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Intel 8088 (8086) Microprocessor Structure
Dr. Esam Al_Qaralleh CE Department Princess Sumaya University for Technology
Microprocessor System Design
J. L. Antonakos, "An Introduction to the Intel Family of Microprocessors," Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999
The course will provide knowledge to build and program microprocessor-based systems. Microprocessor architecture Architecture of microprocessor-based systems Programming microprocessor-based systems Future trends
Two midterms, one final exam, and homeworks
Microprocessor System Design 3-2
What are microprocessor-based systems?
Microprocessor-based systems are electrical systems consisting
of microprocessors, memories, I/O units, and other peripherals.
Microprocessors are the brains of the systems Microprocessors access memories and other units through buses The operations of microprocessors are controlled by instructions stored in memories Microprocessor
Control unit Datapath ALU Reg.
Microprocessor System Design
Address bus MAR PC IR Control bus Control unit X Y ALU ACC Data bus A simple microprocessor architecture Microprocessor System Design 3-4 . CPU) fabricated on a single integrated circuit.What are microprocessors? A microprocessor is a processor (or Central Processing Unit.
microprocessor Microprocessor System Design 3-5 .vacuum tube Second generation (1954-1959) .Evolution of Computers First generation (1939-1954) .transistor Third generation (1959-1971) .IC Fourth generation (1971-present) .
vacuum tube IBM 650.Evolution of Computers First generation (1939-1954) .edu/gen/recording/computer1. 1954 Http://history.virginia.html http://www.acusd.html 3-6 Microprocessor System Design .edu/acis/history/650.edu/brochure/museum.cs.columbia.html http://www.
acusd.Evolution of Computers Second generation (1954-1959) .edu/gen/recording/computer1.computer50.org/kgill/transistor/trans.html http://www.html Microprocessor System Design 3-7 .transistor Manchester University Experimental Transistor Computer Http://history.
Digital Equipment Corporation Thanks to the use of ICs.com/collect/pdp8.html http://www.IC PDP-8.acusd.html Microprocessor System Design 3-8 .piercefuller. the DEC PDP-8 is the least expensive general purpose small computer in 1960s Http://history.Evolution of Computers Third generation (1959-1971) .edu/gen/recording/computer1.
Evolution of Computers Fourth generation (1971-present) .intel. Microprocessor System Design 1997 3-9 . ROM/RAM buffer Timing Reset Control logic Instruction decoder ALU I/O Reg. Program counter Refresh logic System bus http://www.com 4004 chip layout Block diagram of Intel 4004 A good review article: The History of The Microprocessor. Autumn.microprocessor In 1971. Intel developed 4-bit 4004 chip for calculator applications. Bell Labs Technical Journal.
000 10.000.1 1 1974 1979 1982 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 Microprocessor System Design 3-10 .000.000 100 10 1 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 Number of transistors Pentium 80386 8088 8080 80286 80486 P II P III P4 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Minimum transistor sizes (µm) 8080 8088 80386 80286 Pentium P II P III P 4 80486 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 10000 1000 100 10 Clock frequencies (MHz) P4 P II Pentium 80386 8088 8080 80286 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 10000 1000 100 10 MIPS P III Pentium 80386 80286 80486 P II P4 P III 80486 1 8080 8088 0.000 10.000 1.Evolution of Intel Microprocessors 100.000.000 100.000 1.
Hammer (AMD) Crusoe (Transmeta) SPARC.Other Commercial Microprocessors PowerPC (IBM. Motorola) Athlon. Agere) ARM cores (Advanced RISC Machines) MIPS cores (MIPS Technologies) •••••• Microprocessor System Design 3-11 . Dulon. UltraSPARC (Sun Microsystems) TI’s TMS DSP chips (Texas Instruments) StarCore (Motorola.
.... 3-12 Microprocessor Memory Timing & control Interrupt control Block diagram of a computer Microprocessor System Design . Keyboard Monitor Bus Disk Other peripherals .Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems Computers System performance is normally the most important design concern .
service the interrupt request (obviously a short subroutine) and retake the main program from the point where it was interrupt.3 System block diagram •Crystal oscillator •Timing circuitry (counters dividing to lower frequencies) •ROM (Read Only Memory) (start-up program) •RAM (Random Access Memory) •Bus controller µ P+ •DRAM (Dynamic RAM) associated •Bus drivers high capacity. . fast. fast. •Printer (low resolution) •Modem •Operator’s console •Mainframe •Personal computer Interrupt circuitry At external unexpected events. refresh needed logic •SRAM (Static RAM) . µ P has to interrupt the main program execution.low •Coprocessor circuitry: power. •Printer (high resolution) •External memory •Floppy Disk •Hard Disk •Compact Disk •Other high speed devices Serial I/O Simple (only two wires + ground) but slow. easy to interface Timing CPU Memory System bus (data.1. address & control signals) Parallel I/O Many wires.
address & control signals) Keyboard logic (8253) DMA Controller (8237) Video card Disk controller Serial port .Speaker The Personal Computer Processor (8086 trough Pentium Coprocessor (8087 trough 80387 Timer logic (8253) System ROM 640KB DRAM System bus (data... Extension slots Expansion logic Interrupt logic (8259) Keyboard .
microcontrollers are cheap and have low performance Microcontrollers are widely used in industrial control. automobile and home applications OSC.Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems Microcontrollers A microcontroller is a simple computer implemented in a single VLSI chip. In general. D/A Block diagram of a microcontroller Microprocessor System Design 3-15 . CPU RAM ROM I/O port Timer Interrupt USART A/D.
ti.Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems ASICs Microprocessors are embedded into ASIC chips to implement complex functions In general. it requires that the microprocessors have low power consumption and take small silicon area http://www.com A TI baseband chip for cellular phone applications Microprocessor System Design 3-16 .
Class Objectives Hardware architecture of microprocessor-based systems Microprocessor architecture Memory organization I/O units of microprocessor-based systems How to put them together Programming of microprocessor-based systems Intel 80x86 instruction set Microprocessor Interrupt services Assembly language programming Microprocessor System Design 3-17 .
Overview & Review Microprocessor System Design 3-18 .
Thus.Overview Intel 8088 facts 20 bit address bus allow accessing 1 M memory locations VDD (5V) 16-bit internal data bus and 8-bit external data bus. it need two read (or write) operations to read (or write) a 16-bit datum 8-bit data control signals To 8088 CLK 18001 18000 5A 2F High byte of word Low byte of word GND 20-bit address Byte addressable and byte-swapping Word: 5A2F 8088 control signals from 8088 8088 signal classification Memory locations Microprocessor System Design 3-19 •• ••• .
Organization of 8088 Address bus (20 bits) AH BH CH DH SP BP SI DI ALU Data bus (16 bits) AL BL CL DL Segment register CS DS SS ES IP Bus control Data bus (16 bits) General purpose register Σ Execution Unit (EU) ALU Flag register EU control Instruction Queue External bus Bus Interface Unit (BIU) Microprocessor System Design 3-20 .
General Purpose Registers 15 8 7 0 AX BX AH BH CH DH AL BL CL DL Accumulator Base Counter Data Data Group CX DX SP Stack Pointer Base Pointer Source Index Destination Index 3-21 Pointer and Index Group BP SI DI Microprocessor System Design .
or.••••• Microprocessor System Design 3-22 . ••••• Basic logic operations: and. Basic arithmetic operations: addition. subtraction. Signal F is generated according to the current instruction. xor. shifting.Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) A n bits B n bits F 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 Y A+B A -B A -1 A and B A or B not A • • • Carry Y= 0 ? A>B? F • • • Y Signal F control which function will be conducted by ALU.
It also contains information which controls the operation of the microprocessor. 15 0 OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF Control Flags IF: DF: TF: Interrupt enable flag Direction flag Trap flag Status Flags CF: PF: AF: ZF: SF: OF: Carry flag Parity flag Auxiliary carry flag Zero flag Sign flag Overflow flag Microprocessor System Design 3-23 .Flag Register Flag register contains information reflecting the current status of a microprocessor.
Operands can be addresses telling where to get data (or where to store results) Microprocessor System Design 3-24 . or have only one operand Opcode tells what operation is to be performed. (EU control logic generates ALU control signals according to Opcode) Mode indicates the type of a instruction: Register type. or Memory type Operands tell what data should be used in the operation. BL Machine code structure Opcode Mode Operand1 Operand2 Some instructions do not have operands.Instruction Machine Codes Instruction machine codes are binary numbers For Example: 1000100011000011 MOV Register mode MOV AL.
Fetch an instruction from instruction queue 2.EU Operation 1. EU performs one of the following operations: An arithmetic operation A logic operation Storing a datum into a register Moving a datum from a register Changing flag register ALU ALU Data bus (16 bits) Flag register EU control instruction 1011000101001010 Microprocessor System Design 3-25 . (This process is also referred to as instruction decoding) AH BH CH DH SP BP SI DI AL BL CL DL General purpose register 3. Depending on the control signal. EU control logic generates control signals. According to the instruction.
Generating Memory Addresses How can a 16-bit microprocessor generate 20-bit memory addresses? Left shift 4 bits 16-bit register 0000 Offset FFFFF Addr1 + 0FFFF Offset Segment address 00000 Intel 80x86 memory address generation 1M memory space Segment (64K) + 16-bit register 20-bit memory address Addr1 Microprocessor System Design 3-26 .
Memory Segmentation A segment is a 64KB block of memory starting from any 16-byte boundary For example: 00000. 00020. 20000. 8CE90. and E0840 are all valid segment addresses The requirement of starting from 16-byte boundary is due to the 4-bit left shifting Segment registers in BIU 15 0 CS DS SS ES Code Segment Data Segment Stack Segment Extra Segment 3-27 Microprocessor System Design . 00010.
Memory Address Calculation Segment addresses must be stored in segment registers Offset is derived from the combination of pointer registers. the Instruction Pointer (IP). and immediate values Examples 3 CS IP + Instruction address 3 1 DS DI + Data address 1 4 8 A 0 4 2 1 4 8 A B 4 2 3 0 0 2 3 4 2 6 0 2 2 3-28 Segment address 0000 + Offset Memory address 5 SS SP + Stack address 5 0 0 F F F F 0 0 E 0 E 0 Microprocessor System Design .
0 Update IP — After an instruction is fetched. Register IP is updated as follows: IP = IP + Length of the fetched instruction — For Example: the length of MOV AL. the IP is updated to 0014 Microprocessor System Design 3-29 .Fetching Instructions Where to fetch the next instruction? 8088 CS IP 1234 0012 12352 Memory 12352 MOV AL. 0 is 2 bytes. After fetching this instruction.
[0300H] DS Memory address 1 1 2 3 0 3 2 6 4 0 4 0 0 0 (assume DS=1234H) — Register indirect addressing: MOV AL.Accessing Data Memory There is a number of methods to generate the memory address when accessing data memory. These methods are referred to as Addressing Modes Examples: — Direct addressing: MOV AL. [SI] DS Memory address 1 1 2 3 0 3 2 6 4 1 5 0 0 0 (assume DS=1234H) (assume SI=0310H) Microprocessor System Design 3-30 .
Reserved Memory Locations Some memory locations are reserved for special purposes. Programs should not be loaded in these areas FFFFF Locations from FFFF0H to FFFFFH are used for system reset code Locations from 00000H to 003FFH are used for the interrupt pointer table It has 256 table entries Each table entry is 4 bytes Reset instruction area Interrupt pointer table FFFF0 256 × 4 = 1024 = memory addressing space From 00000H to 003FFH 003FF 00000 3-31 Microprocessor System Design .
INTR) Software Interrupts Caused by the execution of an INT instruction Caused by an event which is generated by the execution of a program.Interrupts An interrupt is an event that occurs while the processor is executing a program The interrupt temporarily suspends execution of the program and switch the processor to executing a special routine (interrupt service routine) When the execution of interrupt service routine is complete. such as division by zero 8088 can have 256 interrupts Microprocessor System Design 3-32 . the processor resumes the execution of the original program Interrupt classification Hardware Interrupts Caused by activating the processor’s interrupt control signals (NMI.
it also provides other functions Microprocessor System Design 3-33 .Minimum and Maximum Operation modes Intel 8088 (8086) has two operation modes: Minimum Mode 8088 generates control signals for memory and I/O operations Some functions are not available in minimum mode Compatible with 8085-based systems Maximum Mode It needs 8288 bus controller to generate control signals for memory and I/O operations It allows the use of 8087 coprocessor.