You are on page 1of 20

CHAPTER 4: CHEMICAL

COMPOSITION OF THE CELL


BY IRFAN, CHRISTINA, MUSA
CARBOHYDRATES ARE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
FORMED BY SOME ELEMENTS.

CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN.


1:2:1

ONE MOLECULE OF WATER H2O COMBINES WITH 1 ATOM OF


CARBON TO FORM A SUB-UNIT (CH2O)n. THESE SUB-UNITS
COMBINE, GIVING THE FORMULA (CH2O)n; WHERE n RANGES
FROM 3-7 FOR NATURALLY OCCURRING SINGLE SUGARS
(MONOSACCHARIDES). THE VALUE OF n = 6 GIVES US THE 6-
CARBON SUGARS OR HEXOSES, OF WHICH THE MOST
COMMON ONE IS GLUCOSE. WHEN n = 5, THE RIBOSE
(C5h10O5)
FORMS: IT IS A COMPONENT OF THE DNA AND THE RNA
Type Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides

Known as Simple sugars Complex sugars (each Polymers of


disaccharides is made up monosaccharides or
of 2 molecules of simple disaccharides.
sugars)

Molecular formula
C6H12O6 C12H22O11 (C6H10O5)n

Examples • Glucose, for cell • Maltose, or malt • Glycogen – a major


respiration. sugar. energy stored in liver and
• Fructose, sugar found in muscles of animals.
• Sucrose is found in
fruits and honey • Starch – food reserve
• Galactose, a component sugar cane/beet from excess glucose
of milk sugar (lactose) • Lactose is milk sugar produced during
and is formed when photosynthesis.
lactose is digested • Cellulose is found in
plants
Taste Sweet Sweet No Taste
Monosac
Dissolve charides

Disacch
arides Dissolve

Insoluble –
glycogen and Polysac
cellulose.
Soluble –
charide
starch s
MONOSAC DISACCH POLYSACC

REDUCING – maltose

Non-reducing
CHARIDES ARIDES HARIDES

and lactose
YES

while NON
REDUCING -
sucrose
MONOSACCHARID DISACCHARID
ES ES

Benedict’s solution changes from BLUE to YELLOW to RED in the presence of


reducing sugars upon heating.
NON-reducing sugar (e.g. sucrose) will not change the original blue color of
BENEDICT’s SOLUTION.
NON-reducing sugar (sucrose) can be hydrolyzed to simple sugars with dilute
HCI before giving + results with B.S

POLYSACCHARI Iodine solution turns


dark blue in the
DES presence of starch.
•2 •A DISACCHARIDE
MONOSACCHARIDE SPLITS INTO 2
S JOIN TOGETHER MONOSACCHARIDE
TO PRODUCE A S.
DISACCHARIDE. • WATER MOLECULE
•WATER MOLECULE IS ADDED.
IS REMOVED.
IN
CONDESATION HYDROLYSIS/H
REACTION YDROLYTIC
REACTION:

SUCROSE
HYDROLYSIS MOLECULE
HYDROLYSES
TAKES INTO A
PLACE BY GLUCOSE
MOLECULE
•HEATING A •And a fructose
DISACCHARIDE molecule with the
SOLUTION WITH addition of a
DILUTE molecule of water.
HYDROCHLORIC
ACID.
Enzymes that catalyse hydrolytic
reactions are:

SUCRASE in the
hydrolysis of sucrose
into glucose and
fructose.
MALTASE in the
hydrolysis of maltose
into glucose.

LACTASE in the hydrolysis of


lactose into glucose and
Galactose.
C6H12O
6 C6H12O6
glucos fructos 2
e
e

C12H22O11 Sucrose
FORMATION AND BREAKDOWN OF SUCROSE
C6H12O C6H12O
6 6
glucos glucos 2
e e
C12H22O11 Maltose
FORMATION AND BREAKDOWN OF MALTOSE
C6H12O C6H12O
6 6
glucos Galactos 2
e e

C12H22O11 Lactose
FORMATION AND BREAKDOWN OF LACTOSE
MANY MONOSACCHARIDE MOLECULES JOIN TOGETHER IN A CONDENSATION
REACTION (WITH THE REMOVAL OF WATER MOLECULES) TO FORM A LARGE
POLYSACCHARIDE MOLECULE.

POLYMERISATION IS THE PROCESS OF CONDENSING MANY LARGE


INDIVIDUAL POLYSACCHARIDE MOLECULES TO FORM A LARGE
POLYSACCHARIDE MOLECULE.
Some •Act as mild reducing
sugars agents.

•Are reducing
All sugars.
monosaccharides, •Maltose
maltose and (disaccharide) and
lactose. lactose
(disaccharide)

Sucrose •Non-reducing sugar.


(disaccharide)
Two common test
reagents
to test for reducing sugars
are:
Benedict’s reagent (alkaline
solution for CUSO4)
Fehling’s reagent (alkaline
solution for CUSO4)

Reducing sugars reduce CU2+


(blue solution) to CU+ (brick
red precipitate) in both
reagents.