Evolution of Strategic Management
Global considerations impact virtually all strategic decisions.
± Geographical boundaries no longer define the limits of our imaginations. ± The survival of businesses hinges on the perception of others about your business. ± The success of St. Mgt depends upon the manager¶s degree of understanding of competitors, markets, prices, suppliers, distributors, governments, creditors, shareholders, and consumers on worldwide basis.

Evolution of Strategic Management
Technological Changes Electronic Commerce (e-commerce) has become a vital St. Mgt tool.
± Companies getting competitive advantage by using internet for direct selling and comm. with suppliers, customers, creditors, partners/shareholders, clients and competitors dispersed globally. ± E- Commerce allows firms to sell products, advertise, purchase supplies bypassing intermediaries, track inventory, eliminate paperwork and share information. ± E-commerce is reducing expense, time, distance and space in doing business thus giving better customer service, greater efficiency improved product and higher profitability.

Evolution of Strategic Management Internet and PCs are changing our lifestyle the way we interact with our families. ± Buyers can get best price and service by quickly scanning hundreds of vendor offerings.may lead to regulation on consumers in future. ± It promotes endless comparison shopping thus enabling consumers worldwide to band together to demand discounts. ± It has transferred power from businesses to individuals . . friends neighbors etc.

. ± Slogans and company¶s like e-Bay. the Internet will change society more than telephone and television combined.Evolution of Strategic Management Internet has changed the economics of business in every single industry worldwide. ± Business to Business e-commerce is five time greater than consumer e-commerce. ± According to seventy four percent Americans in a survey. e-mail and e-toys have become integral part of everyday life worldwide. e-commerce. e-Trade.

marketing. ‡ It focuses on integrating management. . finance/ accounting. and computer information systems to achieve organizational objectives.Strategic Management Definition The art and science of formulating implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve it¶s objectives. research and development. production /operations. ‡ The purpose of strategic management is to exploit and create new and different opportunities for tomorrow.

establishing long term objectives. determining internal strengths and weaknesses. generating alternative strategies and choosing particular strategy to pursue. ± Strategy formulation.Strategic Management Process Strategic Management Process It is an objective. logical. ± Strategy implementation. Three stages of Strategic Management Process. ± Strategy evaluation. Strategy Formulation Developing a vision and mission. It attempts to organize qualitative and quantitative information in a way that allows effective decision making under uncertainty. identifying an organization¶s external opportunities and threats. systematic approach for making major decisions in an organization. .

The first choice is the best choice. and being the best is what Atlanta Web pledges to work hard at being ± every day.Strategic Management Process Vision Statement What do we want to become? A vision statement of an eye clinic. . ³ To be the first choice in the printed communication business. ³ Our vision is to take care of your vision´ A vision statement of Atlanta Web Printers.

.Strategic Management Process Mission Statement An enduring statement of purpose that distinguishes one organization from other similar enterprise. A clear mission statement is essential for effectively establishing objectives and formulating is a declaration of an organization¶s ³ reason for being ³answering the pivotal question ³ what is our business´. .

Facilitate the translation of objectives in to work structure involving the assignment of tasks to responsible elements in organization. Provide a basis. or standard. time and performance parameters can be assessed and controlled.Strategic Management Process Importance of Vision and Mission Statements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ensure unanimity of purpose within the organization. Establish a general tone or organizational climate. for allocating organizational resources. . ‡ Specify organization¶s purpose and then translate these into objectives in such a way that cost.

demographic. Firms to formulate strategies to take advantage of external opportunities and to avoid/reduce the impact of external threats. political. governmental. cultural. They are largely beyond the control of a single organization-thus the word external. . legal. social. environmental.Strategic Management Process External Opportunities and Threats The trends and events that could significantly benefit or harm an organization in the future are referred to external opportunities and threats like economic. technological or competitive trends.

production/ operations.Strategic Management Process Internal Strengths and weaknesses An organization¶s controllable activities that are performed especially well or poorly. research and development and management information system activities of a business. finance/accounting. ‡ They arise in the management. marketing. . ‡ Organizations strive to pursue strategies that capitalize on Internal strengths and eliminate internal weaknesses.

‡ Strengths and weaknesses can be determined relative to a firm¶s own objectives. advertising effectiveness and customer loyalty. ‡ Internal factors can be determined by computing ratios. measuring performance and comparing to past periods and industry averages. . production efficiency.Strategic Management Process ‡ Strengths and weaknesses are determined relative to competitors. ‡ Survey method could be used to determine employee morale. ‡ Strengths and weaknesses can be determined by elements of being rather than performance.

Objectives state direction. organizing. aid in evaluation. . reveal priorities.Strategic Management Process Long Term Objectives Specific results that an organization seeks to achieve in pursuing its basic mission during a period of more than one year. motivating and controlling activities. Objectives should be challenging. focus coordination and provide a basis for effective planning. reasonable and clear. create synergy. consistent. measurable.

market penetration. product development. acquisition. Business strategies may include geographic expansion. Strategies are potential actions thus future. . diversification.Strategic Management Process Strategy It is the means by which long-term objectives can be achieved. retrenchment. liquidation and joint venture.oriented having multifunctional or multidivisional consequences for the organization.

How to allocate resources. . Whether to enter international market. Whether to merge or form a joint venture How to avoid a hostile takeover. Whether to expand operations or diversify.Strategic Management Process Strategy formulation issues ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Deciding what new business to enter What businesses to close.

Strategy Implementation includes. Redirecting marketing efforts. and Linking employee compensation to organizational performance . devise policies. It entails establishment of annual objectives. Developing and utilizing information systems. Preparing budget. and allocate resources so that formulated strategies can be executed. motivate employees. Developing a strategy-supporting culture Creating an effective organizational structure.Strategic Management Process Strategy Implementation It is also called ³the action stage of strategic management´.

focuses on effectiveness Strategy implementation .requires good intuitive and analytical skills Strategy implementation . Strategy formulation ± positioning forces before the action Strategy implementation ± managing forces during the action Strategy formulation .focuses on efficiency Strategy formulation ± primarily an intellectual process Strategy implementation ± primarily an operational process strategy formulation .Strategic Management Process Implementing Strategies Strategy implementation is different than strategy formulation.requires special motivation and leadership skills .

requires coordination among many individuals Strategy formulation .requires coordination among a few individuals Strategy implementation . large.concepts and tools similar for small.Strategic Management Process Strategy formulation . for profit or nonprofit organizations Strategy implementation .varies substantially among different types and sizes of organizations .

Strategy evaluation is necessary because success today is no guarantee of success tomorrow . Three fundamental strategy evaluation activities are. ± Taking corrective actions. ± Measuring performance.Strategic Management Process Strategy Evaluation It is the means for management to determine whether the strategy is working or otherwise. All strategies are subject to future modifications because of persistent changes in the external and internal environment of an organization. ± Review external and internal environment factors which are bases for current strategies.

Establish and provide the sources necessary to complete each step. ± 3. Program A complex single-use plan consisting of a set of interrelated actions aimed at achieving a one-time major goal. The plan becomes obsolete when its one-time goals have been achieved. Two common types of single-use plans are programs and projects. . Decide who will be responsible for each step. To develop a program.Strategic Planning Types of Plans Single use plan A plan designed to fit one-time situation. managers. ± 1. ± 2. ± 4. Determine the logical sequence of steps. Divide the course of action into steps.

and rules. Three commonly used types of standing plans are policies.Policy ± a standing plan that provides broad guidelines for directing managerial activities in pursuit of organizational goals . Prepare a schedule for implementation. and ± 6. . Bhasha Dam project in the national program of provision of electricity to the whole country. Projects integrate fewer activities and resources than programs and are often developed as subunits of programs. procedures. Project A single-use plan that is narrower in scope than a program and aimed at achieving a specific one-time goal. Gauge the time needed to finish each step. for example. Standing plans A plan for guiding management decisions and activities in situations that recur repeatedly.Strategic Planning -5.

.Strategic Planning ± Procedure ± a standing plan encompassing a series of detailed steps to be followed in particular recurring situation. ± Rule ± a standing plan specifying the circumstances in which certain activities can or cannot be performed. Contingency Plans Alternative courses of actions to be followed if unforeseen environmental shifts occur.

Strategic Planning Levels of Planning Strategic Tactical Operational General Time Period Considered for Plans Strategic Plans .5 years Tactical Plans .1 year .3 years Operational Plans .

The Managerial Pyramid Mission Strategic Goals/ Plans (organization as a whole) Tactical Goals/ Plans (major divisions. functions) Operational Goals/ Plans (departments and units) .

Strategic Planning
Who Does the Planning?
Small businesses: ± Entrepreneurs do most of the planning. Large firms: ± Traditional: ‡ A central corporate planning group works with top management and each division to solicit, challenge, and refine the company¶s plan. ± Current: ‡ Planning is decentralized and includes the firms¶ product and divisional managers, aided by small headquarters advisory groups.

Strategic Planning
How to Develop a Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Set an objective. Evaluate the situation. Determine the procedures. Set a timetable. Assign responsibility. Check the plan for feasibility and cost

Strategic Planning
1.Resources 2.Methods 3.Tasks 4.Sequence 5.Individuals 6.Location 7.Deadlines 8.Stop points 9.Measurement

Strategic Planning Benefits of Strategic Planning Financial Benefits Organizations using strategic management concepts are more profitable and successful than those who do not. . profitability and productivity. Businesses show significant improvement in sales. These firms generally exhibit superior long-term financial performance relative to their industry. High performing firms do systematic planning to prepare for future fluctuations in their external and internal environment.

Strategic Planning Nonfinancial Benefits Strategic management offers. Clear understanding of performance-reward relationships. Reduced resistance to change. Increased employee productivity. Strategic management enhances the problem-prevention capabilities of organizations because it promotes interaction among managers at all divisional and functional levels. Enhanced awareness of external threats An improved understanding of competitors¶ strategies. .

avoiding piecemeal decision making. Facilitates managerial control through setting of standards for monitoring and measuring performance. Allows more effective allocation of time and resources to identified opportunities. Directs decision making to support established objectives. and provides a unifying framework. Helps integrate the behavior of individuals into a total effort.Strategic Planning Benefits of Strategic Planning Allows for identification. . Presents a framework for improved coordination and control of activities. prioritization and exploitation of opportunities. Encourages forward thinking. Creates a framework for internal communication among personnel. Provides a basis for clarifying individual responsibilities.

Laziness ± may not want to put effort needed for planning.Strategic Planning Reasons For No Strategic Planning By Firms Poor reward structure ± often fail to reward success but ready to punish for failure. Too Expensive ± culturally opposed to spending resources. ( time spent on planning is investment). Fire-fighting ± busy in crisis management and not finding time to plan. Waste of time ± see planning as waste of time since no marketable product is produced. Content with success ± they think no need to plan because things are fine as they stand. .

there is some risk of failure. . cumbersome. like anything else. or privilege through effectively using old system. he/she sees anew plan as threat. Planning. they may rely less on formal planning. being overconfident or overestimating experience can bring failure Prior bad experience ± plans have been long. Self-interest ± when some one has achieved status. or inflexible. Fear of Unknown ± uncertain of abilities to learn new skills. However.Strategic Planning Fear of failure ± not doing anything. of aptitude with new system or of their ability to take on new roles. Overconfidence ± as individuals amass experience. Honest difference of opinion ± sincerely believe the plan is wrong as they are watching the situation from different viewpoing. no risk of failure. can also be done badly. However whenever something worthwhile is attempted. impractical.

According to Hansen and Smith. . Strategic planning involves ³choices that risk resources´ and ³tradeoffs that sacrifice opportunity´.Types of Strategies Integration Strategies Intensive Strategies Diversification Strategies Defensive Strategies Michael Porter¶s Generic Strategies Strategy is choosing among the alternatives. you cant follow a combination strategy for too long.

costs and opportunities are spread across many individuals. ± Establishing websites to sell products directly to consumers. retail outlets ..Types of Strategies Integration Strategies Forward integration Backwind integration Horizontal integration Forward Integration Gaining ownership or increased control over distributors or retailers by. ± Opening company¶s stores. ± Franchising .

Types of Strategies Situations when forward integration may be an effective strategy. firms having forward integration are availing competitive advantage. When the industry is growing and expected to continue growing. organizations can increase the predictability of the demand through forward integration. forward integration reduces organization¶s ability to diversify if it¶s basic industry falters. Availability of quality distributors is limited. unreliable or incapable of meeting the firms distribution needs. Advantages of stable productions are high. Organizations present distributors are expensive. When organization has both the capital and human resources. . however. When profit margins for distributors or retailers are high.

Types of Strategies Backward Integration A strategy of seeking ownership or increased control of a firm¶s suppliers particularly in situations when firm¶s suppliers are unreliable. Firms increasingly use websites on backward integration opportunities. too costly or cannot meet firm¶s requirements Firms having global sources of supply opt for deintegration. . Global competition is prompting firm¶s to reduce number of suppliers and to demand higher level of service and quality from selected ones.

when the number of suppliers is small and the number of competitors is large. When an organization has both capital and human resources to manage the new business of supplying its own raw material.Types of Strategies Situations when backward integration may be an effective strategy When present suppliers are expensive. unreliable. When an organization competes in an industry that is growing rapidly. . or incapable of meeting the firms needs.

as organization can stabilize the cost of its raw materials and associated products through backward integration.Types of Strategies Situations when backward integration may be an effective strategy (contd) When the advantages of stable prices are particularly important. When present supplies have high profit margin. When an organization needs to acquire a needed resource quickly. . tempting to invest into the venture.

Types of Strategies Horizontal Integration A strategy of seeking ownership of or increased control over a firm¶s competitors. Mergers between direct competitors create efficiencies because of potential for eliminating duplicate facilities. . acquisitions and takeovers among competitors allow for increased economies of scale and enhanced transfer of resources and competencies. Mergers. It is increasingly being used by the firms as growth strategy.

When the firm has the necessary resources of capital and human talent to manage the expanded organization. and overall industry sales are declining.( not if competitors are doing poorly. . when a firm competes in a growing industry. When increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantage.Types of Strategies Situations when horizontal integration may be an effective strategy When an organization can gain a monopolistic characteristics without being challenged by the law (SECP). when competitors are faltering due to lack of managerial expertise or a need for particular resources that an organization possesses.

publicity efforts or offering extensive sales promotion items. . Market penetrations includes increasing number of salespersons. advertising expenditure.Types of Strategies Intensive Strategies Requires intensive effort from the firm to improve it¶s competitive position with existing products. Market Penetration Market Development Product Development Market Penetration This strategy seeks to increase market share for present product or services in present markets through greater marketing efforts.

Increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantage.Types of Strategies Situations when market penetration may be an effective strategy Current markets are not saturated with a particular product or service. Market shares of major competitors have been declining while total industry sales have been increasing. The correlation between dollar sales and dollar marketing expenditure has been high. The usage rate of present customers could be increased significantly. .

inexpensive and good quality channels of distribution are available. Organization is very successful at what it does. Situations when market development may be an effective strategy New. . Organization has the necessary resources to expand operations.Types of Strategies Market Development It involves introducing present products or services into new geographic areas. Organization has excess production capacity. New untapped or unsaturated markets exist. Organization¶s basic industry is becoming global. reliable.

It normally entails large R & D expenditure.Types of Strategies Product Development A strategy that seeks increased sales by improving or modifying present products or services. Situations when Product development may be an effective strategy Organization¶s successful product has reached the maturity stage and organization wants its customers to try it¶s new or improved product. . Organization competes in an industry that is characterized by rapid technological development.

Organization competes in a high-growth industry. Horizontal and conglomerate. especially when the company is competing in an un attractive industry. but related. Concentric.Types of Strategies Major competitors offer better -quality products at comparable prices. There are three types of diversification strategies. products or services. . Organization has strong research and development capabilities Diversification Strategies Diversification strategy is followed to avoid dependence on any single industry. Concentric Diversification Acquiring new.

When new related products could be offered at highly competitive prices. When the company¶s products are in the declining stage of the product¶s life cycle. When new related products have seasonal sales levels that counterbalance a company¶s existing peaks and lows. When an organization has strong management team. .Types of Strategies Situations when Concentric diversification may be an effective strategy When an organization competes in a no-growth/ slowgrowth industry. When adding new but related products would significantly enhance the sales of current products.

Situation when Horizontal Diversifications may be an effective strategy. unrelated products or services for present customers. . Organization¶s present marketing channels can be used to market new products to current customers. Revenue of the organization would increase significantly. Organization competes in a highly competitive and / or a no growth industry yielding low returns and profit margins. The new product has countercyclical sales patterns compared to an organization¶s present products.Types of Strategies Horizontal Diversification Adding new.

Organization¶s basic industry is experiencing decline in sales / profits. Organization has the capital and managerial talent to successfully compete in a new industry. Organization has the opportunity to purchase unrelated business providing an attractive investment opportunity.Types of Strategies Conglomerate Diversification Adding new. Situations when conglomerate diversification may be an effective strategy. There exists financial synergy between the acquired and acquiring firms. unrelated products or services. . Antitrust action could be charged against an organization that has concentrated on a single industry. The existing markets for company¶s present products are saturated.

Bankruptcy can be an effective type of retrenchment strategy. Entails selling off land and buildings to raise needed cash. Retrenchment An organization regroups through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining sales and profits. closing marginal businesses. allowing a firm to avoid major debt obligations and to void union contracts. automating processes. closing obsolete factories.Types of Strategies Defensive Strategies Retrenchment.. pruning product lines. is designed to fortify an organization¶s basic distinctive competence. reducing the number of employees and controlling expenses. . Also called a turnaround or reorganization strategy. Divestiture and Liquidation are defensive strategies.

The organization is a weaker competitor in the industry. An organization has failed to meet it¶s objectives and goals repeatedly overtime. poor employee morale. The organization is plagued by inefficiency. take advantage of internal strengths and overcome internal weaknesses overtime. could not capitalize on external opportunities. The organization¶s strategic managers have failed. minimize external threats. Organization has grown so large so quickly that major internal reorganization is needed. . low profitability. and pressure from stakeholders to improve performance.Types of Strategies Situations when retrenchment may be an effective strategy.

The strategy is used to raise capital for further strategic acquisition or investments. or that do not fit well with the firm¶s other activities. Divestiture can be apart of an overall retrenchment strategy to rid an organization of businesses that are unprofitable. .Types of Strategies Divestiture Selling a division or part of an organization. that require too much capital.

Types of Strategies Situations when Divestiture may be an effective strategy. Government antitrust action threatens an organization . A division is responsible for an organization¶s overall poor performance. A large amount of cash is required quickly and cannot be obtained from other sources. The organization has pursued a retrenchment strategy but failed to accomplish needed improvements. A division needs more resources to be competitive than the company can provide. managers. employees. A division is misfit with the rest of an organization. may be due to different markets. customers. values or needs.

can be an emotionally difficult strategy. in parts. It is better to cease operating than to continue loosing large sums of money. . Organization has pursued both a retrenchment strategy and divestiture strategy and both have failed.Types of Strategies Liquidation Selling all of a company¶s assets. When stockholders of a firm can minimize their losses by selling the organization¶s assets. When only alternative left is bankruptcy. Liquidities is a recognition of defeat and therefore. Situations when liquidation may be an effective strategy to pursue. for their tangible worth is called liquidation. than liquidation is the only way to orderly get max cash from firm¶s assets.

Types of Strategies Michael Porter¶s Generic Strategies. Differentiation and focus. These strategies imply different organizational arrangements. Large firms with greater resources compete on a cost leadership and or differentiation basis while small firms often compete on focus basis. Strategies allow organizations to gain competitive advantage from three different bases. Cost leadership emphasis on producing standardized products at a very low per unit cost for price sensitive consumers. cost leadership. control procedures and incentive systems. Differentiation strategy aims at producing unique products for relatively price sensitive consumers and focus means producing products & services to fulfill the needs of small groups of consumers. .

backward and horizontal integration is to gain cost leadership. buyer are not bothered about brands and there are large no. Perform cost-benefit analysis to evaluate ³sharing opportunities´ of resources and knowledge among firm¶s existing and potential business units.Types of Strategies Cost Leadership Strategy Reason for forward. It is an effective strategy in situations where customers are price sensitive. Pursue cost leadership in conjunction with differentiation. of buyers with significant bargaining power. . there is few ways of achieving product differentiation.

.Types of Strategies Implies high efficiency. rewards linked with cost containment. limited perks. lower overheads. technology break through make strategy ineffective. intolerance of waste. buyer¶s interest switching to other differentiating features beside price. Competitors imitation of strategy may result in lowering overall Industry profits.

Will allow a firm to charge high price. gas mileage or ease of use. engineering design. spare parts availability. gain customer loyalty. . Follow a strategy after careful study of buyers needs and preferences to determine and incorporation of one or more differentiations features.Types of Strategies Differentiation Strategy. Strategy requires strong coordination between R&D and marketing functions. useful life. product performance. Special features could be superior service.

± Rival firms are not attempting to specialize in the same target market. or on a particular product-line segments in order to serve a well defined but narrow market better than competitors who serve a broader market. Market Penetration and Market Development strategies offer substantial focusing advantages. ± Consumers have distinctive preferences or requirements. . Focus Strategies are most effective when. geographic market.Types of Strategies Focus Strategies To concentrate on a particular group of customers.

Risks of pursuing Focus Strategies. . The possibility of many competitors recognizing the successful focus strategy and copying it.Types of Strategies Medium to large firms can pursue focus strategies only in conjunction with differentiation or cost leadership-based strategies. The consumer preferences drifting towards the product attributes desired by the market as a whole.

.Types of Strategies Means For Achieving Strategies Joint Venture / Partnership It is a popular strategy when two or more companies form a temporary partnership or consortium for the purpose of capitalizing on some opportunity. ± Cross-licensing agreements. ± Research and development partnerships. The sponsoring firms normally form a separate organization with shared ownership. ± Cross-distribution agreements. Other types of cooperative arrangements could be.

if supported unequally. and ± Joint-bidding consortia.The venture may begin to compete more with one of the partners than the other. 2. 3. problems arise. The venture may not be supported equally by both partners.Managers who must collaborate daily in operating the venture are not involved in forming or shaping the venture. Common Problems Leading To Failure Of Joint Ventures 1. .Types of Strategies ± Cross-manufacturing agreements.

If the acquisition is desired by both firms.When a merger or acquisition is not desired by both parties. Acquisition. Takeover/Hostile Takeover .when a large organization purchases (acquires) a smaller firm. Friendly Merger . .Types of Strategies Merger / Acquisition Merger ± When two organizations of about equal size unite to form one enterprise. or vice versa.

Types of Strategies Forces driving Mergers/ Acquisitions Technological Change Excess capacity Inability to boost profits through price increases A depressed stock market Need to gain economies of scale Bargains galore as companies struggle and while stock prices are low. Not all mergers are effective and successful ± about half produced negative returns to shareholders (Wall Street Journal studies) .

. To make better use of the existing sales force. customers. To gain economies of scale To smooth out seasonal trends in sales. products and creditors. To reduce tax obligations. To gain access to new suppliers. To gain new technology. distributors.Types of Strategies Reasons for Mergers and Acquisitions To provide improved capacity utilization. To reduce managerial staff.

Types of Strategies
First Mover Advantages The benefits a firm may achieve by entering a new market or developing a new product or service prior to rival firm is known as first mover advantages. It may include;
± Securing access to rare resources. ± Gaining new knowledge of key factors of issues, and ± Carving out market share and a position that is easy to defend and costly for rival firms to overtake.

Risk associated being first mover ± unexpected and unanticipated problems and costs may occur being the first firm doing business in the new market.

Types of Strategies
According to research, first mover advantages tend to be greatest when competitors are roughly the same size and possess similar resources. Otherwise, larger competitors can wait while others make initial investments and mistakes, and then respond with greater effectiveness and resources Out Sourcing Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) involves companies taking over the functional operations, such as human resource, information systems, payroll, accounting, customer service, and even marketing of other firms.

Types of Strategies
Companies choose to outsource because; It is less expensive, It allows the firms to focus on its core business, and It enables the firm to provide better service. BPO is the means for achieving strategies that are similar to partnering and joint venture.

Within the external environment are the forces of the general environment or macro environment and the forces of the task environment or industry environment . The organizational environment consists of the internal environment and the external environment.Strategic Management Process The Organizational Environment All forces with potential to influence the organization and its performance is known as organizational environment.

THE ENVIRONMENT The macro-environment Industry Operating Envrnmt Internal Environment The organization Task Environment .

. Scan Internal environment to ascertain strengths and weaknesses Monitor.Strategic Management Process Environmental Scanning Scan external environment to identify possible opportunities and threats. Thus. evaluate and disseminate information from external and internal environment to the management. It is a tool used by corporations to avoid strategic surprise and to ensure long-term health .

Competitive advantage is determined largely by competitive positioning within and industry. IO perspective requires the firms to compete in attractive industries. and gain a full understanding of key external factors relationships within that industry. finance etc. the external (industry) factors are more important than internal factors in a firm achieving competitive advantage. The IO theorist argue that the industry in which a firm competes has stronger influence on the firm¶s performance than the internal functional decisions managers make in marketing.Strategic Management Process The Industrial Organization (IO) View According to IO approach. . avoid weak or faltering industries.

Strategic Management Process Firm performance is primarily based more on industry properties. and level of competitiveness than on internal resources. capabilities. barriers to market entry. However. . Research findings suggest that approximately 20 percent of a firm¶s profitability can be explained by the industry. product differentiation. and operations. whereas 36 percent of the profitability is attributed to the firm¶s internal factors. structures. such as economies of scale.

demographic and environmental forces. Creditors. Labor Unions. Distributors. cultural. governmental and legal forces. . Organization¶s Operating Environment: Competitors. Trade Associations. Communities. Services. Suppliers. Political. Technological forces. Social. Markets and Natural Environment. Products. Competitive forces. Employees. Managers. Special interest groups. Governments. Stockholders. Customers.Strategic Management Process Key External Forces: ± ± ± ± ± Economic forces.

± The nature of positioning and market segmentation strategies. . Changes in external forces is reflected into: ± Changes in consumer demand for both industrial and consumer products and services. ± The choice of businesses to acquire or sell.Strategic Management Process The effects/influences of external environment on organizations operating environments give rise to opportunities and threats for the organization. External forces directly effect both suppliers and distributors. External opportunities /threats enable organizations to develop clear missions and strategies to achieve their objectives.

number of managers and employees. ± Applicable to all competing firms. ± Measurable. Gather competitive intelligence about key external force¶s trends by using print/electronic media. human resources and internet. ± Hierarchical effecting overall company and functional/ divisional areas. ± Important for achieving long-term and annual objectives. to identify key external factors which are. List of key external factors be communicated to all in the organization. . Evaluate and assimilate the info.Strategic Management Process Get the participation of max.

NAFTA. OPEC. The level of disposable income. Consumption patterns are effected by the relative affluence of various market segments-the firm to consider economic trends in the segments that affect its industry. Interest rates. etc.Strategic Management Process Economic Forces The Nature and direction of economy in which firm operates. The firm must consider. stock prices. Low/ high value of dollar Gross domestic product trend Right sizing/ downsizing or derecruiting Deregulation of Industries to restrain inflation Emergence of economic blocs/ organizations like EEC. . ± ± ± ± ± ± ± General availability of credit.

and all industries are challenged by the opportunities and threats arising from these changes. markets and customers and all sorts of organizations. Demographic and Environmental forces. cultural. demographic and environmental factors have impact on virtually all products. . Cultural. services. Changes in social.Strategic Management Process Social.

Companies have to pay heavy penalty in shape of expensive severance packages. (Golden hand shake) under Govt. local and foreign governments are major regulators.Strategic Management Process Political. subsidizers. governmental and legal factors can represent key opportunities or threats for both small and large organizations. employers and customers of organizations. Political. state. Governmental and Legal Forces Federal. rules for laying off employees .

or markets for their products.Strategic Management Process Political forecast is vital part of external audit for industries/ firms depending on Govt. subsidies. import duty on raw materials. companies relying only on domestic market may find it difficult to survive. Political forecasts is critical for multinational firms that depend on foreign countries for natural resources. Changes in tax rates. facilities. Mass communication and high technology is creating similar patterns of consumption in diverse cultures world wide. . special tariffs can affect firms significantly. contracts.

Strategic Management Process Technological Forces Technological advances have brought revolution in business operations. . increasing speed of distribution . New positions of CIO and CTO are being introduced in companies to effectively capitalize on e-commerce. It is changing the nature of opportunities and threats by altering the life cycle of products. erasing limitations of traditional geographical markets. Internet is saving companies billions of dollars in distribution and transaction from direct sales. altering economies of scale and changing entry barriers.

operations. . ± Change values and expectations of employees. Technological breakthroughs can dramatically affect. services. markets. ± Create shortage in technical skills. ± Create new more powerful competitive advantage. manufacturing processes. ± Render existing products and services obsolete. ± Products. managers and customers. ± Change the relative cost position in an industry. ± Create shorter production runs.Strategic Management Process Technological forces represent major opportunities and threats which should be taken care of while formulating strategies. distributors. marketing practices and competitive position. suppliers. customers.

weaknesses. ± People make a difference. . The most-successful purchases are in niches that add technology or a related market. not just in product but the whole company. objectives and strategies. ± There is no substitute for quality and no greater threat than failing to be cost-effective on a global basis. ± Understanding and remembering precisely what is your business. ± Market share.Strategic Management Process Competitive Forces It is imperative in external audit to identify rival firms and determine their strengths. ± Innovate or evaporate. opportunities. capabilities. ± Acquisition is essential to growth. tired of hearing it? Too bad. ± Bringing improvement. Nothing quite recedes like success. Characteristics of a competitive firm. threats.

Good competitive intelligence in business is one of the key to success. . Benefits of corporate spying include increased revenues.Strategic Management Process Competitive Intelligence (CI) A systematic and ethical process for gathering and analyzing info about competitors activities and general business trends to further a business¶ own goals. Competitive intelligence is equally applicable for strategy formulation. implementation and evaluation decisions. Major competitor¶s weakness can represent external opportunity and major strength may represent key threat. lower costs and better decision making.

want ads. creditors. Identify areas in which competitors are vulnerable and assess the impact strategic actions would have on competitors. suppliers. online interviews with celebrities and government filings. employees. customers. Cooperation Among Competitors Unethical tactics like bribery.Strategic Management Process Objectives of Competitive Intelligence (CI) To provide general understanding of an industry and its competitors. managers. Sources of CI Internet. distributors. newspaper articles. and computer break-ins should not be used in CI. . Identify competitors potential moves that might endanger a firm¶s position in the market. wiretapping. trade journals.

Bargaining power of suppliers. . Potential development of substitute products. Potential entry of new competitors. ± ± ± ± ± Rivalry among competing firms.Strategic Management Process Industry Environment Competitive Analysis: Porter¶s Five-Forces Model. Bargaining Power of consumers. A widely used approach for developing strategies in many industries. According to Model. the nature of competitiveness in a given industry can be viewed as a composite of five forces.

Michael Porter¶s Model POTENTIAL ENTRANTS Threat of new entrants INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Bargaining power of suppliers SUPPLIERS Bargaining power of customers CUSTOMS Rivalry Among Existing Firms Threat of substitute products or services SUBSTITUTES .

enhancing quality. . A successful strategy giving competitive advantage to a firm can be pursued by rival firms. Change in strategy by one firm may be met with retaliating countermoves like lowering of prices. ± with the increase in number of competitors. ± By becoming more equal in size and capability. adding features. The intensity of rivalry increases. providing services. extending warranties or increasing advertising.Strategic Management Process Rivalry among Competing firms The most powerful of five Competitive forces.

± When fixed costs are high. ± When mergers and acquisitions are common in the industry. As rivalry among competing firms intensifies.Strategic Management Process -With decrease in demand of industry¶s products. ± when product is perishable. ± Barriers to leaving the market are high. ± Industry¶s profits decline. ± The industry becomes Inherently unattractive. _ Consumers can switch brands easily. .

large capital requirement. Economy of scale. possession of patents. undesirable locations. sophisticated technology and know how. increases the intensity of competitiveness among the firms. Barriers to entry include. counterattack by entrenched firms or potential saturation of the market: . strong customer loyalty. strong brand preference.Strategic Management Process Potential Entry of New Competitors Easy entry of a firm in an industry. Govt. lack of access to raw materials. regulatory policies.

± lower prices.Strategic Management Process New firms enter the industry with. plan counter attack if required and capitalize on existing strengths and weaknesses. . their strategies. ± Substantial market resources. ± High quality products. Strategist must identify new entrants.

. or aluminum can producer. competitive pressure arise when price of the substitute product decreases or consumer¶s switching cost decreases. Or the firms plane for increased capacity and market penetration. like plastic container producer competing with glass. paperboard. Competitive strength of the substitute product could be measured by its market share.Strategic Management Process Potential Development of Substitute Products Firms are in close competition with producers of substitute products. Presence of substitute put ceiling on the price of a product.

This strategy is effective when suppliers are unreliable. too costly or not capable of meeting a firm¶s demand on consistant bases. .Strategic Management Process Bargaining Power of Suppliers It affects the intensity of competition in industry when. Firms may pursue a backward integration strategy to gain control or ownership of suppliers. ± When cost of switching raw materials is high. ± There are only few substitute raw materials. ± There is large number of suppliers.

. ± Consumers are concentrated or large. ± Products being purchased are standard or undifferentiated. and accessory packages. ± Buy in volume. warranty coverage. Consumers can negotiate selling price. Rival firms offer extended warranties or special services to gain consumer loyalty.Strategic Management Process Bargaining Power of Consumers Intensity of competition in an industry increases by the bargaining power of consumers if.

and competitive information. social. The Matrix can be developed in five steps. demographic. ± i) List external factors identified in external audit (about 10 to 20 factors) including both opportunities and threats. environmental. governmental. . political. by writing opportunities first and than threats. technological. cultural. legal.Strategic Management Process The External Factor Evaluation (EFE) Matrix The matrix allows the strategists to summarize and evaluate economic.

Strategic Management Process ± ii) Assign each factor a weight ranging from 0. Appropriate weight can be determined by comparing successful with unsuccessful competitors or by discussing the factor and reaching a group consensus. 3 = the response is above average. The weight indicates the relative importance of that factor in success of the firm¶s industry. where. and 1 = the response is poor.0 (very important).0. 2 = the response is average. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 4 = the response is superior. The total of all weight assigned to the factors must be equal 1. . ± iii) Assign a rating of 1 to 4 to each key external factor to indicate how effectively the firm¶s current strategies respond to the factor.0 (not important) to 1.

whereas the weights in step 2 are industry based.Strategic Management Process Ratings are based on effectiveness of the firm¶s strategies thus company-based. ± v) Sum the weighted score for each variable to determine the total weighted score for the organization.5. The score of 4. The average total weighted score is 2.0 indicates that the organization is responding in an outstanding way to existing opportunities and threats in its industry.0. or taking advantage of opportunities and minimizing effects of threats. ± iv) Multiply each factor¶s weight by its rating to determine a weighted score.0 and the lowest 1. . The highest possible total weighted score for an organization is 4.

10 .60 .V Increasing free cash flow Owns one mile on beach Strong management team Buffet at most facilities Long-range planning Reputation as family friendly Financial ratios Weight Rating Weighted Score .05 .20 .15 .15 .05 .05 .05 .15 .20 .40 .15 .05 .05 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 .15 .Strategic Management Process A SAMPLE INTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATON MARTRIX Key Internal Factors Internal Strength Largest Casino in country Room Occupancy 95% in L.05 .15 .

05 . not high Recent loss of joint venture Total Weight Rating Weighted Score .10 .10 2.05 .05 .10 .V Little diversification Family reputation.Strategic Management Process Key Internal Factors Internal Weaknesses Most properties located in L.10 1.00 1 2 2 1 .75 .05 .

Critical success factors in a CPM include both internal and external issues. However. The weights and total weighted scores in both a CPM and EFE have the same meaning.Strategic Management Process The Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM) The CPM identifies a firm¶s major competitors and its particular strengths and weaknesses in relation to a competitor firm¶s strategic position. where. therefore the ratings refer to strengths and weaknesses. ± 4 = major strength ± 3 = minor strength ± 2 = minor weakness ± 1 = major weakness .

production capacity and efficiency. technological advantages and e-commerce expertise. experience. could be. management. Other than critical success factors. price competitiveness. location of facilities. effectiveness of sales distribution. breadth of product line. global expansion and market share. proprietary or patent advantages. financial position customer loyalty. . product quality.Strategic Management Process For example critical success factors for firms may include advertising. union relations.

± Strategy be carefully executed. provide the basis for establishing objectives and strategies. ± Strategy be consistent with conditions in competitive environment.Strategic Management Process Internal Environment Analysis The Importance of Internal Analysis Internal strengths/ weaknesses coupled with external opportunities/threats and a clear statement of mission. Three critical ingredients of a successful strategy. Involvement of representatives of managers and employees from throughout the firm to determine firm¶s internal strengths and weaknesses . ± Strategy to place realistic requirements on the firm¶s resources.

location. technology. which can be grouped into three categories. human resources. internal resources are more important for a firm than external factors in achieving and sustaining competitive advantage. and organizational resources. Three Basic Resources Physical resources. . raw materials and machines. The organizational performance will primarily be determined by internal resources. Physical Resources Plant and equipment.Strategic Management Process The Resource-Based View (RBV) According to RBV approach.

and nature of a firm¶s internal resources first in devising strategies that can lead to sustainable competitive advantage. trademarks. copyrights. . experience. The firm must consider the mix. information systems. amount. type.Strategic Management Process Human Resources All employees. RBV theory asserts that sources are actually what helps a firm exploit opportunities and neutralize threat. accumulated experience within organization and so on. databases. and abilities Organizational Resources Firm structure. skills. planning processes. knowledge. training. patents. intelligence.

abilities and ways of combining assets. . nurtured and deployed throughout the firm. They enable the firm to take the same input factors as rivals and convert them into products and services. Core Competence A capability or skill running through a firm¶s businesses and that once identified. becomes the basis for lasting competitive advantage. people. and processes that a company uses to transform inputs into outputs.Strategic Management Process Organizational Abilities The skills. either with greater efficiency in the processes or greater quality in the output or both. Finely developed capabilities can be a source of sustained competitive advantage.

± Cash. competitors will match or better any resource sooner than later. ± Commodities. .Strategic Management Process What Makes a Resource valuable? Competitive Superiority : Does the resource help fulfill a customer¶s needs better than those of the firm¶s competitors? Resource scarcity: Is the resource in short supply? Inimitability: Is the resource easily copied or acquired? Inimitability doesn¶t last for ever. Easy to imitate.

± Reputation for fairness. ± Patents. ± Unique assets (mineral rights). ± Employee Satisfaction.Strategic Management Process Can be imitated (but may not be). . Cannot be Imitated. ± Unique locations. ± capacity ± Economy of scale Difficult to Imitate ± Brand loyalty.

Based View in Internal Analysis.Strategic Management Process Durability: How rapidly will the resource depreciate? Substitutability: Are other alternatives available? Using Resource. Involves identifying and evaluating firm¶s resources that possess strategic value and can provide basis for future competitive advantage. .

Utilize a functional perspective. activities and processes having potential competitive advantage. Use value chain approach to identify capabilities. Look at organizational processes and combinations of resources and not only at isolated assets or capabilities. Separating tangible and intangible assets as well as organizational capabilities can uncover value-building resources and activities. .Strategic Management Process Methods to identify resources with strategic value. Disaggregate resources: Break them into more specific competencies rather than stay with broad categorizations.

± Door Positioning and style. ± Bar positioning. floor materials. ‡ Theme.Strategic Management Process Disaggregating a Restaurant¶s Customer Service Resource. color scheme. window decorations ± Table layout ‡ Table materials . ± Features/décor. ± External Signs/ welcome Offering a delightful ambiance ± Floor design. Providing ease of access ± Parking (where appropriate).

Strategic Management Process Providing a Special welcome ± Host greeting ± Welcome drinks/ eats ± Menu introduction ± Table decoration Ensuing waiting time at the table is´ as expected´ and as enjoyable as possible. ± Visible queuing system. . ± Marketing literature. ± Entertainment for queuers.

± System of gaining waiter¶s attention . ‡ Daily Meetings. coaching process ‡ Discipline system. ‡ Job experience Motivation awards.Strategic Management Process Providing a customer with delightful service Developing a special relationship between waiter/ waitress and table ± Waiter selection ± waiter training/ development ‡ Personality training ‡ Assessing customers ‡ Handling disasters ‡ Coping with pressures. ‡ Menu training.

Strategic Management Process Ensuring that Menu is fun to use and caters to the diners¶ needs. . ± Size of Menu ± Material Menus made off ± Menu dishes ± Menu layout Providing speed of service appropriate to the occasion. ± Kitchen queuing system ± Service standards Reducing the pain of paying the bill.

ceremonies. beliefs. rituals. legends. Cultural products or dimensions include values. and that has worked well enough to be considered valid and to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive. metaphors. and heroines. myths. saga. and feel.Strategic Management Process Organizational Culture A pattern of behavior (that has been) developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. . rites. This definition emphasizes the importance of matching external with internal factors in making strategic choices. stories. thing. symbols. language. heroes.

Strategic Management Process These dimensions are levers that strategists can use to influence and direct strategy formulation. and evaluation activities. innovative. Every organization like an individual¶s personality have different cultures ± they could be warm. An organization¶s culture must support the collective commitment of its people to a common purpose. open. harsh. The strategic management process takes place largely within a particular organization culture. conservative. friendly. implementation. It must foster competence and enthusiasm among managers and employees . liberal. aggressive. or likable.

then management can implement changes swiftly. strategic changes may be ineffective or even counterproductive. If the firm¶s culture is not supportive. If strategies can capitalize on cultural strengths. like strong work ethic or highly ethical beliefs. implementation. The challenge of strategic management is to bring about the changes in organizational culture and individual mindsets that are needed to support the formulation. and evaluation of strategies.Strategic Management Process Organizational culture significantly affects business decisions and thus must be evaluated during an internal strategic management audit. However. .

planned sets of activities that consolidate various forms of cultural expressions into one event. carried out through social interactions. Myth ± A dramatic narrative of imagined events. dramatic. . Ceremonial ± A system of several rites connected with a single occasion or event. Ritual ± A standardized. technical consequences of practical importance. Also.Relatively elaborate. an unquestioned belief about the practical benefits of certain techniques and behaviors that is not supported by facts.Strategic Management Process Cultural Products or Dimensions Rites . usually for the benefit of an audience. but seldom produce intended. usually used to explain origins or transformation of something. detail set of techniques and behaviors that manage anxieties.

or relation that serves as a vehicle for conveying meaning. usually in heroic terms. sometimes a combination of truth and fiction. Folktale ± A completely fictional narrative. Symbol ± Any object. . event. Legend ± A handed down narrative of some wonderful event that is based on history but has been blown up with fictional details.Strategic Management Process Saga ± A historical narrative describing the unique accomplishments of a group and its leaders. Language ± A particular form or manner in which members of a group use sounds and written signs to convey meanings to each other. usually by representing another thing. Story ± A narrative based on true events. act.

life-directing attitudes that serve as behavioral guidelines. Heroes/Heroines ± Individuals whom the organization has legitimized to model behavior for others. Values . Belief ± An understanding of a particular phenomenon. .Strategic Management Process Metaphors ± Shorthand words used to capture a vision or to reinforce old or new values.

staffing. . Planning The only thing certain about the future of any organization is change. motivating.Strategic Management Process Management The function of management are five basic activities. planning. Planning enables a firm to take into account relevant factors and focus on the critical ones. Planning is an up-front investment in success. organizing. Planning enables a firm to gather the resources needed and carry out tasks in the most efficient way. and controlling. and planning is the essential bridge between the present and the future that increases the likelihood of achieving the desired results.

where. Successful organizations strive to control their own futures rather than merely react to external forces and events as they occur. why. and how needed to achieve desired objectives.Strategic Management Process Planning enables a firm to identify precisely what is to be achieved and to detail precisely the who. Strategic management can be viewed as a formal planning process that allows an organization to pursue proactive rather than reactive strategies. when. . Planning helps ensure that the firm can be prepared for all reasonable eventualities and for all changes that will be needed. what.

Organizing means determining who does what and who reports to whom. The organization function consist of three sequential activities. and ± Delegation authority. ± Breaking tasks down into jobs ( work specialization ). . Resources are allocated more effectively and used more efficiently in a well organized firm than in a disorganized firm. ± Combining jobs to form departments ( departmentalization).Strategic Management Process Organizing The purpose of organizing is to achieve coordinated efforts by defining tasks and authority relationship.

Changes in strategy often require changes in structure because positions may be created. strategic. deleted. which lead to specialization and according to Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations published 1776) would lead to higher productivity.Strategic Management Process Breaking tasks down into jobs require development of job description and job specification. Combining jobs to form departments results in an organizational structure. business unit. and matrix. span of control. . divisional. The most common forms of departmentalization are functional. and chain of command. or merged.

Strategic Management Process Delegation authority is an important activity as evidenced in old saying ³ you can tell how good a manager is by observing how his/her department functions when he or she is not there´. Employees of today are more educated and capable of participation in organizational decision making. . They expect to be delegated authority and responsibility. and to be held accountable for results Delegation of authority is embedded in strategic management process.

Motivating .

Earning per share and Social responsibilities. . understandable. Profitability. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Growth in assets. Growth in sales. challenging. Market share. hierarchical. Degree and nature of diversification. measurable. Objectives should be quantitative. Objectives are commonly stated in terms of. realistic. and obtainable.Strategic Management Process Strategic Objectives Strategic objectives or long-term objectives represent the results expected from pursuing certain strategies.

By making objectives through consensus. They provide basis for consistent decision making by managers whose values and attitudes differ. an organization can minimize potential conflicts later during implementation .Strategic Management Process Clearly stated objectives help stakeholders understand their role in an organization.

Strategic Management Process
Strategy Analysis And Choice
Identifying and evaluating alternative strategies should involve maximum number of managers and employees. All the participant should have the firm¶s external and internal audit information by their sides. The firm¶s external/internal audit, coupled with mission statement, will help participants to crystallize the particular strategy that could benefit the firm most. All the feasible alternate strategies be discussed and ranked in the order of attractiveness, like; ± 1. Should not be implemented.

Strategic Management Process
± 2. Possibly should be implemented. ± 3. Probably should be implemented. ± 4. Definitely should be implemented. The process will result in prioritized list of best strategies reflecting the collective wisdom of the group.

Strategic Management Process

Strategic Management Process .

Strategic Management Process .

. but also to broader set of moral principles expected by all or by a segment of society. expectations and morals comprising standards of conduct for a population or profession. Unethical Behavior Conduct that is considered µwrong¶ or µbad¶ in the context of a moral code. Ethical Behavior Conduct that is considered µright¶ or µgood¶ in the context of a governing moral code.Internal Environment Analysis Business Ethics and Social Responsibility Ethics A system of behaviors. It conforms not only to the law.

Ethical Standard A guidelines governing moral conduct of a particular group. ethical principles. . and ethical rules.Code Of Ethics A formal statement of the organization¶s values.