Branding Branding

Prepared by: Swapnil Panpatil


What is a Brand? Brand Elements Brand Role and Advantages Brand Equity Brand Portfolios Strategic Brand Management Brand Positioning PODs & POPs Product Lifecycle Market Evolution

What is a Brand?
A name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.

What is Branding?
Providing goods and services with the power of the brand.

Brand Elements

Brand Element Choice Criteria ± How to choose good elements? 

Memorable Meaningful Likeable Transferable Adaptable Protectable

Brand Naming 

Individual names Blanket family names Separate family names Corporate name/individual name combo

The Role of Brands

Advantages of Strong Brands  


Improved  Larger margins perceptions of  More inelastic consumer product performance response Greater loyalty  Greater trade cooperation Less vulnerability to Increased marketing  competitive communications marketing actions effectiveness Less vulnerability to Possible licensing  opportunities crises

What is Brand Equity?
The added value given to goods and services, through branding which may be reflected in the way consumers, think, feel, and act with respect to the brand.

The 10 Most Valuable Brands
Brand Coca-Cola Microsoft IBM GE Intel Nokia Toyota Disney McDonald¶s Mercedes-Benz 2006 Brand Value (Billions) $67.00 $56.93 $56.20 $48.91 $38.32 $30.13 $27.94 $27.85 $27.50 $22.13

Measuring Brand Equity 

Brand Audits  

Comprehensive examination of a brand to assess the health of the brand Suggest ways to improve its equity. Collecting information about the brand performance Determining financial value of the brand 

Brand Tracking  

Brand valuation 

Managing Brand Equity 

Brand reinforcement 

Continuous product improvement and innovation. Change in Positioning Overhaul the brand image 

Brand revitalization 

Brand Portfolios 

A set of brands a company offers Advantages   


Increasing shelf presence and retailer dependence in the store Attracting consumers seeking variety Increasing internal competition within the firm Yielding economies of scale in advertising, sales, merchandising, and distribution

Brand Roles in a Brand Portfolio 

Flankers Cash cows Low-end, entry-level High-end prestige

Strategic Brand Management 

Identifying & establishing brand positioning Planning & implementing brand marketing Measuring & interpreting brand performance Growing & sustaining brand value

What is Positioning?
The act of designing the company¶s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market.

Value Proposition A good hot pizza, delivered to your door within 30 minutes of ordering, at a moderate price

Defining Associations
Points-ofdifference (PODs) ‡ Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand Points-of-parity (POPs) ‡ Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands

Both are important!

PODs Success Criteria
Consumer Desirability Criteria

Deliverability Criteria

Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits 

Low-price vs. High quality Taste vs. Low calories Nutritious vs. Good tasting Powerful vs. Safe Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive Varied vs. Simple

Differentiation Strategies 

Product Distribution Channel Personnel Image

Product Differentiation 

Product form Features Performance Conformance Durability Reliability Reparability 


Style Design Ordering ease Delivery Installation Customer training Customer consulting Maintenance

Distribution Channel Differentiation 

Coverage Expertise Performance

Personnel Differentiation 

Better-trained staff Competent (skill and knowledge) Trustworthy Friendly and respectful Reliable (perform consistently & accurately) Responsive Good communicators (understand customer and communicate clearly)

Image Differentiation 

Establish character and value proposition Convey in a distinctive way Deliver emotional power

Product Life Cycles

Claims of Product Life Cycles 

Products have a limited life Product sales pass through distinct stages each with different challenges and opportunities Profits rise and fall at different stages Products require different strategies in each life cycle stage

Product Life Cycles Stages

Stages in the Maturity Stage
Stable Growth Decaying Maturity

Strategies for Sustaining Rapid Market Growth  


Improve product quality, add new features, and improve styling Add new models and flanker products Enter new market segments Increase distribution coverage Shift from product-awareness advertising to product-preference advertising Lower prices to attract the next layer of price-sensitive buyers

Ways to Increase Sales Volume 

Convert nonusers Enter new market segments Attract competitors¶ customers Have consumers use 

The product on more occasions More of the product on each occasion The product in new ways

Market Evolution

Market Evolution Stages





Latent New firms enter y Single-niche market y Multiple-niche y Mass-market

Competition covers all major market segments

Society needs decline or new technology replaces old

Maturity Strategies
Market Fragmentation Market Consolidation


Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 11th Edition. Prentice Hall, 2002.

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