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Introduction to EIA
What is Environmental Impact Assessment?

 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the

assessment of the environmental consequences of
a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior
to the decision to move forward with the
proposed action.

 The EIA System in the Philippines is called

Philippine Environmental Impact Statement
System (PEISS).
Backgrounds (EIA Laws)

• Presidential Decree No. 1151

- Philippine Environment Policy: which requires sponsors of projects affected
the quality of the environment to prepare environmental impact statements.

• Presidential Decree No. 1586

- Establishment of the Philippine Environmental Impact Statement System
(PEISS) with the National Environment Protective Council (NEPC) as the lead agency
-The Philippine EIS System was established under Presidential Decree no. 1586
by then former president Ferdinand E. Marcos on June 1978.

• DENR Administrative Order 03-30

- Implementation of rules and regulations of PD No. 1586.

• On January 1970, US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

introduces the first formal procedural requirement for EIA.

• Within 20 years other countries had also included EIA’s as part of their
planning policy.
- Canada 1973
- Columbia 1974
- Philippines 1977
- Netherlands 1981
- UK 1988
Which type of projects undergo EIA?

 Agriculture
 Any developmental projects around Protected Areas /
Nature Preserves
 Construction
 Industries
 Waste disposal
 Clean Development Mechanism CDM projects
B. Importance of EIA
a. Why is EIA conducted?

• EIA is conducted to study and assess projects to

minimize potential risks and damages and/or
enhance possible benefits and overall quality.
b. Objectives and Aims of EIA
• To describe the proposed project and associated works
together with the requirements for carrying out the
proposed developments.

• To identify and describe elements of community and

environment likely to be affected by the proposed project.

• To assess, predict and evaluate cumulative effects expected

to arise during construction.

• To investigate the extent of side effects of proposed

mitigation measures.
C. Agencies Involved in EIA.
• The PEISS established in 1978 through PD 1586 designates DENR, EMB, and
DENR Regional office as the implementary agency.

DENR determines whether a proposal is a n ECP or will be implemented in an

ECA; if either or both of these conditions apply, then the proposal is required to
secure an ECC.

Local Government Unit (LGU) should facilitate community participation through

public outreach and follow the ff. steps to assess impacts of proposed projects.

●Analysis and EIA report
●EIS and project decision
●ECC and environmental management plan
●Environmental monitoring and compliance
D. Coverage and
Procedures of EIA System
●The EIS System requires completion of an EIA
and preparation of an EIS report for any
Environmental Critical Projects or any
Environmental Critical Areas.
a. Criteria for Determining Projects

1. Environmental Critical Projects (ECP)

• Heavy Industries
• Resource Extractive Industries
• Infrastracture Projects
• Golf course projects
• others
a. Criteria for Determining Projects
2. Environmentally Critical Areas (ECA)

• Natural parks, watershed, wildlife preserves and

sanctuaries declared by law.
• Tourist spots
• Habitats of endangered or threatened species.
• Areas traditionally occupied by IP’s and cultural
• Areas classified as prime agricultural lands.
• Areas frequently hit by natural calamities.
a. Criteria for Determining Projects

3. Projects Not Covered Under the EIS

System Include:

• Projects that are not ECP’s or not located in

• Projects or structures that have been
operating or existing since 1982, even if
they are ECP’s or located in ECA.
b. Process of EIA for projects in ECP
EIA Scoping: Ensuring stakeholder participation.

• scoping helps all parties to understand the level of

analysis required.
• specify the alternatives to be evaluated
• identify potential impacts
• suggest possible mitigation and monitoring
measures that should be addressed.
b. Process of EIA for projects in ECP
Assessing Environmental and Socioeconomic

• identify alternatives (includivg the no-action

alternative) and mitigation measures to reduce
project impact on the environment and
b. Process of EIA for projects in ECP

Reporting and Planning

• the proponent or consultants certified by

DENR accomplish the required studies and
prepare the Environmental Impact
Statement (EIS).
b. Process of EIA for projects in ECP


• the EIS is submitted to DENR’s EMB, which then

forwards it to the EIA Review Committee (EIARC) for

• the EMB will not accept an EIS document for review if

it is incomplete or inadequately organized.
Outline of the EIS Document
• EIS Summary
• Project Description
• Summary of Scoping Agreements
• Baseline Environmental Conditions
• Impact Assessment and Analysis
• Environmental Mangement Program/Plan
• Supporting Documents
• Proposals for Environmental Monitoring and
Guarantee Fund
• Accoubtability Statement
Decision Documents
• Certifies that the project proponent has
complied with the procedures of the EIS
Certificate of Non-Coverage

Denial Letter

• usually initiated before construction starts and

continues through project construction and
project opertion.
c. Review process for projects in ECA

• The review of the proposal development is

conducted through DENR offices of consist
of the following steps:
Steps and time-table for review of
projects in ECA
c. Review process for projects in ECA

Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)

• contains a brief project description, expected

impacts, and measures to be undertaken to
control, manage or minimize impacts on the
c. Review process for projects in ECA

Social Acceptability and Public Transportation

The EIS Sysytem has provisions for public

involvement and consultation.
• public consultation
• public hearings
• alternative dispute or conflict resolution
• public information
Consideration in the Analysis of
Environmental Impact


• INDIRECT ( including induced) IMPACTS

D. Approved Projects
Visayas Base Load Power Project- Secured
Landfill Facility
Prepared by Provincial Government of Cebu