You are on page 1of 17

METHOD AND

DATA GATHERING
PROCEDURE
MATERIALS AND METHOD

- Describes how the study will be (Research Plan) / was


(IMRaD Format) conducted.

- Allows easy access for other researchers to replicate


the study conducted

- Generally includes: Research Design, Procedure, Data


Gathering Procedure, and Data Analysis
RESEARCH DESIGN

- “plan of attack”

- Consider the objectives, feasibility, economy and


efficicency, ethics

- Is it Completely block design or randomized complete


block design?
PROCEDURE

- Contains detailed description of each step in the


implementation of the study.

- Should be written in paragraph form and not only in


flowchart (which can also be added)

- When writing the procedure…

- Subsections can be used (usually 1 short paragraph


per subsection)
- It should provide enough details so that others can
repeat the experiments following the methods written in
the research paper; however, conciseness should be
maintained
PROCEDURE

- - It should include the significant steps such as


gathering of materials, preparing of set-ups, tests and
experimentations,
data analysis , etc.; the materials used for each step must
also be included

- - Official title of international/established procedures


or tests used in the experiments can be written instead of
describing its detailed steps (eg. Retting Process,
Resazzurin Test, ASTM #); however, modifications for these
international/established procedures or tests must be
indicated
-
PROCEDURE

- Tests and procedures conducted by a regulated research


institution do not need to be described in detail; however,
details should be elaborated in tests and procedures
personally designed and performed by the students

- - Include photographs, lay-outs, schematic diagrams or


drawings especially for inventions and new products-

DO NOT FORGET TO DESCRIBE HOW THE WASTES


(MICORBIOLOGICAL/ CHEMICAL) ARE DISPOSED OF……
Study: Eco-fabric from Blended Fragrant Screw Pine (Pandanus amaryllifolius) Leaf Fibers and Cotton
Name of Student: Galang, Elson Ian Nyl Ebreo
(Excerpt from Materials and Methodology)

Fabric Characterization
The fabric produced was then tested using the Philippine National Standards for PTFs (PNSPTF). Breaking
strength, dimensional change and pilling resistance tests were conducted at DOST-PTRI’s Physical Laboratory.
While, colorfastness and staining grades for laundering, perspiration and rubbing were tested at DOST-PTRI’s
Chemical Laboratory. Three carefully rectangular-cut fabric pieces were then obtained and each one’s fabric
weight was calculated
using the formula:
W= M / (LxW)
Where,
W= fabric weight, M= mass of cut fabric in grams, L= length in meters, W= weight in meters. The average of
the 3 calculated single fabric weights was calculated to determine the mean fabric weight. All values of the
various properties were then compared to the set standards of the PNS-PTF

Fiber Yield Test


One hundred grams of Fragrant screw pine leaves were each placed in three containers filled with 3 gallons of
ground water. After two weeks of retting, fibers for each container were harvested, processed and weighed.
The average of the three was then calculated to determine the fiber yield. The value was then compared with
yields of other fiber plants.
PROCEDURE

What will be the steps involved in preparing the coconut water treatments
(amount, concentrations per vase, etc.)? How will the roses be gathered,
prepared and placed on these treatments?

How will the set -ups (coconut water treatments with roses) be placed in
the experimenting area? How often will the set-ups be observed and
recorded?

What are the specific visible characteristics that are to be observed and
recorded? How will observation and recording for each specific visible
characteristic be performed?

How will the set-ups be controlled from unwanted factors such as insects?
DATA ANALYSIS

- Involves quantification, description and determination of


relationship of variables

- Statistics play an important role….(but do not be “over-


powered” by such)

- Two methods of data analysis (descriptive and


inferential)

- The choice of a statistical tool is dictated by the data to


be gathered ( type of data: quantitative or qualitative;
level of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio)
DATA ANALYSIS

EXAMPLE

What accepted standards will be used in evaluating


qualitative data, which in this case, the visible changes in
characteristics of the rose?

What statistical tool will be used to analyze the data for


the differences in the vase-life of the roses?

Are there international or local standards that will be used


as comparison?
I M P O R T A N T!

On Writing the Research Plan ....


Write the research plan BEFORE AND NOT AFTER conducting the whole
research! Many of the regional science fair winners that fail to qualify to the
National Science andTechnology Fair obviously wrote their research plans
after they conducted their research. It is very easy to determine research
plans that were written after than before which are characterized by: (1)
written in past tense or (2) an exact mirror of the research paper.

It is fine to have a final research output that is slightly different from the
approved research plan because changes are unavoidable in the course of the
research. These changes should be properly identified and recorded.
Parts of a Research Plan
TENTATIVE TITLE OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH
NAME OF STUDENT/S (for team research , team leader should be identified)
PROPOSED START AND END DATE:
The Research Plan

A. Question or Problem Being Addressed


- this is one or two statements (interrogative OR declarative) that state the problem
- to make it easier, simply transform the research topic chosen.

For example,

Research Topic: (Using the earlier example) Coconut Water in Prolonging Vase-life of Rose

Interrogative: Can coconut water be used in prolonging vase-life of roses?

Declarative: Coconut water potentials in prolonging vase-life of roses should be explored and
evaluated.

Parts of a Research Plan


B. Goals/ Expected Outcomes/ Hypothesis
- this is one or two statements that state the final output of the research topic
- most of the time, hypothesis is used; however, goals and expected outcomes are also good choices.
Again, select only one.
- For example

- Goal: (1) To determine the number of days in the vase and visible changes in
characteristics of roses subjected to coconut water treatments and (2) To compare these
data from the coconut water treatments to those data from plain water.

- Expected Outcomes: Roses under coconut water treatments will have longer vase-life as
compared to roses with only plain water.

- Hypothesis: If roses under coconut water t reatments extend the number of days, with
minimum visible changes in characteristics, as compared to plain water, then coconut water
is effective in prolonging the vase -life of roses.
C. Description in detail of methods or procedures
C.1 Procedures
- these are the detailed steps to be taken in the whole research
- should be written in paragraph form and not only through
flow charts (which can also be added)

- For the given example, the research plan should answer the
following questions:

What will be the steps involved in preparing the coconut water treatments (amount, concent rations
per vase, etc.)?
How will the roses be gathered, prepared and placed on these treatments? How will the set -ups
(coconut water treatments with roses) be placed in the experimenting area?
How often will the set-ups be observed and recorded?
What are the specific visible characteristics that are to be observed and recorded?
How will observation and recording for each specific visible characteristic be performed?
How will the set-ups be controlled from unwanted factors such as insects?
C. 2 Risk and Safety
- this discusses the risks that may be involved in the whole research
- should be written in paragraph form
- copies of international/local standards or procedures can be attached

- For the given example, the research plan should answer the following questions:

Are there risks involved in preparing the coconut water treatments, roses and other materials needed
for the research (eg. special chemicals, microorganisms, etc)?

If yes, what are existing rules and regulations that control these risks?

How will these risks be effectively handled during the whole duration?
C. 3 Data Analysis
- this presents how data gathered from the whole research are to be analyzed
- For the given example, the research plan should answer the following questions:

What accepted standards will be used in evaluating qualitative data, which in this case, the visible
changes in characteristics of the rose?

What statistical tool will be used to analyze the data for the differences in the vase-life of the roses?
Are there international or local standards that will be used as comparison?

D. Bibliography-
-Include at least 5 major references (books, science journals
or credible internet sites)
Thank you very much for
listening!!!