CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM

GROUP 3 Leader: Nico Jumao-as Members: ‡ Marife B. Aguirre ‡ Lorenz Castillo ‡ Carloman ‡ Shypress Ente ‡ Moron ‡ Trimidal

Infectious Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

The Cardiovascular System
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Heart Blood vessels Lymphatics Lymph nodes, spleen, ³MALT´ ‡ RBC ‡ WBC Monocyte Macrophage T, B, NK lymphocytes

The Blood
‡ Carries O2, CO2, nutrients ‡ Cells + plasma Infectious agents in the blood ‡ Bacteremia / viremia ± bacteria / viruses in blood ‡ Septicemia ± growth of bacteria in blood ‡ Septic shock endotoxin (LPS) release macrophage cytokines low blood pressure (leaky capillaries), high fever

complement ‡ Filtering function of Lymph Nodes ‡ No normal flora ‡ Transient flora ‡ Infectious agents in blood are systemic .Cardiovascular System Defenses ‡ Defensins . antibodies.antimicrobial proteins in lysosomes of phagocytic cells ‡ Neutrophils.

Rickettsia rickettsii .Selected Bacterial Infections of the Blood ‡ Plague ± Yersinia pestis ‡ Lyme Disease ± Borrelia burgdorferi ‡ Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever .

Bacterial Diseases of the Cardiovascular Systems Lymphatic Systems .

.microbial infection of the blood and blood vessels. . . malaise and dropping blood pressure.1.causes severe fever.known as ³blood poisoning´ . Streptococcal Septicemia .causative agent is caused by Streptococcus pyogenes .Shock may accompany this infection and so antibiotic therapy with penicillin is used aggresively.

an immune system problem caused by antigenantibody reactions taking place at the heart valves. .2. .caused by staphylococcus aureus accompanied by rapid destruction of the heart valves. .an infection of the heart valves. Endocarditis .

. Rheumatic fever .Streptococcal sore throat may precede this condition.3.inflammation of the heart tissues is often accompanied by inflammation and arthritis of the joints (rheumatoid arthritis) .stimulated by antigens derived from streptococcus pyogenes .immune reaction taking place in the heart tissues .

bacteria enter the body by contact. and the bite of ticks and other arthropods .due to gram (-) rod called Francisella tularensis . Tularemia . malaise. ingestion of contaminated rabbit meat. and numerous nonspecific symptoms. .patients experience a blood disorder accompanied by fever.4.Antibiotic: Gentamicin is used. inhalation. .

. the rat flea .when bacteria enters the blood(septimic plague) and enters the lungs (pneumonic plague) . Plague .(bubonic plague) .transmission by airborne droplet .caused by gram (-) rod Yersinia pestis.causes swelling of the lymph nodes called buboes.transmitted by its rodent reservoir.5.

..the bacteria display a safety-pin appearance due to the accumulation of dye at the poles of the cells. (bipolar staining) .aggressive antibiotic therapy is necessary to prevent death.

000 ft elevation in Arizona . prairie dogs ‡ Endemic above 4.Yersinia pestis ‡ Cause of Plague ‡ Gram negative rod ‡ Grows in digestive tract of flea = vector ‡ Reservoir is rodents.

.The infection cycle of Yersinia pestis.

Animal Reservoirs ± United States .

Prairie Dog Plague. pestis confirmed as cause of die offs at 19 colonies . Flagstaff 2001 ‡ 99 colonies observed ‡ 49 colonies experienced >99% mortality May-September 2001 ‡ Y.

pestis enters blood and grows in macrophages in lymph nodes ‡ Swollen lymph nodes are buboes .Bubonic Plague ‡ Transmitted by flea bite ‡ Y.

‡ Septicemic plague ± proliferation in blood ± endotoxin shock ‡ Pneumonic plague ± lung infection ±100% mortality ± spread by droplets ‡ Curable with antibiotic if diagnosed quickly Plague .

aerobic gram (-) rods which includes B. B. Brucellosis .6.caused by fastidious.in animals these bacteria cause abortion of the young (contagious abortion) and sterility of the female . canis . B. melitensis and B. abortus. suis.known as undulant fever because it is characterized by alternating periods of high fever and relief .

anorexia. .symptoms include spiking cyclic fever. .transmitted to humans by unpasteurized milk and contaminated meat.on entering the bloodstream. myalgia.. the bacteria cause fever. . drenching sweats. . weakness. and vaccines are available for immunizing herds of animals.prolonged treatment is required with tetracycline. arthralgia and CNS signs. chills and malaise.

B. or they are acquired during contact with contaminated soil or animals such as sheep and cattle.7. Anthrax .spores from this organism are inhaled from the air. spore forming rod Bacillus anthracis.due to gram (+). anthracis can caused severe hemorrhaging .in the bloodstream. . . aerobic.

.. .aggressive antibiotic therapy is necessary to prevent death. .anthrax is called woolsorter¶s disease and is accompanied by pneumonia.the spleen. kidney and other blood rich organs become engorged with blood.

which is a spirochete.may be treated by antibiotics. which are natural parasites of humans.the organism is transmitted by lice. .the etiologic agent is Borella recurrentis.Jaundice and rose-colored skin spots accompany the infection .8.is so named because of the recurrent periods of fever. . . Relapsing fever . . It may also be transmitted among humans by ticks.

9. Lyme disease
- is cause by Borella burgdorferi. The organism is a spirochete transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. - among the symptoms of lyme disease is a bull¶s eye rash occuring on the skin (erythema chronicum migrans) ± occurs at the site of the tick bite and has a red center and expands over a period of several days.

Lyme Disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi*
‡ Spirochetes are very narrow spiral-shaped bacteria ‡ Gram negative ‡ Motile
*After Willy Burgdorfer

Lyme Disease Vectors

‡ Tick vector bites infected reservoir (deer, mouse) and becomes infected; transmits disease to humans through bites

Cycle of infection with B. burgdorferi

Disease emerged when humans moved into tick/reservoir environment

Some months later. elbows. fever and other symptoms appear.On occasion. and knees.treated with a number of antibiotics including penicillin and tetracycline. In addition. patients display arthritis of the large joints such as hips.after the rash fades and spirochetes enter the blood.. . . there is paralysis of the face and meningitis. the heart is affected and irregular heartbeat may be observed. . ankles.

Lyme Disease ‡ Primary Lesion ± bulls-eye rash on skin ‡ Secondary lesion ± flu-like symptoms. neurological symptoms ‡ Tertiary lesion ± inflammation of large joints .

Lyme Arthritis ‡ Immune system Type III hypersensitivity to persisting antigen antigen-antibody complexes inflammation. tissue damage by neutrophils ‡ Treated with antibiotics .

antibiotics such as tetracycline are effective for therapy. .10.caused by rickettsia Rickettsia rickettsii. Rocky mountain spotted fever . .the disease is characterized by maculopopular skin rash (³a spotted rash´) occurring on the appendages and then spreading to the trunk.the fever is very high. . This submicroscopic bacterium is transmitted by ticks of the genus Dermacentor. . and headaches accompany the disease.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever ‡ Treatable with antibiotics ‡ Diagnosed using fluorescent antibodies on tissue samples. PCR ‡ 20% of untreated cases and 5-10% of treated cases are fatal .

Rickettsia rickettsii ‡ Gram negative bacillus or coccobacillus ‡ Obligate intracellular parasite .

NAD+ and CoA from host ‡ Cause capillaries to degrade .Rickettsia and Obligate Intracellular Parasitism ‡ Bind to cell surface and are taken into endothelial cells by phagocytosis ‡ Escape from phagosome into cytoplasm ‡ Have ETC ‡ Obtain nutrients.

Vectors: Wood Tick and Dog Tick .

muscle pain ‡ Red black rash ‡ Transmitted to humans by tick bites ‡ Now found mostly in Eastern Atlantic states . headache.Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever ‡ Fever. chills.

. The organism invades the bloodstream and causes a maculopopular skin rash beginning on the body trunk and spreading to the appendages.the fever is extremely high . . Epidemic typhus .11.caused by Rickettsia prowazekki. a rickettsia transmitted by the body louse of the genus Pediculus. and the death rate is significant.

..Tetracycline antibiotics are effective for therapy. and elimination of lice is essential to stem the spread of the epidemic.

also called murin typhus because it occurs in mice and other rodents. Endemic typhus . a submicroscopic rickettsia.the symptoms are similar to those of epidemic typhus but are much milder.it is transmitted by the rat flea and is caused by Rickettsia typhi. . and the mortality rate is much lower.12. . .

VIRAL DISEASES OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS .

8 ! ‡ Viral hemorrhagic Fevers ± Yellow Fever. Ebola. Dengue Fever. Lassa Fever ‡ HIV .Some Virus Infections of the Cardiovascular System ‡ Persistent Herpesviruses ±Human herpes viruses 4.5.7.6.

1. . the virus spreads to the lymph nodes and blood.after the injection by the mosquito. where it persists in the blood rich organs such as the liver.viral disease of the bloodstream transmitted by mosquito Aedes aegypti. The virus is an RNA-containing particle that is isocahedral. Yellow fever . .

and jaundice accompany the disease. . nausea. .Two vaccines are available for preventing yellow fever.. The mortality rate is high.very high fever.

the virus enter the bloodstream. . leading to breakbone fever. bone. .2. where they cause fever and severe muscle.successive exposures to the virus may result in dengue hemorrhagic fever. . Dengue fever . and joint pains. in which extensive hemorrhaging occurs in the blood-rich organs.transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito and caused by an RNA virus.

Viral Hemorrhagic fevers Viral infection Yellow fever America Reservoir Aedes agypti Location Cent Africa S. World-wide Tropical Cent Africa West Africa Dengue fever Ebola Lassa fever Aedes agypti Fruit Bat Rodent .

Hepatitis ‡ High Fatality rate . Hemorrhage ‡ Liver damage.Viral Hemorrhagic fevers ‡ Capillary fragility and leakage ‡ Disruption of the blood clotting system Bleeding.

mild fever. Infectious mononucleosis . . and an elevation of infected B-lymphocytes known as Downey cells .Symptoms include sore throat.caused by a herpes virus believed to be the Epstein-Barr virus.3. The virus has DNA and an envelope and the ability to remain latent in the Blymphocytes. enlarged spleen.

. .the viruses are often transmitted by saliva.treatment usually consists of extensive bed rests. . and recurrences are possible.

Virus Infections of the Cardiovascular System Persistent Herpesviruses in lymphocytes Human Herpes 4: (=Epstein Barr virus) Human Herpes 5: (= Cytomegalovirus) Human Herpes 6 Human Herpes 7 Human Herpes 8 Mononucleosis ³Mono´ ³Infectious Mono´ Cytomegalovirus Inclusion Disease Roseola ? Kaposi¶s Sarcoma (in AIDS patients) .

Infectious mononucleosis Infects B lymphocytes .viral latency in B lymphocytes A cause of Chronic fatigue syndrome? Cytomegalovirus Inclusion Disease Newborns. A cause of mental retardation? Viral latency is in lymphocytes. and kidney cells. Severe infection in immunocompromised patient HIV Cancer and transplant patients . rarely.

the responsible virus had been identified. . . Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) . and in 1986.the AIDS epidemic was 1st recognized in United States in 1981.4. it was given the name human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) .by 1984.destruction of T-lymphocytes of the immune system was associated with these infections.

it does not survive long periods of exposure outside the body. Heterosexuals intercourse can also be a mode of transmission. since bleeding is often associated with this practice. especially if lesions occur on the reproductive organs..most cases are transmitted directly from person to person via transfer of blood or semen. . and for this reason. . .HIV is a fragile virus.the disease is associated with intravenous drug users who use contaminated needles and with individuals who perform anal intercourse.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ‡ Blood-Borne Viral infection ‡ Infects helper T lymphocytes (CD4 receptor) ‡ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ‡ Long (Latent) incubation period .

. it drops into the low hundreds and tens. but as the disease progresses. . or other nonspecific symptoms. an excessively low T-lymphocyte count.Normally. the count is approximately 800 T-lymphocytes per cubic millimeter of blood. a wasting syndrome. . or deterioration of the mental faculties. mild prolonged fever.AIDS is the end stage of the disease and it is signaled by the appearance of opportunistic infections such as candidiasis. malaise.. This drop may occur as soon as six months after injection or as long as 12 years or longer after injection.the patient will suffer swollen lymph nodes. diarrhea.

.Two glycoproteins called gp120 and gp41 from the envelope spikes are being investigated as possible vaccines. .

HIV has specific glycoprotein receptors that bind to CD4 receptors of T cells. CD4 CRCX5 .

Four main stages of an HIV infection .

Stages of an HIV infection Antibody resistant variants and Neutralizing antibody .

Sources and routes of infection by HIV Blood injection IV drug use STD: ‡ MSM ‡ Prostitution ‡ Heterosexual .

Some important secondary infections in AIDS .

and blood vessels On the skin.caused by Human Herpes 8 HHV-8 causes a mixed cell tumor of Lymphocytes.AIDS and Herpesviruses«. fibroblasts.an example: Kaposi¶s Sarcoma «. esophagus and many other sites ..

.Nucleoside analogs and protease inhibitors are effective therapies used to treat HIV infections.

HIV Transmission U. compared To the World .S.

HIV/AIDS prevalence in the world .

HIV/AIDS prevalence in the world .

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Protozoal and Parasitic Diseases affecting Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems .

. . the protozoa multiply in the bloodstream and undergo a complex reproductive cycle. .transmitted from domestic house cats.1. usually by contact with their urine or feces. Toxoplasmosis .protozoal disease caused by the sporozoan Toxoplasma gondii.In humans.

and it may be a cause of death. toxoplasmosis can result in seizures and then brain inflammation. with other constitutional abnormalities. . but symptoms are generally mild.Patients experience fever. the protozoa may pass to the unborn fetus and cause tissue destruction. in AIDS patients.However.. Also. in a pregnant woman. .

‡ Spiramycin ² an antibiotic used most often for pregnant women to prevent the infection of their child.Treatments for Acute Toxoplamosis ‡ Medications that are prescribed for acute toxoplasmosis are: ‡ Pyrimethamine ² an antimalarial medication. ‡ Sulfadiazine ² an antibiotic used in combination with pyrimethamine to treat toxoplasmosis. ‡ Clindamycin ² an antibiotic used most often for people with HIV/AIDS. . ‡ Cotrimoxazole ² combination of Pyrimethamine and Sulfadiazine in one tablet another option for people with problems like thrombocytopenia.

the cysts are immune to these treatments. Medications that are prescribed for latent toxoplasmosis are: ‡ atovaquone ² an antibiotic that has been used to kill Toxoplasma cysts inside AIDS patients.‡ (Other antibiotics such as minocycline have seen some use as a salvage therapy). seemed to optimally kill cysts in mice . as the antibiotics do not reach the bradyzoites in sufficient concentration. ‡ clindamycin ² an antibiotic which. Treatment for Latent Toxoplasmosis ‡ In people with latent toxoplasmosis. in combination with atovaquone.

and primaquine.treatment is effective with drugs such as quinine.. chloroquine. the protozoa undergo various stages of their life cycle. . and renewed infections take place in new red blood cells. . The toxic compounds release during the rupture cause the paroxysms of chills and fever that characterize malaria. . and eventually the red blood cells rupture to release large number of parasites.severe anemia results.within the red blood cells.

they invade the red blood cells in the merozoite form. .when they infect individuals. Plasmodia are a group of protozoa of the Sporozoa (Apicomplexa) group. .2. Malaria . .the parasites are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles .a blood disease due to many species of the genus Plasmodium.

the responsible flukes include Schistosoma mansoni and other species. . In water. these particles live in snails.caused by a multicellular. parasitic flatworm known as a fluke. and they enter the body through the skin of an individual who walks or swims in the infected water.3. Schistosomiasis .

.the parasites multiply and live within the bloodstream.Various chemotherapeutic drugs are available to treat the disease like Anthelmintic drugs. . where they interfere with the flow of blood and lymph and cause local tissue damage. .

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