in pursuit of organizational goals . . Project A single-use plan that is narrower in scope than a program and aimed at achieving a specific one-time goal. procedures. Standing plans A plan for guiding management decisions and activities in situations that recur repeatedly. for example. and ± 6.Strategic Planning -5.

Contingency Plans Alternative courses of actions to be followed if unforeseen environmental shifts occur. .Strategic Planning ± Procedure ± a standing plan encompassing a series of detailed steps to be followed in particular recurring situation. ± Rule ± a standing plan specifying the circumstances in which certain activities can or cannot be performed.

Strategic Planning Levels of Planning Strategic Tactical Operational General Time Period Considered for Plans Strategic Plans .3 years Operational Plans .1 year .5 years Tactical Plans .

The Managerial Pyramid Mission Strategic Goals/ Plans (organization as a whole) Tactical Goals/ Plans (major divisions. functions) Operational Goals/ Plans (departments and units) .

Strategic Planning
Who Does the Planning?
Small businesses: ± Entrepreneurs do most of the planning. Large firms: ± Traditional: ‡ A central corporate planning group works with top management and each division to solicit, challenge, and refine the company¶s plan. ± Current: ‡ Planning is decentralized and includes the firms¶ product and divisional managers, aided by small headquarters advisory groups.

Strategic Planning
How to Develop a Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Set an objective. Evaluate the situation. Determine the procedures. Set a timetable. Assign responsibility. Check the plan for feasibility and cost

Strategic Planning
1.Resources 2.Methods 3.Tasks 4.Sequence 5.Individuals 6.Location 7.Deadlines 8.Stop points 9.Measurement

Strategic Planning Benefits of Strategic Planning Financial Benefits Organizations using strategic management concepts are more profitable and successful than those who do not. These firms generally exhibit superior long-term financial performance relative to their industry. Businesses show significant improvement in sales. High performing firms do systematic planning to prepare for future fluctuations in their external and internal environment. . profitability and productivity.

Clear understanding of performance-reward relationships. Enhanced awareness of external threats An improved understanding of competitors¶ strategies. Increased employee productivity. Reduced resistance to change. Strategic management enhances the problem-prevention capabilities of organizations because it promotes interaction among managers at all divisional and functional levels. .Strategic Planning Nonfinancial Benefits Strategic management offers.

Facilitates managerial control through setting of standards for monitoring and measuring performance. and provides a unifying framework. Presents a framework for improved coordination and control of activities. . Creates a framework for internal communication among personnel. Encourages forward thinking. prioritization and exploitation of opportunities.Strategic Planning Benefits of Strategic Planning Allows for identification. Directs decision making to support established objectives. Provides a basis for clarifying individual responsibilities. avoiding piecemeal decision making. Helps integrate the behavior of individuals into a total effort. Allows more effective allocation of time and resources to identified opportunities.

Content with success ± they think no need to plan because things are fine as they stand.Strategic Planning Reasons For No Strategic Planning By Firms Poor reward structure ± often fail to reward success but ready to punish for failure. . Waste of time ± see planning as waste of time since no marketable product is produced. Fire-fighting ± busy in crisis management and not finding time to plan. Laziness ± may not want to put effort needed for planning. ( time spent on planning is investment). Too Expensive ± culturally opposed to spending resources.

of aptitude with new system or of their ability to take on new roles. Overconfidence ± as individuals amass experience. they may rely less on formal planning. can also be done badly. like anything else. Fear of Unknown ± uncertain of abilities to learn new skills. he/she sees anew plan as threat.Strategic Planning Fear of failure ± not doing anything. no risk of failure. there is some risk of failure. or privilege through effectively using old system. Honest difference of opinion ± sincerely believe the plan is wrong as they are watching the situation from different viewpoing. However. . Planning. Self-interest ± when some one has achieved status. However whenever something worthwhile is attempted. cumbersome. impractical. being overconfident or overestimating experience can bring failure Prior bad experience ± plans have been long. or inflexible.

Types of Strategies Integration Strategies Intensive Strategies Diversification Strategies Defensive Strategies Michael Porter¶s Generic Strategies Strategy is choosing among the alternatives. you cant follow a combination strategy for too long. Strategic planning involves ³choices that risk resources´ and ³tradeoffs that sacrifice opportunity´. According to Hansen and Smith. .

costs and opportunities are spread across many individuals. ± Opening company¶s stores. retail outlets .. ± Franchising .Types of Strategies Integration Strategies Forward integration Backwind integration Horizontal integration Forward Integration Gaining ownership or increased control over distributors or retailers by. ± Establishing websites to sell products directly to consumers.

Organizations present distributors are expensive. . When profit margins for distributors or retailers are high. Advantages of stable productions are high. Availability of quality distributors is limited. forward integration reduces organization¶s ability to diversify if it¶s basic industry falters. When organization has both the capital and human resources. When the industry is growing and expected to continue growing.Types of Strategies Situations when forward integration may be an effective strategy. unreliable or incapable of meeting the firms distribution needs. organizations can increase the predictability of the demand through forward integration. however. firms having forward integration are availing competitive advantage.

.Types of Strategies Backward Integration A strategy of seeking ownership or increased control of a firm¶s suppliers particularly in situations when firm¶s suppliers are unreliable. too costly or cannot meet firm¶s requirements Firms having global sources of supply opt for deintegration. Firms increasingly use websites on backward integration opportunities. Global competition is prompting firm¶s to reduce number of suppliers and to demand higher level of service and quality from selected ones.

When an organization has both capital and human resources to manage the new business of supplying its own raw material. when the number of suppliers is small and the number of competitors is large. . When an organization competes in an industry that is growing rapidly. unreliable. or incapable of meeting the firms needs.Types of Strategies Situations when backward integration may be an effective strategy When present suppliers are expensive.

as organization can stabilize the cost of its raw materials and associated products through backward integration. When present supplies have high profit margin.Types of Strategies Situations when backward integration may be an effective strategy (contd) When the advantages of stable prices are particularly important. . tempting to invest into the venture. When an organization needs to acquire a needed resource quickly.

It is increasingly being used by the firms as growth strategy. .Types of Strategies Horizontal Integration A strategy of seeking ownership of or increased control over a firm¶s competitors. Mergers. Mergers between direct competitors create efficiencies because of potential for eliminating duplicate facilities. acquisitions and takeovers among competitors allow for increased economies of scale and enhanced transfer of resources and competencies.

Types of Strategies Situations when horizontal integration may be an effective strategy When an organization can gain a monopolistic characteristics without being challenged by the law (SECP). when competitors are faltering due to lack of managerial expertise or a need for particular resources that an organization possesses. . when a firm competes in a growing industry. and overall industry sales are declining.( not if competitors are doing poorly. When increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantage. When the firm has the necessary resources of capital and human talent to manage the expanded organization.

Market Penetration Market Development Product Development Market Penetration This strategy seeks to increase market share for present product or services in present markets through greater marketing efforts.Types of Strategies Intensive Strategies Requires intensive effort from the firm to improve it¶s competitive position with existing products. publicity efforts or offering extensive sales promotion items. Market penetrations includes increasing number of salespersons. . advertising expenditure.

Increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantage. The correlation between dollar sales and dollar marketing expenditure has been high. . The usage rate of present customers could be increased significantly.Types of Strategies Situations when market penetration may be an effective strategy Current markets are not saturated with a particular product or service. Market shares of major competitors have been declining while total industry sales have been increasing.

. Organization has excess production capacity. New untapped or unsaturated markets exist. inexpensive and good quality channels of distribution are available. reliable. Organization has the necessary resources to expand operations. Situations when market development may be an effective strategy New. Organization is very successful at what it does.Types of Strategies Market Development It involves introducing present products or services into new geographic areas. Organization¶s basic industry is becoming global.

Situations when Product development may be an effective strategy Organization¶s successful product has reached the maturity stage and organization wants its customers to try it¶s new or improved product. It normally entails large R & D expenditure. Organization competes in an industry that is characterized by rapid technological development.Types of Strategies Product Development A strategy that seeks increased sales by improving or modifying present products or services. .

Concentric Diversification Acquiring new. Concentric. . but related. especially when the company is competing in an un attractive industry.Types of Strategies Major competitors offer better -quality products at comparable prices. There are three types of diversification strategies. Organization has strong research and development capabilities Diversification Strategies Diversification strategy is followed to avoid dependence on any single industry. Horizontal and conglomerate. products or services. Organization competes in a high-growth industry.

Types of Strategies Situations when Concentric diversification may be an effective strategy When an organization competes in a no-growth/ slowgrowth industry. When new related products could be offered at highly competitive prices. When adding new but related products would significantly enhance the sales of current products. When the company¶s products are in the declining stage of the product¶s life cycle. When an organization has strong management team. . When new related products have seasonal sales levels that counterbalance a company¶s existing peaks and lows.

unrelated products or services for present customers. Organization competes in a highly competitive and / or a no growth industry yielding low returns and profit margins. Organization¶s present marketing channels can be used to market new products to current customers. . Situation when Horizontal Diversifications may be an effective strategy. Revenue of the organization would increase significantly.Types of Strategies Horizontal Diversification Adding new. The new product has countercyclical sales patterns compared to an organization¶s present products.

Types of Strategies Conglomerate Diversification Adding new. Organization¶s basic industry is experiencing decline in sales / profits. The existing markets for company¶s present products are saturated. There exists financial synergy between the acquired and acquiring firms. Antitrust action could be charged against an organization that has concentrated on a single industry. Organization has the capital and managerial talent to successfully compete in a new industry. Organization has the opportunity to purchase unrelated business providing an attractive investment opportunity. unrelated products or services. Situations when conglomerate diversification may be an effective strategy. .

closing marginal businesses. Also called a turnaround or reorganization strategy. .Types of Strategies Defensive Strategies Retrenchment. is designed to fortify an organization¶s basic distinctive competence. Bankruptcy can be an effective type of retrenchment strategy. Divestiture and Liquidation are defensive strategies. closing obsolete factories. allowing a firm to avoid major debt obligations and to void union contracts. automating processes. Retrenchment An organization regroups through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining sales and profits. reducing the number of employees and controlling expenses.. Entails selling off land and buildings to raise needed cash. pruning product lines.

minimize external threats. The organization is a weaker competitor in the industry. poor employee morale. and pressure from stakeholders to improve performance. take advantage of internal strengths and overcome internal weaknesses overtime. could not capitalize on external opportunities. .Types of Strategies Situations when retrenchment may be an effective strategy. The organization¶s strategic managers have failed. Organization has grown so large so quickly that major internal reorganization is needed. An organization has failed to meet it¶s objectives and goals repeatedly overtime. The organization is plagued by inefficiency. low profitability.

that require too much capital. . Divestiture can be apart of an overall retrenchment strategy to rid an organization of businesses that are unprofitable. The strategy is used to raise capital for further strategic acquisition or investments. or that do not fit well with the firm¶s other activities.Types of Strategies Divestiture Selling a division or part of an organization.

may be due to different markets. customers. A division is misfit with the rest of an organization.Types of Strategies Situations when Divestiture may be an effective strategy. A division needs more resources to be competitive than the company can provide. managers. The organization has pursued a retrenchment strategy but failed to accomplish needed improvements. employees. Government antitrust action threatens an organization . A division is responsible for an organization¶s overall poor performance. values or needs. A large amount of cash is required quickly and cannot be obtained from other sources.

Liquidities is a recognition of defeat and therefore. Organization has pursued both a retrenchment strategy and divestiture strategy and both have failed. When only alternative left is bankruptcy. than liquidation is the only way to orderly get max cash from firm¶s assets. for their tangible worth is called liquidation. Situations when liquidation may be an effective strategy to pursue.Types of Strategies Liquidation Selling all of a company¶s assets. can be an emotionally difficult strategy. . in parts. When stockholders of a firm can minimize their losses by selling the organization¶s assets. It is better to cease operating than to continue loosing large sums of money.

Types of Strategies Michael Porter¶s Generic Strategies. Differentiation and focus. control procedures and incentive systems. Cost leadership emphasis on producing standardized products at a very low per unit cost for price sensitive consumers. Strategies allow organizations to gain competitive advantage from three different bases. These strategies imply different organizational arrangements. Large firms with greater resources compete on a cost leadership and or differentiation basis while small firms often compete on focus basis. . cost leadership. Differentiation strategy aims at producing unique products for relatively price sensitive consumers and focus means producing products & services to fulfill the needs of small groups of consumers.

. Perform cost-benefit analysis to evaluate ³sharing opportunities´ of resources and knowledge among firm¶s existing and potential business units. there is few ways of achieving product differentiation. of buyers with significant bargaining power.Types of Strategies Cost Leadership Strategy Reason for forward. buyer are not bothered about brands and there are large no. It is an effective strategy in situations where customers are price sensitive. backward and horizontal integration is to gain cost leadership. Pursue cost leadership in conjunction with differentiation.

. Competitors imitation of strategy may result in lowering overall Industry profits. technology break through make strategy ineffective. rewards linked with cost containment.Types of Strategies Implies high efficiency. intolerance of waste. buyer¶s interest switching to other differentiating features beside price. lower overheads. limited perks.

product performance. gas mileage or ease of use. Follow a strategy after careful study of buyers needs and preferences to determine and incorporation of one or more differentiations features.Types of Strategies Differentiation Strategy. engineering design. gain customer loyalty. . Special features could be superior service. Strategy requires strong coordination between R&D and marketing functions. Will allow a firm to charge high price. spare parts availability. useful life.

Market Penetration and Market Development strategies offer substantial focusing advantages. .Types of Strategies Focus Strategies To concentrate on a particular group of customers. ± Rival firms are not attempting to specialize in the same target market. ± Consumers have distinctive preferences or requirements. or on a particular product-line segments in order to serve a well defined but narrow market better than competitors who serve a broader market. geographic market. Focus Strategies are most effective when.

Types of Strategies Medium to large firms can pursue focus strategies only in conjunction with differentiation or cost leadership-based strategies. The possibility of many competitors recognizing the successful focus strategy and copying it. . Risks of pursuing Focus Strategies. The consumer preferences drifting towards the product attributes desired by the market as a whole.

± Cross-distribution agreements. Other types of cooperative arrangements could be. . The sponsoring firms normally form a separate organization with shared ownership. ± Research and development partnerships. ± Cross-licensing agreements.Types of Strategies Means For Achieving Strategies Joint Venture / Partnership It is a popular strategy when two or more companies form a temporary partnership or consortium for the purpose of capitalizing on some opportunity.

The venture may not be supported equally by both partners. Common Problems Leading To Failure Of Joint Ventures 1. and ± Joint-bidding consortia. 3. . if supported unequally.The venture may begin to compete more with one of the partners than the other.Managers who must collaborate daily in operating the venture are not involved in forming or shaping the venture.Types of Strategies ± Cross-manufacturing agreements. 2. problems arise.

when a large organization purchases (acquires) a smaller firm. or vice versa.When a merger or acquisition is not desired by both parties.Types of Strategies Merger / Acquisition Merger ± When two organizations of about equal size unite to form one enterprise. . Acquisition. Takeover/Hostile Takeover . Friendly Merger .If the acquisition is desired by both firms.

Types of Strategies Forces driving Mergers/ Acquisitions Technological Change Excess capacity Inability to boost profits through price increases A depressed stock market Need to gain economies of scale Bargains galore as companies struggle and while stock prices are low. Not all mergers are effective and successful ± about half produced negative returns to shareholders (Wall Street Journal studies) .

. To gain economies of scale To smooth out seasonal trends in sales.Types of Strategies Reasons for Mergers and Acquisitions To provide improved capacity utilization. To gain new technology. products and creditors. To reduce managerial staff. distributors. customers. To make better use of the existing sales force. To gain access to new suppliers. To reduce tax obligations.

Types of Strategies
First Mover Advantages The benefits a firm may achieve by entering a new market or developing a new product or service prior to rival firm is known as first mover advantages. It may include;
± Securing access to rare resources. ± Gaining new knowledge of key factors of issues, and ± Carving out market share and a position that is easy to defend and costly for rival firms to overtake.

Risk associated being first mover ± unexpected and unanticipated problems and costs may occur being the first firm doing business in the new market.

Types of Strategies
According to research, first mover advantages tend to be greatest when competitors are roughly the same size and possess similar resources. Otherwise, larger competitors can wait while others make initial investments and mistakes, and then respond with greater effectiveness and resources Out Sourcing Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) involves companies taking over the functional operations, such as human resource, information systems, payroll, accounting, customer service, and even marketing of other firms.

Types of Strategies
Companies choose to outsource because; It is less expensive, It allows the firms to focus on its core business, and It enables the firm to provide better service. BPO is the means for achieving strategies that are similar to partnering and joint venture.

The organizational environment consists of the internal environment and the external environment. Within the external environment are the forces of the general environment or macro environment and the forces of the task environment or industry environment .Strategic Management Process The Organizational Environment All forces with potential to influence the organization and its performance is known as organizational environment.

THE ENVIRONMENT The macro-environment Industry Operating Envrnmt Internal Environment The organization Task Environment .

evaluate and disseminate information from external and internal environment to the management.Strategic Management Process Environmental Scanning Scan external environment to identify possible opportunities and threats. Scan Internal environment to ascertain strengths and weaknesses Monitor. . Thus. It is a tool used by corporations to avoid strategic surprise and to ensure long-term health .

finance etc.Strategic Management Process The Industrial Organization (IO) View According to IO approach. avoid weak or faltering industries. Competitive advantage is determined largely by competitive positioning within and industry. The IO theorist argue that the industry in which a firm competes has stronger influence on the firm¶s performance than the internal functional decisions managers make in marketing. . IO perspective requires the firms to compete in attractive industries. and gain a full understanding of key external factors relationships within that industry. the external (industry) factors are more important than internal factors in a firm achieving competitive advantage.

whereas 36 percent of the profitability is attributed to the firm¶s internal factors. and operations. . such as economies of scale. barriers to market entry. Research findings suggest that approximately 20 percent of a firm¶s profitability can be explained by the industry.Strategic Management Process Firm performance is primarily based more on industry properties. structures. and level of competitiveness than on internal resources. capabilities. However. product differentiation.

Customers. demographic and environmental forces. Suppliers. Social. Markets and Natural Environment. . Creditors. governmental and legal forces. Labor Unions. Political. Special interest groups. Stockholders.Strategic Management Process Key External Forces: ± ± ± ± ± Economic forces. Products. Communities. Competitive forces. Technological forces. Employees. Governments. cultural. Trade Associations. Services. Distributors. Managers. Organization¶s Operating Environment: Competitors.

External opportunities /threats enable organizations to develop clear missions and strategies to achieve their objectives. . External forces directly effect both suppliers and distributors. ± The nature of positioning and market segmentation strategies. ± The choice of businesses to acquire or sell. Changes in external forces is reflected into: ± Changes in consumer demand for both industrial and consumer products and services.Strategic Management Process The effects/influences of external environment on organizations operating environments give rise to opportunities and threats for the organization.

± Measurable.Strategic Management Process Get the participation of max. number of managers and employees. ± Hierarchical effecting overall company and functional/ divisional areas. . Evaluate and assimilate the info. Gather competitive intelligence about key external force¶s trends by using print/electronic media. to identify key external factors which are. human resources and internet. ± Applicable to all competing firms. ± Important for achieving long-term and annual objectives. List of key external factors be communicated to all in the organization.

The level of disposable income. stock prices.Strategic Management Process Economic Forces The Nature and direction of economy in which firm operates. etc. OPEC. . The firm must consider. Interest rates. Low/ high value of dollar Gross domestic product trend Right sizing/ downsizing or derecruiting Deregulation of Industries to restrain inflation Emergence of economic blocs/ organizations like EEC. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± General availability of credit. NAFTA. Consumption patterns are effected by the relative affluence of various market segments-the firm to consider economic trends in the segments that affect its industry.

cultural. Demographic and Environmental forces. Cultural. markets and customers and all sorts of organizations. services. Changes in social. and all industries are challenged by the opportunities and threats arising from these changes. demographic and environmental factors have impact on virtually all products. .Strategic Management Process Social.

rules for laying off employees . state. Political. subsidizers. Companies have to pay heavy penalty in shape of expensive severance packages.Strategic Management Process Political. Governmental and Legal Forces Federal. (Golden hand shake) under Govt. governmental and legal factors can represent key opportunities or threats for both small and large organizations. employers and customers of organizations. local and foreign governments are major regulators.

Mass communication and high technology is creating similar patterns of consumption in diverse cultures world wide. Changes in tax rates. import duty on raw materials. facilities. subsidies. . contracts. Political forecasts is critical for multinational firms that depend on foreign countries for natural resources. special tariffs can affect firms significantly. companies relying only on domestic market may find it difficult to survive. or markets for their products.Strategic Management Process Political forecast is vital part of external audit for industries/ firms depending on Govt.

altering economies of scale and changing entry barriers. increasing speed of distribution . erasing limitations of traditional geographical markets.Strategic Management Process Technological Forces Technological advances have brought revolution in business operations. It is changing the nature of opportunities and threats by altering the life cycle of products. Internet is saving companies billions of dollars in distribution and transaction from direct sales. New positions of CIO and CTO are being introduced in companies to effectively capitalize on e-commerce. .

services. customers. ± Create new more powerful competitive advantage. . managers and customers. manufacturing processes.Strategic Management Process Technological forces represent major opportunities and threats which should be taken care of while formulating strategies. distributors. ± Change values and expectations of employees. marketing practices and competitive position. markets. ± Create shorter production runs. ± Change the relative cost position in an industry. ± Create shortage in technical skills. suppliers. Technological breakthroughs can dramatically affect. operations. ± Products. ± Render existing products and services obsolete.

± Acquisition is essential to growth. Nothing quite recedes like success. weaknesses. . ± Innovate or evaporate. ± Bringing improvement. ± Market share. ± There is no substitute for quality and no greater threat than failing to be cost-effective on a global basis. capabilities. not just in product but the whole company. objectives and strategies. tired of hearing it? Too bad. The most-successful purchases are in niches that add technology or a related market. ± Understanding and remembering precisely what is your business. ± People make a difference. threats.Strategic Management Process Competitive Forces It is imperative in external audit to identify rival firms and determine their strengths. Characteristics of a competitive firm. opportunities.

. Competitive intelligence is equally applicable for strategy formulation. Benefits of corporate spying include increased revenues. Major competitor¶s weakness can represent external opportunity and major strength may represent key threat. implementation and evaluation decisions. Good competitive intelligence in business is one of the key to success.Strategic Management Process Competitive Intelligence (CI) A systematic and ethical process for gathering and analyzing info about competitors activities and general business trends to further a business¶ own goals. lower costs and better decision making.

Strategic Management Process Objectives of Competitive Intelligence (CI) To provide general understanding of an industry and its competitors. wiretapping. distributors. Identify areas in which competitors are vulnerable and assess the impact strategic actions would have on competitors. employees. suppliers. managers. Identify competitors potential moves that might endanger a firm¶s position in the market. . customers. Sources of CI Internet. trade journals. Cooperation Among Competitors Unethical tactics like bribery. and computer break-ins should not be used in CI. newspaper articles. online interviews with celebrities and government filings. creditors. want ads.

Potential development of substitute products. Bargaining Power of consumers.Strategic Management Process Industry Environment Competitive Analysis: Porter¶s Five-Forces Model. the nature of competitiveness in a given industry can be viewed as a composite of five forces. Bargaining power of suppliers. Potential entry of new competitors. A widely used approach for developing strategies in many industries. According to Model. ± ± ± ± ± Rivalry among competing firms. .

Michael Porter¶s Model POTENTIAL ENTRANTS Threat of new entrants INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Bargaining power of suppliers SUPPLIERS Bargaining power of customers CUSTOMS Rivalry Among Existing Firms Threat of substitute products or services SUBSTITUTES .

± By becoming more equal in size and capability. enhancing quality. A successful strategy giving competitive advantage to a firm can be pursued by rival firms.Strategic Management Process Rivalry among Competing firms The most powerful of five Competitive forces. adding features. . ± with the increase in number of competitors. providing services. The intensity of rivalry increases. Change in strategy by one firm may be met with retaliating countermoves like lowering of prices. extending warranties or increasing advertising.

± When mergers and acquisitions are common in the industry. _ Consumers can switch brands easily. . ± when product is perishable. As rivalry among competing firms intensifies. ± Barriers to leaving the market are high. ± Industry¶s profits decline.Strategic Management Process -With decrease in demand of industry¶s products. ± The industry becomes Inherently unattractive. ± When fixed costs are high.

Govt. regulatory policies. strong customer loyalty. strong brand preference. Economy of scale. sophisticated technology and know how. increases the intensity of competitiveness among the firms. lack of access to raw materials. counterattack by entrenched firms or potential saturation of the market: .Strategic Management Process Potential Entry of New Competitors Easy entry of a firm in an industry. Barriers to entry include. large capital requirement. undesirable locations. possession of patents.

their strategies. Strategist must identify new entrants. . ± Substantial market resources. plan counter attack if required and capitalize on existing strengths and weaknesses.Strategic Management Process New firms enter the industry with. ± High quality products. ± lower prices.

paperboard. like plastic container producer competing with glass. or aluminum can producer. competitive pressure arise when price of the substitute product decreases or consumer¶s switching cost decreases. .Strategic Management Process Potential Development of Substitute Products Firms are in close competition with producers of substitute products. Or the firms plane for increased capacity and market penetration. Competitive strength of the substitute product could be measured by its market share. Presence of substitute put ceiling on the price of a product.

Strategic Management Process Bargaining Power of Suppliers It affects the intensity of competition in industry when. too costly or not capable of meeting a firm¶s demand on consistant bases. ± There are only few substitute raw materials. Firms may pursue a backward integration strategy to gain control or ownership of suppliers. ± There is large number of suppliers. This strategy is effective when suppliers are unreliable. ± When cost of switching raw materials is high. .

± Products being purchased are standard or undifferentiated. Consumers can negotiate selling price.Strategic Management Process Bargaining Power of Consumers Intensity of competition in an industry increases by the bargaining power of consumers if. Rival firms offer extended warranties or special services to gain consumer loyalty. and accessory packages. warranty coverage. . ± Consumers are concentrated or large. ± Buy in volume.

Strategic Management Process The External Factor Evaluation (EFE) Matrix The matrix allows the strategists to summarize and evaluate economic. by writing opportunities first and than threats. and competitive information. technological. social. environmental. . The Matrix can be developed in five steps. legal. political. governmental. demographic. cultural. ± i) List external factors identified in external audit (about 10 to 20 factors) including both opportunities and threats.

3 = the response is above average. 2 = the response is average. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 4 = the response is superior. The weight indicates the relative importance of that factor in success of the firm¶s industry.0. The total of all weight assigned to the factors must be equal 1. where.0 (not important) to 1.0 (very important). Appropriate weight can be determined by comparing successful with unsuccessful competitors or by discussing the factor and reaching a group consensus.Strategic Management Process ± ii) Assign each factor a weight ranging from 0. and 1 = the response is poor. ± iii) Assign a rating of 1 to 4 to each key external factor to indicate how effectively the firm¶s current strategies respond to the factor. .

or taking advantage of opportunities and minimizing effects of threats.5. ± v) Sum the weighted score for each variable to determine the total weighted score for the organization. whereas the weights in step 2 are industry based. The highest possible total weighted score for an organization is 4. The average total weighted score is 2.Strategic Management Process Ratings are based on effectiveness of the firm¶s strategies thus company-based. .0 indicates that the organization is responding in an outstanding way to existing opportunities and threats in its industry.0.0 and the lowest 1. ± iv) Multiply each factor¶s weight by its rating to determine a weighted score. The score of 4.

05 .05 .Strategic Management Process A SAMPLE INTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATON MARTRIX Key Internal Factors Internal Strength Largest Casino in country Room Occupancy 95% in L.20 .05 .10 .60 .15 .15 .15 .15 .15 .20 .15 .40 .05 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 .05 .05 .V Increasing free cash flow Owns one mile on beach Strong management team Buffet at most facilities Long-range planning Reputation as family friendly Financial ratios Weight Rating Weighted Score .05 .

not high Recent loss of joint venture Total Weight Rating Weighted Score .00 1 2 2 1 .10 .05 .05 .V Little diversification Family reputation.10 1.75 .Strategic Management Process Key Internal Factors Internal Weaknesses Most properties located in L.05 .10 2.05 .10 .

therefore the ratings refer to strengths and weaknesses. However. where. Critical success factors in a CPM include both internal and external issues.Strategic Management Process The Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM) The CPM identifies a firm¶s major competitors and its particular strengths and weaknesses in relation to a competitor firm¶s strategic position. The weights and total weighted scores in both a CPM and EFE have the same meaning. ± 4 = major strength ± 3 = minor strength ± 2 = minor weakness ± 1 = major weakness .

price competitiveness. effectiveness of sales distribution. management. Other than critical success factors. product quality. could be. production capacity and efficiency. location of facilities. global expansion and market share. breadth of product line. financial position customer loyalty. proprietary or patent advantages. .Strategic Management Process For example critical success factors for firms may include advertising. union relations. experience. technological advantages and e-commerce expertise.

Strategic Management Process Internal Environment Analysis The Importance of Internal Analysis Internal strengths/ weaknesses coupled with external opportunities/threats and a clear statement of mission. ± Strategy be carefully executed. ± Strategy to place realistic requirements on the firm¶s resources. provide the basis for establishing objectives and strategies. Involvement of representatives of managers and employees from throughout the firm to determine firm¶s internal strengths and weaknesses . Three critical ingredients of a successful strategy. ± Strategy be consistent with conditions in competitive environment.

Physical Resources Plant and equipment. raw materials and machines.Strategic Management Process The Resource-Based View (RBV) According to RBV approach. human resources. technology. The organizational performance will primarily be determined by internal resources. internal resources are more important for a firm than external factors in achieving and sustaining competitive advantage. . Three Basic Resources Physical resources. location. and organizational resources. which can be grouped into three categories.

information systems. accumulated experience within organization and so on. trademarks. intelligence. copyrights. The firm must consider the mix. . databases. and abilities Organizational Resources Firm structure. type.Strategic Management Process Human Resources All employees. experience. training. RBV theory asserts that sources are actually what helps a firm exploit opportunities and neutralize threat. and nature of a firm¶s internal resources first in devising strategies that can lead to sustainable competitive advantage. skills. amount. planning processes. patents. knowledge.

Finely developed capabilities can be a source of sustained competitive advantage. becomes the basis for lasting competitive advantage. abilities and ways of combining assets. They enable the firm to take the same input factors as rivals and convert them into products and services. people. nurtured and deployed throughout the firm. Core Competence A capability or skill running through a firm¶s businesses and that once identified. either with greater efficiency in the processes or greater quality in the output or both. .Strategic Management Process Organizational Abilities The skills. and processes that a company uses to transform inputs into outputs.

Strategic Management Process What Makes a Resource valuable? Competitive Superiority : Does the resource help fulfill a customer¶s needs better than those of the firm¶s competitors? Resource scarcity: Is the resource in short supply? Inimitability: Is the resource easily copied or acquired? Inimitability doesn¶t last for ever. . Easy to imitate. ± Commodities. ± Cash. competitors will match or better any resource sooner than later.

± Unique assets (mineral rights). ± Employee Satisfaction.Strategic Management Process Can be imitated (but may not be). ± Unique locations. Cannot be Imitated. ± Reputation for fairness. . ± capacity ± Economy of scale Difficult to Imitate ± Brand loyalty. ± Patents.

.Strategic Management Process Durability: How rapidly will the resource depreciate? Substitutability: Are other alternatives available? Using Resource. Involves identifying and evaluating firm¶s resources that possess strategic value and can provide basis for future competitive advantage.Based View in Internal Analysis.

Separating tangible and intangible assets as well as organizational capabilities can uncover value-building resources and activities. Use value chain approach to identify capabilities. . activities and processes having potential competitive advantage. Look at organizational processes and combinations of resources and not only at isolated assets or capabilities.Strategic Management Process Methods to identify resources with strategic value. Utilize a functional perspective. Disaggregate resources: Break them into more specific competencies rather than stay with broad categorizations.

Providing ease of access ± Parking (where appropriate). floor materials.Strategic Management Process Disaggregating a Restaurant¶s Customer Service Resource. color scheme. ± Door Positioning and style. ± Bar positioning. ± External Signs/ welcome Offering a delightful ambiance ± Floor design. window decorations ± Table layout ‡ Table materials . ± Features/décor. ‡ Theme.

Strategic Management Process Providing a Special welcome ± Host greeting ± Welcome drinks/ eats ± Menu introduction ± Table decoration Ensuing waiting time at the table is´ as expected´ and as enjoyable as possible. ± Marketing literature. ± Entertainment for queuers. . ± Visible queuing system.

‡ Job experience Motivation awards. ± System of gaining waiter¶s attention . ‡ Menu training.Strategic Management Process Providing a customer with delightful service Developing a special relationship between waiter/ waitress and table ± Waiter selection ± waiter training/ development ‡ Personality training ‡ Assessing customers ‡ Handling disasters ‡ Coping with pressures. coaching process ‡ Discipline system. ‡ Daily Meetings.

± Size of Menu ± Material Menus made off ± Menu dishes ± Menu layout Providing speed of service appropriate to the occasion. ± Kitchen queuing system ± Service standards Reducing the pain of paying the bill. .Strategic Management Process Ensuring that Menu is fun to use and caters to the diners¶ needs.

ceremonies. saga. language. and that has worked well enough to be considered valid and to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive. heroes. metaphors. and feel. stories. myths. and heroines. rites. .Strategic Management Process Organizational Culture A pattern of behavior (that has been) developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. This definition emphasizes the importance of matching external with internal factors in making strategic choices. thing. legends. rituals. beliefs. Cultural products or dimensions include values. symbols.

liberal. It must foster competence and enthusiasm among managers and employees .Strategic Management Process These dimensions are levers that strategists can use to influence and direct strategy formulation. or likable. An organization¶s culture must support the collective commitment of its people to a common purpose. harsh. The strategic management process takes place largely within a particular organization culture. conservative. innovative. aggressive. Every organization like an individual¶s personality have different cultures ± they could be warm. implementation. and evaluation activities. friendly. open.

If strategies can capitalize on cultural strengths. strategic changes may be ineffective or even counterproductive. . like strong work ethic or highly ethical beliefs. The challenge of strategic management is to bring about the changes in organizational culture and individual mindsets that are needed to support the formulation. implementation. If the firm¶s culture is not supportive. then management can implement changes swiftly. and evaluation of strategies.Strategic Management Process Organizational culture significantly affects business decisions and thus must be evaluated during an internal strategic management audit. However.

technical consequences of practical importance. Ceremonial ± A system of several rites connected with a single occasion or event. . usually for the benefit of an audience. Also. detail set of techniques and behaviors that manage anxieties. planned sets of activities that consolidate various forms of cultural expressions into one event. Myth ± A dramatic narrative of imagined events.Relatively elaborate. Ritual ± A standardized. carried out through social interactions.Strategic Management Process Cultural Products or Dimensions Rites . but seldom produce intended. an unquestioned belief about the practical benefits of certain techniques and behaviors that is not supported by facts. dramatic. usually used to explain origins or transformation of something.

usually in heroic terms. Legend ± A handed down narrative of some wonderful event that is based on history but has been blown up with fictional details. Language ± A particular form or manner in which members of a group use sounds and written signs to convey meanings to each other. Symbol ± Any object. act. sometimes a combination of truth and fiction.Strategic Management Process Saga ± A historical narrative describing the unique accomplishments of a group and its leaders. event. or relation that serves as a vehicle for conveying meaning. Folktale ± A completely fictional narrative. Story ± A narrative based on true events. usually by representing another thing. .

Belief ± An understanding of a particular phenomenon. Values .Strategic Management Process Metaphors ± Shorthand words used to capture a vision or to reinforce old or new values. . Heroes/Heroines ± Individuals whom the organization has legitimized to model behavior for attitudes that serve as behavioral guidelines.

staffing. . Planning is an up-front investment in success. Planning enables a firm to gather the resources needed and carry out tasks in the most efficient way. and planning is the essential bridge between the present and the future that increases the likelihood of achieving the desired results. Planning enables a firm to take into account relevant factors and focus on the critical ones. motivating. planning. organizing. and controlling.Strategic Management Process Management The function of management are five basic activities. Planning The only thing certain about the future of any organization is change.

when. what. Successful organizations strive to control their own futures rather than merely react to external forces and events as they occur. where. why. Planning helps ensure that the firm can be prepared for all reasonable eventualities and for all changes that will be needed. and how needed to achieve desired objectives. . Strategic management can be viewed as a formal planning process that allows an organization to pursue proactive rather than reactive strategies.Strategic Management Process Planning enables a firm to identify precisely what is to be achieved and to detail precisely the who.

and ± Delegation authority. ± Breaking tasks down into jobs ( work specialization ).Strategic Management Process Organizing The purpose of organizing is to achieve coordinated efforts by defining tasks and authority relationship. . Resources are allocated more effectively and used more efficiently in a well organized firm than in a disorganized firm. ± Combining jobs to form departments ( departmentalization). The organization function consist of three sequential activities. Organizing means determining who does what and who reports to whom.

business unit. deleted. or merged. Combining jobs to form departments results in an organizational structure. span of control. Changes in strategy often require changes in structure because positions may be created. and chain of command. divisional. strategic. . and matrix. which lead to specialization and according to Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations published 1776) would lead to higher productivity. The most common forms of departmentalization are functional.Strategic Management Process Breaking tasks down into jobs require development of job description and job specification.

They expect to be delegated authority and responsibility. and to be held accountable for results Delegation of authority is embedded in strategic management process. Employees of today are more educated and capable of participation in organizational decision making.Strategic Management Process Delegation authority is an important activity as evidenced in old saying ³ you can tell how good a manager is by observing how his/her department functions when he or she is not there´. .

Motivating .

Earning per share and Social responsibilities. . Market share. hierarchical.Strategic Management Process Strategic Objectives Strategic objectives or long-term objectives represent the results expected from pursuing certain strategies. Profitability. realistic. Objectives are commonly stated in terms of. challenging. Degree and nature of diversification. Objectives should be quantitative. Growth in sales. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Growth in assets. understandable. and obtainable. measurable.

They provide basis for consistent decision making by managers whose values and attitudes differ.Strategic Management Process Clearly stated objectives help stakeholders understand their role in an organization. an organization can minimize potential conflicts later during implementation . By making objectives through consensus.

Strategic Management Process
Strategy Analysis And Choice
Identifying and evaluating alternative strategies should involve maximum number of managers and employees. All the participant should have the firm¶s external and internal audit information by their sides. The firm¶s external/internal audit, coupled with mission statement, will help participants to crystallize the particular strategy that could benefit the firm most. All the feasible alternate strategies be discussed and ranked in the order of attractiveness, like; ± 1. Should not be implemented.

Strategic Management Process
± 2. Possibly should be implemented. ± 3. Probably should be implemented. ± 4. Definitely should be implemented. The process will result in prioritized list of best strategies reflecting the collective wisdom of the group.

Strategic Management Process

Strategic Management Process .

Strategic Management Process .

expectations and morals comprising standards of conduct for a population or profession. Unethical Behavior Conduct that is considered µwrong¶ or µbad¶ in the context of a moral code. . but also to broader set of moral principles expected by all or by a segment of society. Ethical Behavior Conduct that is considered µright¶ or µgood¶ in the context of a governing moral code. It conforms not only to the law.Internal Environment Analysis Business Ethics and Social Responsibility Ethics A system of behaviors.

Code Of Ethics A formal statement of the organization¶s values. . Ethical Standard A guidelines governing moral conduct of a particular group. ethical principles. and ethical rules.

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