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Abraham Maslow propounded a theory of human nature that everyone is motivated to satisfy a series of instinctual needs. Every one s needs, Maslow believed, were arranged in a hierarchy.(motives=needs). Esteem=Self esteem and Esteem from others Self Actualization=Need to realize one s fullest Potential-to serve and contribute to the well being of man kind.
(An air crash in Venezuela in 1970 is a pointer. has some serious shortcomings. Maslow conceptually derived the five need categories from the early thoughts of William James and John Dewey.) .Motivation The main theme of the theory insists that only ungratified needs motivate behavior. Maslow s theory. the hierarchy of needs may not be the same for everyone. though very popular. Research has shown that needs may cluster into two or three categories rather than five. Further. People can regress in the level of needs at any point of time. Individuals often seem to work on satisfying several needs at once. coupled with the psychodynamic thinking of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler.
When you provide hygiene factors dissatisfaction level comes down. however satisfaction does not take place. He came to the conclusion that job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction are not in the same continuum.MOTIVATION Herzberg conducted his research on 200 engineers and accountants in Western Pennsylvania during the fifties. People are brought to a favorable frame of mind. . Work conditions related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain was labelled hygiene factors .
MOTIVATION Herzberg s Two Factor Theory: Hygiene Factors (Extrinsic) Pay Working conditions Supervision Company policy and Administration Interpersonal relationship (Lack Job Dissatisfaction) Not providing these factors Creates pain or discomfort. . Motivators (intrinsic-Satisfaction) Interesting and meaningful work Achievement Recognition Responsibility Personal growth & Advancement (provide-job satisfaction) (Lack-No motivation) Related to psychological growth.
This process is known as job enrichment. . they lead to superior performance and effort on the part of the employee. These factors relate to the content of the job and what the employee does actually on the job.Motivation According to Herzberg building motivation factors into a job produces job satisfaction. When these factors are present.
.Motivation ERG theory:.Author-Clayton Alderfer of Yale University. E-Existence: Various forms of material and physiological desires. fringe benefits and physical working conditions. such as food and water and work related forms such as pay. Reworked Maslow s Need Hierarchy theory and aligned it with empirical research.
This theory also incorporates frustration regression principle. . Growth: Creativity and innovation aand desire to have a productive impact on our surroundings. work groups and professional groups.Motivation Relatedness: Relationship with others-families. friendship groups.