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KT00403

Lecture 10
Lecture 10

 8.1 Integration by Parts


 8.2 Trigonometric Integrals
 8.3 Trigonometric Substitutions
 8.4 Integration o f Rational Functions by Partial
Fractions

Page 435 Formulas are your friend


8.1 Integration by Parts

 Key Ideas
 Originates from Product Rule
 Need to figure out which is f(x) and which is g’(x)
 Look for the simplest possibility that is easy to integrate

 4 possibilities
 Need to use more than once
 Need to create dv
 Need to rearrange the equation
 Can use Tabular system for repeated application
Integration by Parts

 The key is in figuring out which is f(x) and which is


g’(x) or u and v
Definite Integrals

 Same as before
Example 2

Key Idea – Create dv by setting dv = 1 dx


8.2 Trigonometric Integrals

 Key Idea
 Know your basic trigonometric derivative
 Know your basic trigonometric identities
 Power Law, Substitution, etc
Key Derivatives and Identities

 d/dx sin x = cos x


 d/dx cos x = - sin x
 sin2x+cos2x=1, cos2x=1-sin2x, sin2x=1-cos2x
 cos2x=(1+cos2x)/2, sin2x=(1-cos2x)/2

 d/dx sin3x=3sin2xcosx

 The key is in combining substitution, power law, and


trigonometric identities
Case 1 – m is odd, n =0
Case 2 – m is even, and n is odd
Case 3 m is even, n is even
Case 3 m is even, n is even
Eliminating Square Roots
Products of Tangents and Secants

 Key Idea is the relationship

 d/dx tan x = sec2x


 tan2x+1=sec2x
Products of Sines and Cosines
8.3 Trigonometric Substitutions

 Key Idea
 Pattern Matching
 If your integral has sqrt (a2+x2), sqrt (a2-x2), or
sqrt(x2+a2) pattern
 Determine what is a, x, dx, and substitute
 Simple substitution based on trigonometric and
Pythagoras relationship
Basics of Trigonometry
Substitution
Watch the range of the integrals
8.4 Integration o f Rational
Functions by Partial Fractions

 Key Idea
 Some integrals are in the form f(x)/g(s)
 Expand Rational Function into Partial Fractions and Integrate
it
 Can use Partial Fraction Expansion or Heavyside Method
 Integral will mainly ln x form
 Flow chart
 g(x) must be factorisable
 If f(x)>g(x), do long division first
 Rewrite rational function part into partial fractions
 Integrate
Example
For Power
For Irrational Fractions i.e. f(x) > g(x)

1. Notice that f(x) is bigger


2. Do long division
3. On rational fraction proceed as usual

Please do Example 4 and 5


Tutorial Questions

 8.1 5,26,33,61
 8.2 9, 12, 29, 38, 51
 8.3 1, 7, 9
 8.4 1, 11, 18, 24, 35