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ARCHIVES, NATIONAL ARCHIVES-

Bangladesh
- Dr. Sharif uddin Ahmed
- Chairman, Department of History &Philosophy
- North South University
- &
- President - BARMS
National Archives of Bangladesh
Archives
• Definition
• A Repository of historically important public
and private records, documents, rare book,
manuscripts etc.
ORIGIN OF THE TERM
• Greek word ‘Archeion’ meaning what belongs
to an office.
• This word also is derived from another Greek
word ‘ Archeon’ which again means beginning,
origin, sovereignty, empire , magistracy and
office.
MODERN NAME
• The French adopted the term Archeion but
called it L’archive and from it came the English
word Archives in the collective sense.
• Evolution of Archives – Originated during
ancient Greek civilization, continued through
middle ages and further developed in the
modern period to become an important
institution as the store house of a country’s
history and heritage.
BIRTH OF MODERN ARCHIVES
• France in the 18th century
• French Revolution – Development of the
Revolution
• Anarchy
• Reign of Terror
• Passing of Archival Laws , 1790
• Great Developments of Archives in Europe and
USA
FRENCH REVOLUTION
FRENCH NATIONAL ARCHIVES
ARCHIVAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE
INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
• Mohafezkhana – Official records and
documents used to be preserved in central
depositories called the Mohafezkhanas during
the Sultanate and the Mughal periods. Not
much is known about preservation of
documents during the ancient period.
BRITISH PERIOD
• The systematic preservation of public as well
as private records in the subcontinent , both
at Central or Provincial government levels, and
even at the local government level, started
with the beginning of the British rule in India.
• Record Room – Record Rooms and Secretariat
Record Room – Imperial Record Room 1891
• National Archives of India.
NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF INDIA
MANAGEMENT AND CLASSIFICATION
OF RECORDS
• Record Rules, 1854
• Records Manual, 1888
• Bengal Records Manual ,1943 – Lists
Documents as ‘A’ for Permanent Preservation,
• ‘B’ to be destroyed after 12 years, ‘C’ –need
not to be kept for more than 2 years – ‘D’ to
be disposed of quickly.
NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF BANGLADESH
NAB
• Foundation of National Archives 1973
• Under the Directorate of Archives and
Libraries
• First housed in a rented building at Elephant
Road – Transferred to the newly constructed
National Library Building in Agargaon in 1985.
• Shifted to its own building in 2006
RECORDS MANAGEMENT
• According to existing Directives and
Regulations
• The Secretarial Instructions 1976
• Rules of Business- 1975
• Bengal Records Manual 1943
• Treasury Manual
• Law Manual
• Rules of High Court of Judicature etc.
PRESERBATION OF RECORDS
• A category to be preserved permanently
• B category to be preserved for 12 years
• C category to be preserved for 2 years
• D category to be disposed of quickly.
NATIONAL ARCHIVES ORDINANCE
1983
• The Government promulgated the National
Archives Ordinance with a view to establishing
a national archive as well as creating certain
regional archives.
• It laid down rules regarding the accessibility of
records but it has not issued any substantive
rule for the national archive authority in the
management of current or dormant records .
ORDINANCE
• Therefore the greater bulk of records
deserving permanent retention still lie with
their originating departments. The whole
operation relating to appraisal and retention
lies in the hands of the record creators
themselves.
• So the ultimate fate of records rests on their
unilateral judgement, as was the case under
colonial rule.
FUNCTIONS OF NATIONAL ARCHIVES
• Preserving and maintaining historically important
government records
• Collecting and preserving printed government
materials
• Publishing guide-books on materials available in the
NAB.
• Liaison with International Archival Institutions.
• Providing advisory services to offices and institutions
• Helping scholars in their research at NAB and
elsewhere.
COLLECTIONS
• Collection of government records from
Bangladesh Secretariat Record Room
• Various Ministries and Record Rooms of
various district and divisional offices.
• Total volumes of records exceed 7 lakhs.
• Collection of private records – Zamindari
Records.
Nature of Records
• British Government Records – Proceedings
and files of the Government of Bengal from
the days of East India Company
• Assam Records- Sylhet Records
• District Records – Dinajpur, Dhaka, Chittagong
etc.
SPECIAL COLLECTION
• Rare Book-
• Newspaper
• Press clippings
• Historical Maps – indispensable for any
environmental and ecological studies.
• Bangladesh Gazettes
AWARENESS PROGRAMME
• Seminars
• Exhibitions
• International Archives Day
• Visit by students and public.
BANGLADESH ARCHIVES AND
RECORDS MANAGEMENT SOCIETY
( BARMS )
• Aims and objectives
• Foundation -2009
• Activities
• Project on Historiography.
FUTURE OF ARCHIVAL DEVELOPMENT
OF BANGLADESH
• No Archival Law
• General Indifference
• Lack of interest of public officials
• Historians don’t show concern
• We have to work hard to maintain this most
important office of historical research and
thus preserving nation’s memory
• THANK YOU