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Fluid Mechanics 1

ME 321

Dr. M. Ehtisham Siddiqui Week # 12

Assistant Professor FME

HITEC University

Example 5.12 Water flows through a horizontal, 180° pipe bend. The

flow cross-sectional area is constant at a value of 0.1 ft2 through the bend.

The flow velocity everywhere in the bend is axial and 50 ft/s/ The

absolute pressures at the entrance and exit of the bend are 30 psia and 24

psia, respectively. Calculate the horizontal (x and y) components of the

anchoring force required to hold the bend in place.

Example 5.13 Air flows steadily between two cross sections in a

long, straight portion of 4-in. inside diameter pipe as indicated in

Figure, where the uniformly distributed temperature and pressure at

each cross section are given. If the average air velocity at section (2)

is 1000 ft/s, we found in Example 5.2 that the average air velocity at

section (1) must be 219 ft/s. Assuming uniform velocity

distributions at sections (1) and (2), determine the frictional force

exerted by the pipe wall on the air flow between sections (1) and

(2).

Answer:

u1 m1 u2 m2 Rx p1 A1 p2 A2

Rx A2 p1 p2 m u2 u1 793 lb

Example 5.15 A static thrust stand as sketched in Figure is to be

designed for testing a jet engine. The following conditions are

known for a typical test: Intake air velocity = 200 m/s; exhaust gas

velocity = 500 m/s; intake cross-sectional area = 1 m2; intake static

pressure = -22.5 kPa = 78.5 kPa (abs); intake static temperature

= 268 K; exhaust static pressure = 0 kPa = 101 kPa (abs).

Estimate the nominal thrust for which to design.

Linear Momentum Equation for a Moving CV

Example 5.17 A vane on wheels moves with constant velocity V0 when a

stream of water having a nozzle exit velocity of V1 is turned 45° by the vane

as indicated in Figure (a). Note that this is the same moving vane considered

in Section 4.4.6 earlier. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force,

F, exerted by the stream of water on the vane surface. The speed of the water

jet leaving the nozzle is 100 ft/s, and the vane is moving to the right with a

constant speed of 20 ft/s.

Answer:

Rx 21.8 lb; Rz 53 lb;

R Rx2 Rz2 =57.3 lb;

Rz

tan -1 67.6o

Rx

Energy Equation

Energy equation involves stored energy, heat transfer, and work

p V2

t cv

e dV cs

u

2

gz V nˆ dA Qnet Wshaft

in net in

p V2 p V2

m u gz u gz Qnet Wshaft

2 out 2 in in net in

or in terms of enthalpy

V2 V2

m h gz h gz Qnet Wshaft

2 out 2 in in net in

Example

5.20

net in

Example

5.21

net out

One-Dimensional Steady Flow Energy

Equation

2

Vout Vin2

m hout hin g zout zin Qnet

2 in

11:19

(Elementary Fluid Dynamics)

Flowrate Measurement. Sluice Gate

The flowrate under a sluice gate depends on the water depths on

either side of the gate

2 g z1 z2

Q z2b

1 z2 z1

2 In the limit of z1»z2 Q z2b 2gz1

Flowrate Measurement. Sharp-crested Weir

Q C1Hb 2 gH C1b 2g H 32

Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line

Hydraulic grade line and energy line are graphical forms of the Bernoulli

equation

Energy line represents the total head available to the fluid

Locus provided by a

series of piezometric

taps is termed the

hydraulic grade line

Representation of the

energy line and the

hydraulic grade line

Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line

The distance from pipe to hydraulic grade line indicates the pressure

within the pipe

For flow below the hydraulic grade line, the pressure is positive

For flow above the hydraulic grade line, the pressure is negative

Remember: HGL measures sum of pressure head & elevation head

Use of the energy line and hydraulic grade line See Example 3.14

11:19

𝟏 𝐠𝐚𝐥 = 𝟐𝟑𝟏 𝐢𝐧𝟑

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