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Operation and Testing

A/F Mixture
ECT Ignition Timing
MAP/BARO Idle Speed
TPS Thermactor Airflow
CKP/CMP Canister Purge
O2S EGR Flow
EGR Position PCM TCC
KS WOT Cut Off
BOO Inlet Air Temp
AC Fuel Pump Relay
Power Steering Turbo Boost
Operating Modes

Base Engine Strategy

MPG Lean Cruise
Modulator Strategy
Limited Operational Strategy
Adaptive Strategy
Base Engine Strategy
Used to control warm engine running
 Open Loop starts at 130o
 Warm up mode sub modes
 Cranking
 Closed-throttle

 Part throttle (closed loop)

 Wide-open throttle (WOT)

 PCM controls actuators for good

MPG Lean Cruise

Some engines beginning 1988

Certain criteria are met
Goes out of closed-loop fuel control
Very lean for economy at cruise
Modulator Strategy

Conditions that require significant

change from Base Engine Strategy
 Cold engine
 Overheated engine

 High altitude
Limited Operational Strategy
Component Failure
Protect other components
 Converter
Substitute values from another sensor
 EGR Disable EGR
Adaptive Strategy
Started in 1985
PCM has base map
Monitors operation and modifies base
Compensates for wear etc.
 Dirty Injectors
Are in response to O2S
Stored in KAM
Adaptive Strategy
Adaptive Strategy
Adaptive Strategy
Adaptive Strategy
A/F Mixture
Ignition Timing
TPS Idle Speed
CKP/CMP Thermactor Airflow
O2S Canister Purge
EGR Position EGR Flow
AC Inlet Air Temp
Power Steering
Fuel Pump Relay
Turbo Boost
Engine Coolant Temp
Voltage to PCM is 4.5 cold to .3 hot
Resistance 470K cold to 1k hot
Influences PCM’s calibrations for
 A/F Raito
 Idle Speed
 Thermactor Air
 Canister Purge
 Choke Voltage, Temp compensated accel pump
 Upshift light
Pressure Sensors
Pressure-sensitive capacitor
Convert to frequency out
 100 Hz no load Idle
 159 Hz atmospheric (WOT)

Voltage will go from 0 to 5 at the

frequency above
Pressure Sensors
MAP used for BARO
 PCM uses Key On before cranking and
WOT for BARO calculations.
BARO used with Vane Airflow Sensors
Looks like MAP with collar
Throttle Position Sensor
Some adjustable, some not
3 wires, 5v reference, ground, signal
Two common problems
 Bad spot, signal dropout
 Bad ground
 Full reference on signal
 Biased high
Profile Ignition Pickup (PIP)
Hall Effect Switch
Engine speed and crank position
In distributor
One vane narrower for location
Profile Ignition Pickup (PIP)
On DIS sensor is on front of engine
One vane for each pair of companion
Most PIP signals go from .4v or less to
battery voltage at 10o BTDC
Cylinder Identification (CID)
Used with Distributorless Ignition
PIP doesn't know which stroke
Driven at
cam speed
Also used
for SFI
4 Cylinder PIP CID
On DIS, 1 & 4 fire together
CID is on crank with PIP
Ignition Diagnostic Monitor
Used on TFI systems
Checks to see that spark occurred
Wire with 22k from Tach wire to PCM
Makes sure SPOUT command is
carried out
Makes sure timing advance is working
Knock Sensor (KS)
Piezoelectric type
Vibration sends signal to PCM
PCM retards timing 1/2o per engine
Intake Air Temp Sensor (IAT)
Was called Air Charge Temp (ACT)
before OBDII
Voltages and resistance same as ECT
A/F and advance
Used on most Fords
EGR Position (EVP)
Feedback (PFE)
EVP Linear Potentiometer
 only monitors position
EVP Black and White
physically interchangeable
PFE is like MAP but gives a voltage
 Measures exhaust pressure under EGR valve
PFE measures flow used to
 Fine tune EGR position
 Fine tune A/F ratio
 Modify ignition timing
Vane Air Flow (VAF)
Used with VAT and BP to calculate
Speed Density
Mass Airflow MAF
Beginning in 1988
Uses sample tube
Uses hot wire
Encased in Glass
200o above ambient
A/F and Timing
Transmission Switches

PCM knows if in gear, park or neutral

Affects Idle air control strategy
 For A/T because converter loads engine
Response to rapid throttle closing
Transmission Switches
AXOD uses 3 switches
 Neutral Pressure NPS
 Trans Hydraulic THS 3-2 Can tell which gear
 Trans Hydraulic THS 4-3 except if it is in 1 or 2

AXOD Trans Temp TTS opens over

 Will apply TCC if temps get high like uphill
Transmission Switches
Transmission Switches

Manual Trans
 Neutral Gear Switch NGS
 Clutch Engaged Switch CES

 Wired in parallel so both must be open for

PCM to know car is in gear.
Brake On/Off BOO
In stop lamp switch
A4LD has PCM controlled converter
Used on most models today
Increases idle when in gear and brakes
are on
May disengage AC on prolonged idle
Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS)
Speedometer output
 Mechanical or electric
8 cycles per revolution
128000 signals per mile
Used for
 TCC lockup
 Coolant fan control
 Identify deceleration
Other Inputs
Power Steering Pressure Switch PSPS
 Opens between 400 and 600 PSI
 Increases idle speed

AC Demand (ACD)
AC Clutch Cycling Switch (ACCS)
 PCM watches to increase idle speed
A/F Mixture
ECT Ignition Timing
MAP/BARO Idle Speed
TPS Thermactor Airflow
CKP/CMP Canister Purge
O2S EGR Flow
EGR Position PCM TCC
KS WOT Cut Off
BOO Inlet Air Temp
AC Fuel Pump Relay
Power Steering Turbo Boost
Air / Fuel Mixture Control
Three types
 Feedback Carburetors
 Central Fuel Injection (TBI)

 Electronic Fuel Injection (PFI)

 Non Sequential
 Group

 Sequential
Feedback Carburetors
Motorcraft & Carter uses solenoid to bleed
air into idle and main metering circuits
Holley Carburetors

Holley uses
remote solenoid
with similar idle
Holley Carburetors

Uses vacuum
diaphragm and
valve for main
metering control
Central Fuel Injection
Low Pressure System
 Single injector
Low Pressure System
 Two injectors
 Alternates injectors

ECM grounds to turn on

Pulse Width Modulated
Central Fuel Injection
CFI Fuel Delivery
Port Fuel Injection (EFI)
Port Fuel Injection
Non-sequential (EFI)
Group or bank-to-bank
 Two Groups
Sequential (SEFI)
 Injectors pulsed one at a time in firing order
 Used throughout product line by early
Injector Removal
Fuel Supply System
Fuel Supply System
Fuel Pump
 In tank
 Trucks may have a lift and pressure pump

 Most are around 39 psi

 Pressure relief at 100 psi

Fuel Supply System
Pressure regulator
 Manifold pressure modified
 Low of 30 around psi (deceleration)

 High of 39 psi (WOT)

 Turbocharged may go as high as 50 psi

 CFI does not use manifold pressure.

 High pressure 38-40 psi
 Low pressure 14.5 psi
Fuel Supply System
Fuel Pump Relay PCM Controlled
Turns on with key for 1-2 seconds or until PIP
signal is present.
Inertia Switch is in series with pump
Thick Film Integrated (TFI-IV)
Thick film refers to the type of semi-
Controls spark primary
Sends PIP to PCM
PCM modifies and sends back SPOUT
SPOUT tells TFI when to turn primary
on and off.
In distributor or “Closed Bowl”
Thick Film Integrated (TFI-IV)
Thick Film Integrated (TFI-IV)

TFI Module Closed Bowl

Octane rod can change base timing while keeping rotor right.
Distributorless Ignition
PCM controls dwell and timing
DIS module is like TFI module
Also uses SPOUT
 Now called Spark Angle Word (SAW)
1991 second generation using
Reluctance instead of Hall sensors
35 teeth on crank 36 minus1 for position
Distributorless Ignition
Base Timing Check
 Remove SPOUT/SAW jumper
 10o

 Self check adds 20o

Octane adjustment jumper looks like

 Retards 3o to 4o and can be left out
Spout Connectors
Idle Speed
Carbs & CFI use
 Throttle kicker
 DC motor idle speed control (ISC)
 Idle Tracking Switch
 Senses closed throttle
 PCM then operates ISC

Act as Idle Dashpot

EFI Idle Speed Control
Air bypass solenoid
PCM Controlled
Duty Cycle pintle
Also a dashpot
Thermactor Air Management
Air Bypass
Air Diverter
Thermactor Air Management
CTS Below 50o TAB grounded
 Sends air to atmosphere
Between 50 and 190 Bypass valve
sends air to diverter and to manifold
Over 190 closed loop and air goes to
Bypass at idle, WOT, and with failing
Open Loop Tip
The fastest way to see if vehicle is in
open loop is to see where the air is
Cat = Closed Loop
Atmosphere or manifold = Closed Loop
Provided thermactor system is working
Canister Purge
Three types
Constant purge with no PCM control
PCM controlled in-line solenoid
PCM controlled with temperature
controlled vacuum valve
Canister Purge/Heat Control

To valve that
warms intake
EGR Control
EGR Control and
EGR Vent
2 solenoids that are
EGR Control
EGR Shutoff Solenoid
 Uses one solenoid
 Controls ported vacuum
EGR Shutoff Solenoid with Backpressure
 One solenoid
 Strength of vacuum controlled by transducer
 Does not have EVP sensor
EGR Control
Vacuum Regulator
Introduced in 1985
and is used for
most applications
EEC IV Diagnosis
Codes follow self test
Codes can be read
 Manually
 Watch MIL
 Hook up meter

 Star II
 Other scan tool

Notice the safety glasses 

Slow and Fast Codes
Slow codes can be read with pulsing
meter or MIL
Fast codes can be read by scan tool
Fast codes precede slow and look like a
momentary flashing.
Diagnostic Connector
KOEO Self Test Procedures
Engine warm
Turn off for 10 seconds
KOEO, then ground STI
Test will run, then read codes
All accessories off
2.5L and 4.9L hold clutch fully in.
KOEO Self Test Codes
KOER Self Test Procedures
Engine warm 2000 RPM 2 min
Turn off for 10 seconds
KOER, then ground STI
Test will run, then read ID codes
Push brake and turn steering wheel
After code 10 (or 1 flash) snap WOT
KOER Self Test Codes
Computed Timing
 Check for 10o with timing light
Reinstall SPOUT/SAW
Run KOER self test
 At end of last code, 20o will be added to
base timing for 2 min.
Other Tests
Continuous monitor (wiggle)
 After last code, deactivate and reactivate
self test
 Wiggle wires etc. Fault will display

SEFI Cylinder Balance

KOER after last code, tip throttle and