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Load Calculations

- Estimation Of Solar

Radiation

Why we do load calculation

• By carrying out cooling and heating load calculations one can

estimate the capacity that will be required for various air

conditioning equipment.

• With the cooling and heating load calculation one can ensure that

the designed or selected equipment can serves the intended

purpose of maintaining the required conditions in the conditioned

space

• Thus energy consumption and the operating cost can be optimized

with the cooling and heating load calculation

• Cooling load

Cooling load refer to load on air conditioning equipment in Summer

Season

• Heating load

Heating load refers to load on air conditioning equipment in Winter

Season

Heating and Cooling Load Sources

• Occupants

• Electrical Devices

• Air Infiltration

• Solar Radiation

In this lecture Solar Radiation as source of

cooling and heating load will be discussed

Heating and Cooling Load Due to Solar

Radiation

It is important to understand the various aspects of solar radiation

because:

1. A major part of building heat gain is due to solar radiation, hence

an estimate of the amount of solar radiation the building is

subjected to is essential for estimating the cooling and heating

loads on the buildings.

2. By proper design and orientation of the building, selection of

suitable materials and landscaping it is possible to harness solar

energy beneficially. This can reduce the overall cost (initial and

operating) of the air conditioning system considerably by reducing

the required capacity of the cooling and heating equipment.

Solar Radiation

• Ds= 1.39*109 m

• ms= 2*1030 kg

• Mean Distance b/w sun and earth = 1.5*1011 m

• (Energy emitted)s= 3.8*1026 Watts

• (Energy Received)s Es= 1.7*1017 Watts

• At surface temperature is 6000 kelvin

Solar Radiation

Solar Constant

This is the flux of solar radiation on a surface normal to the sun’s rays at the

outer surface of earth’s atmosphere at the mean earth-sun distance. The

accepted value of solar constant is 1370 W/ m2

• This amount of radiation is only received at 12 o clock as surface is

perpendicular at this time at other time it will be smaller than 1370 W/ m2

Solar Radiation

• On Earth Surface:

• Solar constant = 1370 W/ m2

• Whether this amount of radiation will fall on

earth surface or not?

• Some of the solar radiation are depleted in

earth atmosphere so the total radiation

reaching the surface per unit area will be

smaller if the reflected radiation from other

surfaces is considered 0

Total solar irradiation:

The rate at which solar radiation is striking a surface per unit area of the surface is called as the

total solar irradiation on the surface.

where

Angle of incidence

Angle of incidence depends on location, time of the day and day of the year

Solar geometry:

i. Location on earth

ii. Time of the day, and

iii. Day of the year

• The above three parameters are defined in

terms of latitude, hour angle and declination,

respectively

Earth rotation and tilt

Earth rotation about its axis is responsible for day and night while its tilt is responsible

for change of seasons

Earth axis is tilted at 23.5 degree with respect to its orbiting plane

Effect of tilt

• Latitude, l: It shows the location of earth

• It is the angle between the lines joining O and P and the projection of OP on the equatorial

plane, i.e.,

latitude l, = angle ∠POA

• It varies from 00 at equator to 900 at the poles

• Thus the latitude along with the longitude indicates the position of any point on earth

Latitude and Longitude of Peshawar 34.0151° N, 71.5249° E respectively

Hour angle, h: It indicates the time of the day

It is the angle between the projection of OP on the equatorial plane i.e., the line OA

and the projection of the line joining the center of the earth to the center of the sun,

i.e., the line OB. Therefore,

hour angle, h = angle ∠AOB

The hour angle varies from 00 to 3600 in one rotation.

Since it takes 24 clock hours for one rotation, each clock hour of time is equal to 150

of hour angle.

For example, at 10 A.M. (solar time) the hour angle is 3300

• Hour angle is based on Local Solar time

• LStT is the local standard time, LSM is the local standard time meridien and

LON is the local longitude

• A civil day is exactly equal to 24 hours, whereas a solar day is approximately

equal to 24 hours. This variation is called as Equation of Time (EOT)

• (EOT) is available as average values for different months of the year and can

be calculated through the following equation

• Declination, d: It shows the day of the year

• The declination is the angle between the line joining the center of the

earth and sun and its projection on the equatorial plane, the angle

between line OO’ and line OB;

declination, d = angle∠ O'OB

• For northern hemisphere, the declination varies from about +23.5 on June

21 (summer solstice) to -23.5 on December 21 (December 21st).

the following equation

• Capital N days of year with value = 1 at Jan ist

Derived solar angles:

Derived solar angles:

Solar angles solar angles need to be linked with the angles sun makes with

the surfaces to find solar radiation these angles are known as derived angle

• Derived angles of surfaces is then linked with the angle of incidence for

the estimation of solar radiation

• Altitude angle, β:

It is the angle between the sun’s rays and the projection of sun’s rays onto a horizontal plane

The altitude angle is related with the solar angel through the following equation

so we can find sun rising time and falling time

Zenith angle, ψ:

It is the angle between sun’s rays and the surface normal to the horizontal plane at the

position of the observer

Once you find the altitude angle you can find the zenith angle

Solar azimuth angle, γ:

The solar azimuth angle is the angle in the horizontal plane to the horizontal

projection of the sun’s rays. It is measured from north to the horizontal

projection of the sun’s rays.

The solar azimuth angle is given by

Linking the derived angle with angle of

Incidence

Incident angle of sun’s rays, θ:

The incident angle of sun’s rays θ, is the angle between sun’s rays and the

normal to the surface under consideration.

For horizontal surfaces:

For horizontal surfaces the angle of incidence Θhor is equal to the zenith angle,

ψ, i.e.,

For vertical surfaces:

Wall solar azimuth angle, α:

This is the angle between normal to the wall and the projection of sun’s rays

on to a horizontal plane.

Surface azimuth angle, ξ:

This is the angle between the normal to the wall and south. Thus when the

wall is facing south, then the surface azimuth angle is zero and when it faces

west, then the surface azimuth angle is 90o and so on.

• The angle is taken as +ve if the normal to the surface is to the west of

south and –ve if it is to the east of south.

For an arbitrarily oriented surfaces:

For any surface that is tilted at an angle Σ from

the horizontal as shown, the incident angle θ is

given by:

Calculation of direct, diffuse and

reflected radiations:

Where,

A , is the apparent solar irradiation which is taken as 1230 W/m2 for the

months of December and January and 1080 W/m2 for mid-summer.

And

B , Constant is called as atmospheric extinction coefficient, which takes a

value of 0.14 in winter and 0.21 in summer

Diffuse radiation from sky, Id:

According to the ASHRAE model, the diffuse radiation from a cloudless sky is given

by

for winter.

The factor Fws is called as view factor or configuration factor and is equal to

the fraction of the diffuse radiation that is incident on the surface.

For diffuse radiation, Fws is a function of the orientation of the surface only. It

can be easily shown that this is equal to:

Reflected, short-wave (solar) radiation, Ir :

The amount of solar radiation reflected from the ground onto a surface is

given by:

the solar radiation is reflected on to a given surface.

and

Fws is view factor from ground to the surface. Fws in terms of the tilt angle is

given by

• Latitude and Longitude of Peshawar 34.0151°

N, 71.5249° E respectively

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