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Fluid Mechanics 1
ME 321
Dr. M. Ehtisham Siddiqui Week # 12
Assistant Professor FME
HITEC University
Example 5.12 Water flows through a horizontal, 180° pipe bend. The
flow cross-sectional area is constant at a value of 0.1 ft2 through the bend.
The flow velocity everywhere in the bend is axial and 50 ft/s/ The
absolute pressures at the entrance and exit of the bend are 30 psia and 24
psia, respectively. Calculate the horizontal (x and y) components of the
anchoring force required to hold the bend in place.
Example 5.13 Air flows steadily between two cross sections in a
long, straight portion of 4-in. inside diameter pipe as indicated in
Figure, where the uniformly distributed temperature and pressure at
each cross section are given. If the average air velocity at section (2)
is 1000 ft/s, we found in Example 5.2 that the average air velocity at
section (1) must be 219 ft/s. Assuming uniform velocity
distributions at sections (1) and (2), determine the frictional force
exerted by the pipe wall on the air flow between sections (1) and
(2).

Answer:

u1  m1   u2 m2   Rx  p1 A1  p2 A2

Rx  A2  p1  p2   m  u2  u1   793 lb
Example 5.15 A static thrust stand as sketched in Figure is to be
designed for testing a jet engine. The following conditions are
known for a typical test: Intake air velocity = 200 m/s; exhaust gas
velocity = 500 m/s; intake cross-sectional area = 1 m2; intake static
pressure = -22.5 kPa = 78.5 kPa (abs); intake static temperature
= 268 K; exhaust static pressure = 0 kPa = 101 kPa (abs).
Estimate the nominal thrust for which to design.
Linear Momentum Equation for a Moving CV

For a moving non-deforming control volume

For a constant control volume velocity, Vcv and steady flow:


Example 5.17 A vane on wheels moves with constant velocity V0 when a
stream of water having a nozzle exit velocity of V1 is turned 45° by the vane
as indicated in Figure (a). Note that this is the same moving vane considered
in Section 4.4.6 earlier. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force,
F, exerted by the stream of water on the vane surface. The speed of the water
jet leaving the nozzle is 100 ft/s, and the vane is moving to the right with a
constant speed of 20 ft/s.

Answer:
Rx  21.8 lb; Rz  53 lb;
R  Rx2  Rz2 =57.3 lb;
Rz
  tan -1  67.6o
Rx
Energy Equation
Energy equation involves stored energy, heat transfer, and work

  p V2 
t cv
e  dV  cs


u  
 2
 gz   V nˆ dA  Qnet  Wshaft
 in net in

One-dimensional energy equation for steady-in-the-mean flow:

 p V2   p V2  
m  u    gz    u    gz    Qnet  Wshaft
  2 out   2 in  in net in

or in terms of enthalpy
 V2   V2  
m  h   gz    h   gz    Qnet  Wshaft
 2 out  2 in  in net in

Equation is valid for incompressible and compressible flows


Example
5.20

Answer: Wshaft  32.2 hp


net in
Example
5.21

Answer: wshaft  797 kJ/kg


net out
One-Dimensional Steady Flow Energy
Equation

 2
Vout  Vin2 
m  hout  hin   g  zout  zin   Qnet
 2  in
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Remaining Important Topics From Chapter 3


(Elementary Fluid Dynamics)
Flowrate Measurement. Sluice Gate
The flowrate under a sluice gate depends on the water depths on
either side of the gate

2 g  z1  z2 
Q  z2b
1   z2 z1 
2 In the limit of z1»z2 Q  z2b 2gz1

Sluice gate geometry


Flowrate Measurement. Sharp-crested Weir

Flowrate over a weir is a function of the head on the weir

Q  C1Hb 2 gH  C1b 2g H 32

Rectangular, sharp-crested weir geometry


Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line
Hydraulic grade line and energy line are graphical forms of the Bernoulli
equation
Energy line represents the total head available to the fluid

Locus provided by a
series of piezometric
taps is termed the
hydraulic grade line

Representation of the
energy line and the
hydraulic grade line
Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line
The distance from pipe to hydraulic grade line indicates the pressure
within the pipe
For flow below the hydraulic grade line, the pressure is positive
For flow above the hydraulic grade line, the pressure is negative
Remember: HGL measures sum of pressure head & elevation head

Use of the energy line and hydraulic grade line See Example 3.14
11:19

Quiz 4 (Section C&D) – CLO Based

𝐂𝐚𝐥𝐜𝐮𝐥𝐚𝐭𝐞 𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐢𝐧 𝐟𝐭/ 𝐬𝐞𝐜.


𝟏 𝐠𝐚𝐥 = 𝟐𝟑𝟏 𝐢𝐧𝟑