CREATION VS EVOLUTION

Definition of evolution ‡ Evolution means: a progression from a simple form to a more complex one. ‡ It is a gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form.

Theories of evolution of the universe
‡ There are three main theories put forward to explain the origin and evolution of the universe are: ‡ The Big Bang Theory ‡ According to this theory, at the beginning of the universe, the whole matter of the universe was once concentrated in an extremely dense and hot (~10 12K) fireball. ‡ Then about 20 billion years ago a vast explosion (big bang) occurred. The matter was broken into pieces, which were thrown out with high speed in all directions forming stars and galaxies; which are still moving way from one another.

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‡ Steady State Theory ‡ According to this theory, the number of galaxies in the observable universe is constant and new galaxies are continuously being created out of empty space, which fill up the gaps caused by those galaxies, which have crossed the boundary of the observable universe. ‡ As a result of it, the overall size of mass of the observable universe remains constant. Thus a steady state of the universe is not disturbed at all.

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‡ Pulsating Theory ‡ According to this theory, the universe is supposed to be expanding and contracting alternately i.e. pulsating. At present, the universe is expanding. ‡ According to pulsating theory, it is possible that at a certain time, the expansion of the universe may be stopped by the gravitational pull and the may contract again. ‡ After it has been contracted to a certain size, explosion again occurs and the universe will start expanding. The alternate expansion and contraction of the universe give rise to pulsating universe.

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‡ Among many questions directed to these theories are: ‡ What existed before the Big Bang? ‡ What force could have caused the great explosion that resulted in a universe that did not exist before? ‡ What is the source of such force which caused the universe to explode? ‡ What is the cause of steady state or pulsating of the universe?

Evolution of man ‡ In biology evolution is understood as: a. In fact, biological evolution can be precisely defined as any change in the frequency of alleles within a gene pool from one generation to the next. Or b.Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, as a result of natural selection acting on the genetic variation among individuals, and resulting in the development of new species.

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‡ Biological evolution ... is change in the properties of populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual. ‡ The changes in populations that are considered evolutionary are those that are inheritable via the genetic material from one generation to the next.

DarwinÙs Imagination ‡ The person who put forward the theory of biological evolution in the way it is defended today, is an English naturalist, Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882). ‡ He had never taken a formal biological education but took an interest in the subject of nature and living things.

Quotations from Darwin¶s writings
‡ I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created parasitic wasps with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of Caterpillars. ‡ As for a future life, every man must judge for himself between conflicting vague probabilities. ‡ Believing as I do that man in the distant future will be a far more perfect creature than he now is, it is an intolerable thought that he and all other sentient beings are doomed to complete annihilation after such long-continued slow progress.

Principles of Evolution
1. Common Descent Embryological Similarity Suggests Common Ancestry and Common Descent With Modification, but: ‡ Groups of living things can undergo modification in successive generations. ‡ These changes can sometimes result in the formation of new species. ‡ One species separating into two and these separating further

Contá. Natural selection The ³fit´ of an organism with its environment selects those traits that will be passed on with greater frequency to the next.

Principles of Darwinism 1. Species have great fertility. They make more offspring than
can grow to adulthood. 2. Populations remain roughly the same size, with modest fluctuations. 3. Food resources are limited, but are relatively constant most of the time. From these three observations it may be inferred that in such an environment there will be a struggle for survival among individuals. 4. In sexually reproducing species, generally no two individuals are identical. Variation is rampant. 5. Much of this variation is heritable.

Basic tenets of evolutionary theory
‡ Therefore, according to Darwinism, living species were not created individually by God, but came from a common ancestor and differentiated from each other as a result of natural conditions. ‡ Although Darwin¶s hypothesis was not based on any scientific discovery of experiment, in time, he turned it into pretentious theory with the support and encouragement he received from the famous material biologists of his time.

Basic tenets of evolutionary theory ‡ Darwin named this process µevolution by natural selection¶. He thought he found the µorigin of species¶; the origin of one species was another species. He published these views in his book entitled The Origin of Species: By Means of Natural Selection in 1859. ‡ According to Darwin, man was the most developed outcome of this blind mechanism.

Basic tenets of evolutionary theory ‡ Man evolved from lower forms of animal life. In the beginning there existed only small types of animals which during the course of time were followed by larger and larger ones. ‡ Eventually one of these kinds of animals developed into man as we know him but it has now become extinct although it can be maintained that a better form of that animal the missing linkage is represented by the monkey.

Basic tenets of evolutionary theory
‡ This theory is based on the fact that ancient human skeletons which have been unearthed in various places show remarkable differences from one age to another in the size or structure of the bones or skull. ‡ It is also argued that the embryo in the womb, at different stages of its development, successively resembles a number of lower animals such as a rabbit, fish or something else. This is taken to furnish ground for the conclusion that the stages which the embryo passes through represents, the stages which man has passed through from a lower animal to that of a human being.

Basic tenets of evolutionary theory ‡ Another evidence (for this theory) is that, there are a number of similarities which seem to indicate that man and these lower animals are one and that the structure of human body is not as exclusive feature as it has developed from the bodies and structures such as those shared by the apes. ‡ The final argument of this theory is that man and apes developed from a common link, therefore, Gorilla and other forms of monkeys are in the line of human ancestry.

Conclusions of evolutionary theory ‡ The distinction between human beings and animals is purely biological; the former is more developed biologically than the latter. ‡ Evolution does not take into account of any order of reality beyond space, time and matter, and does away with a priory necessity of a Supreme Being (God). It denies the existence of any intelligence external to matter. It is purely materialistic interpretation of existence.

Conclusions of evolutionary theory ‡ Therefore the evolutionists cannot believe in an absolute norm of values, because for them values are also continuously evolving to a large extent. For them values are human products and bound by space and time.

Finally ‡ Evolution theory believes that living organisms are intrinsically bound to improve themselves, and that changes are progressive and arise through inheritance of acquired characters. ‡ The belief of evolution of life was then extended to include cultural evolution and social evolution.

CREATIONISM

Definition of Creationism ‡ Literally, Creation: is the divine act by which, according to various religious and philosophical traditions, the world was brought into existence. ‡ Conceptually; It is an explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony), and such beliefs can be derived from many different venues including scientific investigation, metaphysical speculation, however, this explanation is mainly driven from religious belief.

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‡ In response to the evolutionary theory, religious communities have argued in favor of teaching the religious explanation of creation. ‡ Creationism: is the belief in the literal interpretation of the account of the creation of the universe and of all living things related in the religious scriptures.

Islamic understanding of the creation of the universe

Creation of the Universe
‡ According to the Qur¶an, the universe had a definite beginning, and prior to that nothing existed except God. ‡ The Qur¶an teaches that everything that exists in the universe originates from God. ‡ It is through the will of God that matter come into existence from non-existence. ‡ Allah is the Originator of the heavens and earth. ‡ It is He who built and created the universe with His creative power and steadily expending it.

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‡ Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe including humanity was directly created by Allah as explained in the Qur¶an. ‡ Muslims generally accept the scientific interpretations about the material and physical aspects of the universe, however do not agree with organic evolutionism of living things. ‡ Islamic worldview holds that humans have been inserted on earth on a much later date from the creation of earth.

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‡ Though there are some Qur¶anic verses which indicate the progress in which the universe and earth had undergone, yet it is hard to claim that the Qur¶an agrees with evolutionism. The followings are among the Qur¶anic verses about changes of the universe:
Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? (21:30). With power and skill did We construct the Firmament: for it is We Who create the vastness of pace. (51:47).

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b.

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‡ Moreover He comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: "Come ye together, willingly or unwillingly." They said: "We do come (together), in willing obedience. (41:11). The Day that We roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books (completed),- even as We produced the first creation, so shall We produce a new one: a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfill it. (21:104).

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Conclusion: though these verses are there in the Qur¶an, yet it is hard to conclude that these verses teach evolutionism.

Creation of Man in Islam

Creation of man
‡ According to that Qur¶an, man¶s existence was not merely evolutional transformation or natural gradual process from lower animal life to his current shape. Rather, like other creatures on the universe, man was created by God. ‡ Qur¶an says that this creation was not purposeless and aimless, instead, God created man for certain aims and objectives, in the design and shape He (s.w.t) wanted.

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‡ According to some, there are Qur¶anic verses which indicate the evolution of man, including the following:

‡ Man has been created in diverse stages, the stages which suggest the idea of evolution. ³What is the matter with you, that ye
place not your hope for kindness and long-suffering in Allah, Seeing that it is He that has created you in diverse stages.´ (71:13-14)

‡ There was a period of time when man was nothing to mention, suggesting the existence of period of time in which man not worthy to be mentioned. ³Has there not been
over Man a long period of Time, when he was nothing - (not even) mentioned?´ (76:1).

‡ Man is created from quintessence of dry dust, suggesting the existence of stage between man and dust (sulalah):
³Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay).´

‡ Yet these verses cannot be used as support or evidence for evolution of man in the Qur¶an.

Creation of man
‡ According to the Qur¶an man¶s creation has taken place as follows: ‡ Stage one: about the origin of man, Qur¶an says that, there was a certain period of time when man was not a thing spoken of, or simply he does not exist. ‡ Then, Almighty God created him, where Adam was the first human being, and he was created by God from a clay or dry dust. ‡ The creation of Adam has taken place through certain stages; dry dust then biological life, and when human body is made ready, God give life to that body.

Creation of man
‡ Second stage: In this stage man¶s creation was in the state of existence, where the cycle of reproduction of the human genetics begin to start through the seed of the male planted in the body of the female. ‡ According to the Qur¶an the creation of the human biological existence takes places through the following stages. ‡ Clay ( ), sperm.( ), congealed blood. ( ), (foetus) lump. ( ), bones. ( ), clothed the bones with flesh ( ), spirit, (then God develops out of it another creature).

Creation of man
‡ Third stage: is when the Ruh joins the body. When the spirit joins the body, Qur¶an says, is the beginning of another creature, which is different from the merely body life or spirit. ‡ When these two elements join together, is when the human characterization starts, and the human behavior passes through the following stages: ‡ Nafs la-ammarah (the human soul that is prone to evil), it
is the human desire that commanding to act according to the human desire without limitations and rules. It is prone to evil, and if not checked and controlled, will lead to perdition.

Creation of man
‡ Nafs al-lawwamah(self-reproaching spirit). Which means the human behaviour which feels conscious of evil, and resists it, asks for Allah¶s grace and pardon after repentance and tries to amend; it hopes to reach salvation. ‡ Nafs al-Mutma¶inah (soul in complete rest and satisfaction), which means the happy and satisfied soul. It is the highest of all, where man achieves full rest and satisfaction. In this level, because there is no feeling of guiltiness and desire to commit crimes, the human mind will enjoy total satisfaction and happiness.

Creation of man between Qur¶an and the Bible
‡ Man was created by God to be the khalif on earth.. ‡ Man was created from a clay or dry dust, but with the best shape and character. ‡ Man was told to rest in the Heaven as transit while on the way to earth. ‡ His pair was created out of him without mentioning which part of Adam. ‡ Man was created by God. ‡ Man was created from a clay but with image of God. ‡ Man was created by God to inhabit in the Garden of Aden. ‡ Eve was created out of Adam particularly from the ribs.

Creation of man between Qur¶an and the Bible
‡ Adam was told not to eat ‡ Adam was told not to eat the fruits or the tree, but the fruits or the tree, but he did. he did. ‡ The reason why Adam ‡ The reason why Adam has eaten the fruits was has eaten the fruits was because he fail to because of the preserve the promise he temptation from Satan made with Allah. and Eve through the serpent. ‡ When Adam and Eve realized their fault, they ‡ When Adam and Eve repented and God realized their fault, Adam accepted their repent. complained to God About Eve and Satan.

Creation of man between Qur¶an and the Bible
‡ God forgive Adam and Eve and told them to god down and start their duty as a khalif on earth. ‡ Islam put forth the concept of the Original Innocence, where every man and woman are born while they are sinless. ‡ Man needs to be personally responsible for his deeds. ‡ Man should maintain personal relationship with God ‡ God become very angry and decided that such sin will be inherited in every child of man upon birth. ‡ Christianity puts forth the concept of Original sin, where every man and woman are born while they are sinful. ‡ Thus in Christianity man needs redemption and salvation. ‡ Man would be saved through Jesus Christ, the mediator.

Creation between Evolutionary theory and the Qur¶an
‡ Qur¶an Talks about existence (wujud); Creator and Creations. Qur¶an maintains that Creator (Allah) is the one who created the creations, and this relationship between the two. Life and consciousness or hayat is from the Divine Existence, God. He is the one who created death and life. ‡ Talks about certain parts of the existence; (creation or the universe), without talking any other thing which is beyond the universe into consideration. ‡ Evolutionary Theory maintains that, the universe has evolved by itself through a self-driven evolutionary process. ‡ Life and consciousness, do not owe their origin to any thing divine, rather, they are from certain arrangement of matter.

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Creation between Evolutionary theory and the Qur¶an
‡ Human life has beginning ‡ Life is an ascending process and end, with clear goals and with no goals without objectives. beginning and end. ‡ The distinction between human beings and animals ‡ Distinction between human constitutes in the divine trust, beings and animals is purely Amanah- that was given to biological; the former is more man; responsibility, freedom, developed biologically than choice and knowledge, or in the latter. general vicegerence. ‡ The evolutionist cannot believe in an absolute norm ‡ There are some absolute of values, because for them and affirmed concepts in life; values are also continuously the existence of Allah, His changing. attributes, Revelation, hereafter, etc.