RutionuI

E×ponents
In ofher words,
exponenfs fhof ore
frocfions.
efinition of RutionuI
E×ponents
or ony nonzero number b ond
ony infeqers m ond n wifh n · I,
excepf when b · 0 ond n is even

-
2
3
= -
2 3
= -
3
´ )
2
%E: %ere ure 3 different
wuys to write u rutionuI
e×ponent

27
4
3
= 27
4 3
= 27
3
´ )
4
n m
x
exponent
oI the
radicand
index
Radicand
E×umpIes:

= 36

1. 36
1
2

= 6

= 64
3

2. 64
1
3

= 4

=
1
49

'

+
'
¦
1
2

3. 49

1
2

=
1
49

= 8
3

4.
1
8

'

+
'
¦

1
3

= 2
E×umpIes:

=
1
7

= 8
´ )
1
3

2. 27
4
3
E×umpIes:

= 27
3
´ )
4

1. 36
3
2

= 3
´ )
4

= 81

= 36
´ )
3

= 6
´ )
3

= 216

3. 81
3
4

= 81
4
´ )
3

= 3
´ )
3

= 27
Simplifying Radical
Expressions
!oints to !onder
II x is a perIect square,
then is a rational number,
iI not, then it is an irrational
number.
x
%he number zero
(0) has iust one
square root and
that is 0 itselI.
;ery positi;e real number
has 2 real number square
roots.
Negati;e numbers do not
ha;e real number square
roots.
II the index is e;en and the
radicand is positi;e, then it
has 2 real roots, one is
positi;e and the other is
negati;e. %he positi;e root is
the 573.5,7449
II the index is odd, whether the
radicand is positi;e or negati;e,
then it will ha;e a :36:0 nth
root. %hat is, the nth root is
positive if the radicand is
positive and the nth root is
negative if the radicand is
negative.
SimpIest RadicaI Form
Wo perfect nth power factors
other than 1.
Wo fractions in the radicand.
Wo radicals in the denominator.
!roduct !roperty of
RadicaIs
or any numbers a and
b where and ,

,K

,- = , -

-K
!roduct !roperty of
RadicaIs

72

= 36 2

= 36 2

= 6 2

= 16 3

= 16 3

48

= 4 3
Examples:

1. 3,
34

= ,
34
3

= ,
17
3

2. 54
4

5

7

= 9
4

4

6
6

= 3
2

2

3
6
Examples:

= 27,
3
-
7 3
2-
3

= 4
2
15

= 2 15

3. 54,
3
-
7 3


4. 6
3


= 3,-
2
2-
3
"uotient !roperty of
RadicaIs
or any numbers a and
b where and ,

,K

-K

,
-
=
,
-
Examples:

1.
7
16

2.
32
25

=
7
16

=
7
4

=
32
25

=
32
5

=
4 2
5
Examples:

=
48
3

= 16

=
45
4
=
45
2

=
3 5
2

3.
48
3
4.
45
4


= 4
RationaIizing the
denominator

5
3
Rationalizing the denominator means
to remove any radicals from the
denominator.
Ex: Simplify

=
5
3

3
3

=
5 3
9

=
15
3

=
5 3
3

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Simplest Radical Form ‡No perfect nth power factors other than 1. ‡No radicals in the denominator. ‡No fractions in the radicand. .

Product Property of Radicals For any numbers a and b where a u 0and b u 0. ab ! a ™ b .

Product Property of Radicals 72! 36™ 2 ! 36™ 2 !6 2 8! 6™ 3 ! 6™ 3 ! 3 .

54x y z ! 9x y z ™ 6yz ! 3x y z 2 2 4 5 7 6yz . 30 ! a ™ 30 ! a 17 34 34 30 4 4 6 3 .Examples: 1.

Examples: 3 3 54 3 ! 3 27a b ™ 2b 2 3 2 3 7 3 ! 3ab ™ 2b 4. 60xy ! 4 y ™ 15xy ! 2 y 15xy 3 .

Quotient Property of Radicals For any numbers a and b where a u 0and b u 0. a ! a .

25 . 7 7 7 ! ! 16 16 4 32 32 4 2 ! ! 5 25 5 32 ! 2.Examples: 1.

Examples: 3 4 ! 3 45 ! 4 4 ! 3 !4 4 45 45 3 5 ! ! 2 2 4 .

Rationalizing the denominator Rationalizing the denominator means to remove any radicals from the denominator. Ex: Simplify 5 ! 5 3 ™ ! 3 3 15 5 3 5 3 ! ! 3 3 9 .

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