Facility Layout

Presented by
• • • • • • • • Shashank Saxena Shashi Minchel Shikha Sinha Shilpi Kanstiya Shruti Agnihotri Shruti Garg Shuvam kaushik Simayan Pati

Plant layout
• A floor plan for determining and arranging the desired machinery and equipment of a plant • It permits – The quickest flow of materials in processing the product • From the receipt of the raw materials to the shipment of the finished product – At the lowest cost, and – With the least amount of handling

Objectives
• Provide enough production capacity • Reduce material handling cost • Reduce congestion impeding movement of men and material • Reduce hazards to working personnel • Utilize labour efficiently • Increase employee morale • Utilize available floor space efficiently and effectively

Objectives
• • • • Reduce accidents Provide for volume and product flexibility Provide ease of supervision and maintenance Facilitate co-ordination and face-to-face communication • Provide for employee safety and health • Allow high machine utilisation • Improve productivity

Principles of layout
• • • • • • • Principal of minimum travel Principle of sequence Principle of usage Principle of compactness Principle of safety and satisfaction Principle of flexibility Principle of minimum investment

Basic Types of Layout Product Layout Process or Functional Layout Fixed-position Layout Cell manufacturing/GT Mixed /Combined Layouts

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Vvolume-variety characteristics Low VOLUME Fixed position layout Process layout Cell layout Product layout High

Low

VARIETY

High

Product layout
• Machines arranged in a line depending upon sequence of operations • Material moves in a line from the first machine to the finished product on the last machine. • Investment higher as compared to process layout

Better suited for standardised products on a mass scale production. Ex chemicals,paper

Product Layout
• Plant & machinery layout is designed to cater to continuous flow of Materials. • The position and order in the sequence for a machine performing particular operation is fixed. • Once a machine is in line, it cannot perform any operation , which is not designated in the sequence of operations. • There is a continuous flow of material during the production process from start to finish.
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RAW MATERIALS

PRODUCTION SUBSYSTEM
RECEIVING OPERATION B STORAGE OPERATION A EDP CONTROL SYSTEMS

MATERIAL FLOW

OPERATION D OPERATION C INFORMATION FLOWS

SHIPPING FINISHED GOODS

CONTINUOUS FLOW PRODUCTION SYSTEM (FLOW SHOP)

Examples of product layout
• • • • • Assembly line for air-conditioner Car manufacturing unit Car washes and Canteen facilities Laundry.

Important Considerations

All machines placed at points demanded by sequence of operation No crossing over of one line with the other Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly but not necessarily all at one point All operations including assembly, testing and packing included in the line

Product layout of laundry

Classification and marking of clothes

Washing Machine

Dryer

Steam press

Storage Area for Pressed clothes

Delivery Counter

• To produce one standard product in large volumes.

• Each unit produced undergoes same sequence of operations and uses same flow of work. • The work centers and equipments are arranged in a line for continuous operation.

Advantages
Ensures smooth and regular flow of material and finished goods. Short processing time. Reduces material handling. Low cost labour procurement and lesser training required. Lesser Inspection & Early detection of mistakes Layout avoids production bottlenecks Economy in manufacturing time Better production control Requires less floor area per unit of production Work-in-progress in reduced

Disadvantages:
 Inflexible & expensive layout Difficulty in supervision Expansion is difficult Any breakdown along the line can disrupt total production Requires heavy capital investment.

Process layout
• Grouping together of similar machines in one department • Material moves from one group of machines to the other • Movement over longer distance and along crisscross paths • May also involve part finished inventory waiting

Best suited for intermittent type of production/light and heavy industries

Functional or process layout
• Here machines performing same type of operations are installed at one place .i.e. plant is grouped according to functions e.g. all drilling machines are located at one place known as drilling section. • This type of layout is most appropriate for intermittent (JOB and BATCH ) type of manufacturing systems where small qty’s of a large range of products are to be manufactured e.g. machine tools etc.

Process Layout
Milling Assembly & Test Grinding

Drilling

Plating

Process Layout - work travels to dedicated process centers

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RAW MATERIALS

PRODUCTION SUBSYSTEM
RECEIVING OPERATION A WIP OPERATION B WIP EDP CONTR OL SYSTEM S INFORMATION FLOWS

STORAGE MATERIAL FLOW FINISHE D GOODS

WIP

WIP OPERATION C

OPERATION D SHIPPING FINISHED GOODS

INTERMITTENT FLOW PRODUCTION SYSTEM (JOB SHOP )

Process Layout Examples

• • • •

Car servicing Hospital-Patient requiring various tests Volume low & variety is more Garment factory producing half sleeve shirts, full sleeve shirts, pants and suits. • Office buildings, schools, universities, hospitals, aerodrome, library, book store or amusement centers are planned on this basis.
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Important considerations

– Distance between departments as small as possible – Departments to be located as per sequence of operation – Convenience for inspection as well as supervision

Process layout

Work Shop Office Product A Fitting Table 1 Lathe 1 Fitting Table 2 Product B Lathe 2 Lathe 3 Milling Machine
• Flow of work is not standardized • Plant produces a variety of products • Some of the processes / operations might be common.

Air Compressor

Side Entry

Fitting Table 3

Welding M/C - 1 Welding M/C - 2 Paint Shop Main Entry

Advantages
Each production unit of the system works independently and is not affected by the happenings in another section of the plant. Scope for more skilled labour leads to better quality in production. Wide flexibility in production facilities. Machine breakdown doesn’t disrupt production. Lower capital investment. (Less duplication of machines). Better utilization of resources Full utilization of machinery

Disadvantages
More material handling. Longer processing time:- as more time s required for material handling, transportation n inspection. Requires substantial production planning and control. Requires more floor space. Inspection s more frequent n costlier. Requires highly skilled labour creating difficulty in labour procurement. Production time increased because of extra travel Accumulation of work-in-process at different machines

Fixed position layout

• Movement of men & machinery to the product • Product remains stationary
– Cost of moving product is high,bulky

Best suited for bulky & heavy products ex.Ships, aeroplanes etc.

Fixed Position Layout

• The material remains in a fixed position , but the machinery, tool workmen etc are brought to the material

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RAW MATERIALS MACHINE & EQUIPMENT FINISHED PRODUCT (AIRCRAFT)

AIRCRAFT ASSEMBLY

LABOUR

FIXED POSITION OR STATIC LAYOUT

Fixed position layout
• Fixed-position layout is used for products, which are either very big in size (weight/volume) or very critical and it is not feasible or desirable to move the product and product remains in one position only. • Men, materials, equipment and tools are brought to the product for execution of the work. • Building of space shuttle, turbines, aircrafts and ship use fixed-position layout as it is not feasible to move these products due to their size or weight.

Fixed Position Layout

• • • • •

Employed in large project type organisation Example ISRO Helicopter Nuclear engg. Division of BHEL

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Advantages
• Men/machinery can be moved for a wide variety of operations producing different products • Worker identifies himself with the product & takes pride when the work is completed • Investment on layout is small • High cost & difficulty in transporting a bulky job avoided

Mixed layouts
Mixed layouts – pure basic layouts can be used in different departments in one organisation. Example: A hospital would be arranged on process-layout principles. Within individual departments different layouts are used e.g. x-ray department probably process, surgical theatres fixed-position and the blood-processing lab a product layout.

Combined layout
• Combination of product & process layout with an emphasis on either • Generally adopted in industry • In fabrication plants including assembly, fabrication tends to employ process layout while assembly areas employ product layout
– Soap manufacturing industry employs product line for manufacturing of soap, but ancillaries such as heating, manufacturing of gleycerine, power house etc. Are arranged on functional basis.

PRODUCT LAYOUT

RAW MATERIAL

F.P.

G.C.

H.T.

G.G.
FINISHED PRODUCTS (GEARS)

RAW MATERIAL

PROCESS LAYOUT

F.P.

G.C.

H.T.

G.G.

G.C.

F.P. = FORGING PRESS H.T. = HEAT TREATMENT FURNACE

G.C. = GEAR CUTTING G.G. = GEAR GRINDING MACHINE

COMBINATION LAYOUT OR HYBRID LAYOUT FOR GEAR MANUFACTURING

Combination layout
• In an industrial plant, it is difficult to confine to one type of layout only i.e. process or product layout. • It becomes necessary to use process layout for some of the activities and to use product layout for certain other activities in the same plant. • Cement manufacturing may need process layout for rawmaterial preparation, which require crushing, grinding and mixing of the various raw-materials such as limestone, clay, bauxite and iron-ore.

Combination layout
• Once the raw materials are prepared and converted into raw-meal by mixing different raw materials in predetermined proportion, production processes such as pre-heating, pre-calcining, calcinations for conversion of raw-meal into clinker and cooling of clinker would use product layout. • Within the plant, workshop activities are arranged by using process layout, whereas the packing and dispatch operations of the cement through trucks need product layout.

Combination layout
• If different modes of dispatches are adopted such as dispatch by rail (both by bags and bulk containers), sea (bags and bulk loading) or by road in trucks (bags) or in bulk containers, the dispatch operations would need process layout. • In cases of repairs of kiln in a cement plant, which cannot be moved, a fixed layout is to be used. • It is clear from the example of cement plant that a big plant needs application of all the three types of layouts for different applications or a combination of all the layouts for meeting the requirements of its total operations.

Combination layout – case of a cement plant

Clay Yard Bauxite Yard Iron ore Yard
Raw Mill

Cyclone BlendingSt orage cyclone

Rotary kiln

Inlet chamber Clinker cooler Of kiln ESP Cement Mill Product layout for a portion of Cement plant

Lime Stone Chimney Yard

Process layout for a portion of Cement plant

Cellular manufacturing (cm) layout
• Grouping of machines into cells • Cells function somewhat like product layout within a larger shop or process layout • Each cell in the cm formed to produce a single part / a few parts
– All with common characteristics which usually requires similar machines and settings

• Flow of parts within the cell can take many forms

Group Technology

• This is philosophy that seeks to exploit the commonality in manufacturing and uses this as a basis for grouping components and resources. This is also known as cellular manufacturing. • Pioneered by Russians • Mid volume & mid variety scenario • 70% of mfg. industry may fall under this category)

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CARAVAN, BATON and MIXED CELLS
BATON CELLS CARAVAN CELLS MIXED CELLS

Operators are fixed but products move from station to station

Operator and product move from station to station

Products move from station to station and operators move between stations

CELLULAR MANUFACTURING LAYOUT
CELL # 1 CELL # 2

1

2 1 3 2 3

PART D

PART X

5

4
PART Y

1
PART A

2 3

1 4

2

CELL # 4

PART B

3

CELL # 3

PRODUCTION OPERATION

PRODUCT OR MATERIAL FLOW

Cellular Manufacturing Layout
-1111 Lathe Mill Drill Heat treat Heat treat Heat treat Drill Gear -1111 cut Grind - 2222

3333

Lathe Mill

Grind - 3333 Gear cut

4444

Mill

- 4444

Assembly

2222

Mill

Drill

CM LAYOUT
ADVANTAGES

• LOWER WORK-IN-PROCESS INVENTORIES
– REDUCED MATERIAL HANDLING COSTS – SHORTER FLOW TIMES IN PRODUCTION – SIMPLIFIED PRODUCTION PLANNING (MEN, MATERIAL ETC.) – OVERALL PERFORMANCE OFTEN INCREASES BY LOWERING PRODUCTION COSTS & IMPROVING ONTIME DELIVERY – IMPROVED QUALITY

Advantages of Cellular Layout
• • • • •

PPC becomes simpler Material handling becomes easier Traceability improves Employees are able to relate better. Helps in implementing SGA, Kaizen an JIT

Cellular Layout- Examples
• Reliance industries- HDPE & LDPE • Titan Industry • ABB( Industrial fans & blowers)

CM layout limitations

• Reduced manufacturing flexibility & potentially increased machine downtime • Duplicate pieces of machinery may be needed so as to avoid movement of parts between cells

Service facility layout
• Main difference between service and manufacturing facility is to bring together customers & services in many service facilities • Facilities to provide for
– Easy entrance from the freeways and busy thoroughfares – Large well organised and amply illuminated parking areas etc.

• Hotels, cinema halls etc have different areas to cater to the comfort & convenience of customers

EXIT

ENTRANCE

HOSPITAL WARDS SURGERY, RADIOLOGY, I.C.U., TECH SERVICES HOSPITAL WARDS
AISLES / GANGWAYS

HOSPITAL WARDS

CAFETERIA

ADMIN. OFFICE PARKING AREA CASUALTY DEPT / INPATIENT DEPT PARKING AREA

ENTRANCE

EXIT

SERVICE FACILITY LAYOUT ( HOSPITAL LAYOUT )

PARKING AREA

DOCTORS LOUNGE / OFFICES

NURSES LOUNGE

PARKING AREA

PARKING AREA

CASUALTY DEPT / INPATIENT DEPT

PARKING AREA

Service facility layout
• Layout important to achieve client-customer goal of fast service
– FAST SERVICE SUPPORTED BY POINT OF SALE SYSTEM, SCANNERS, SELF SERVICE TO PROVIDE SPEED AS WELL AS REDUCE COST, atms BY BANKS ETC.

• Flow line approach followed in fast food service • Process line layout occurs in many services like medical clinics, offices etc.

Service facility layout
• Generally, as in manufacturing
– Line layout preferred in high volume, standardised products
• Fast food service

– Process layout preferred in service operations also
• General offices, banks, general hospitals, municipal offices etc.

SERVICE WAITING LINE MODULES

SERVICE FACILITY SINGLE CHANNEL, SINGLE PHASE MODULE

WAITING LINE

WAITING LINE

SERVICE FACILITY

SINGLE CHANNEL, MULTIPLE PHASE MODULE

WAITING LINE SERVICE FACILITY MULTIPLE CHANNEL, SINGLE PHASE MODULE

WAITING LINE

SERVICE FACILITY

MULTIPLE CHANNEL, MULTIPLE PHASE MODULE

Layout planning methodology
• • • • Travel chart method Load-distance analysis method Systematic layout planning method Analysing layouts with computers
– Aldep (automated layout designing programme) – Corelap (computerised relationship layout planning) – Craft (computerised relative allocation of facilities technique)

Thank You

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