# RutionuI

E×ponents
In ofher words,
exponenfs fhof ore
frocfions.
efinition of RutionuI
E×ponents
or ony nonzero number b ond
ony infeqers m ond n wifh n · I,
excepf when b · 0 ond n is even

-
2
3
= -
2 3
= -
3
´ )
2
%E: %ere ure 3 different
wuys to write u rutionuI
e×ponent

27
4
3
= 27
4 3
= 27
3
´ )
4
n m
x
exponent
oI the
index
E×umpIes:

= 36

1. 36
1
2

= 6

= 64
3

2. 64
1
3

= 4

=
1
49

'

+
'
¦
1
2

3. 49

1
2

=
1
49

= 8
3

4.
1
8

'

+
'
¦

1
3

= 2
E×umpIes:

=
1
7

= 8
´ )
1
3

2. 27
4
3
E×umpIes:

= 27
3
´ )
4

1. 36
3
2

= 3
´ )
4

= 81

= 36
´ )
3

= 6
´ )
3

= 216

3. 81
3
4

= 81
4
´ )
3

= 3
´ )
3

= 27
Expressions
!oints to !onder
II x is a perIect square,
then is a rational number,
iI not, then it is an irrational
number.
x
%he number zero
(0) has iust one
square root and
that is 0 itselI.
;ery positi;e real number
has 2 real number square
roots.
Negati;e numbers do not
ha;e real number square
roots.
II the index is e;en and the
has 2 real roots, one is
positi;e and the other is
negati;e. %he positi;e root is
the 573.5,7449
II the index is odd, whether the
then it will ha;e a :36:0 nth
root. %hat is, the nth root is
positive and the nth root is
negative.
Wo perfect nth power factors
other than 1.
!roduct !roperty of
or any numbers a and
b where and ,

,K

,- = , -

-K
!roduct !roperty of

72

= 36 2

= 36 2

= 6 2

= 16 3

= 16 3

48

= 4 3
Examples:

1. 3,
34

= ,
34
3

= ,
17
3

2. 54
4

5

7

= 9
4

4

6
6

= 3
2

2

3
6
Examples:

= 27,
3
-
7 3
2-
3

= 4
2
15

= 2 15

3. 54,
3
-
7 3

4. 6
3

= 3,-
2
2-
3
"uotient !roperty of
or any numbers a and
b where and ,

,K

-K

,
-
=
,
-
Examples:

1.
7
16

2.
32
25

=
7
16

=
7
4

=
32
25

=
32
5

=
4 2
5
Examples:

=
48
3

= 16

=
45
4
=
45
2

=
3 5
2

3.
48
3
4.
45
4

= 4
RationaIizing the
denominator

5
3
Rationalizing the denominator means
to remove any radicals from the
denominator.
Ex: Simplify

=
5
3

3
3

=
5 3
9

=
15
3

=
5 3
3

01394341#,943, 5430398 47,33430743:2-07-,3/ ,33900782,3/393
2 3

0.05903- ,3/380;03

-  -  
3 2

3

2

-

70/1107039 . %%070.894790.7. 0543039             .943.

/../.3/0 3  2 0543039 4190 7..3/ .3/ #.

.2508                        .

2508                                             ..

.2508                                                  .

\$2513#../. 57088438 .

986:.7.943.943.70   9038.3:2-07  1349 90398. 3:2-07 .50710.377.!439894!43/07 18.

707449.8:89430 86:.%03:2-07074 .3/ 9.98 9801 .

9.070.3:2-0786:.070.075489.3:2-07 .870.3:2-0786:.03:2-078/4349 ..70 74498 ..70 74498 0.

5.1903/080.0 %05489./.3/90 7.03.3/9049078 30.74498 4308 5489.074498 90573.3/85489.9.0 9039 .870..0.7449 .

.3/85489.3/8 5489.04730.0 .9.1903/084// 090790 7.0.0 ./..9.01907.9..:36:0 39 7449 %.3/903974498 30././.0  9039.01907.98 903974498 5489..3/8 30.

3 W417.9478 49079./.94383907.8390/03423.\$25089#...93954071.././.472 W450710.3/ W47.947 ...

 ..33:2-078.3/.!74/:...K     . K ./.9!74507941 #.3/ -070.8 47. c - .

9!74507941 #..!74/:.8 c  c           c   c          ./.

 ..                       c             . c    .2508     .

c                 c          . . ..c       .. .2508    .

. - .K    .. K .3/ -070./.33:2-078.":49039!74507941 #.3/.   .8 47.

.2508                               .

2508                                  ..

8174290 /03423.37..0.390 /03423.94720.#.390/03423.947 \$251      c                  .947 #.943.38 947024.943./.

Simplest Radical Form No perfect nth power factors other than 1. No radicals in the denominator. No fractions in the radicand. .

Product Property of Radicals For any numbers a and b where a u 0and b u 0. ab ! a  b .

Product Property of Radicals 72! 36 2 ! 36 2 !6 2 8! 6 3 ! 6 3 ! 3 .

54x y z ! 9x y z  6yz ! 3x y z 2 2 4 5 7 6yz . 30 ! a  30 ! a 17 34 34 30 4 4 6 3 .Examples: 1.

Examples: 3 3 54 3 ! 3 27a b  2b 2 3 2 3 7 3 ! 3ab  2b 4. 60xy ! 4 y  15xy ! 2 y 15xy 3 .

Quotient Property of Radicals For any numbers a and b where a u 0and b u 0. a ! a .

25 . 7 7 7 ! ! 16 16 4 32 32 4 2 ! ! 5 25 5 32 ! 2.Examples: 1.

Examples: 3 4 ! 3 45 ! 4 4 ! 3 !4 4 45 45 3 5 ! ! 2 2 4 .

Rationalizing the denominator Rationalizing the denominator means to remove any radicals from the denominator. Ex: Simplify 5 ! 5 3  ! 3 3 15 5 3 5 3 ! ! 3 3 9 .