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Chapter 2

Human Heart
Heart consist of Four Chambers.
Human Heart
Heart consist of Four blood vessels.
Human Heart
Heart consist of Four Valve.
VALVE ensure that the blood flows in one
direction
Differences between oxygenated blood
and deoxygenated blood.
Oxygenated blood Difference Deoxygenated blood
含氧血 差异 脱氧血
Bright red Colour Dark red
红通通 暗红色
Present Oxygen Not present
存在 不具有
Not present Carbon dioxide Present
不具有 存在
Not present Waste product ( like Present
不具有 urea) 存在
废品(如尿素)
Artery and pulmonary vein Blood vessel that Vein and pulmonary
carries it artery

Deoxygenated blood has to be carried to the lungs to change it into


oxygenated blood 脱氧血液必须进行到肺部,改变成氧合血
Path of Oxygenated blood from the
lungheartbody parts
a) AORTA
Body Parts

d)PULMONARY
VEIN LUNGS

e)LEFT ATRIUM

g)LEFT VENTRICLE
Path of deOxygenated blood from the body
partsheartlungs
c)PULMONARY ARTERY

b) VENA CAVA

k) RIGHT ATRIUM

i)RIGHT VENTRICLE
Path of blood in circulatory system.
Pulmonary circulation:
i. Heart  Lung  Heart
ii. RA ( ’ 2 blood, from all parts
of body)  RV  Lungs ( to
collect O2 )

Systemic circulation:
i. Heart  Body  Heart
ii. LA ( O2 blood)  LV all
parts of body, cell and muscles
(to supply O2 and collect CO2 )
Role of blood in transport
血液中的运输作用
• Carries and transport useful substances such
as oxygen, hormones, nutrient.
携带和运输有用的物质如氧,激素,营养
• removes waste such as urea and carbon
dioxide.
去除废物,如尿素和二氧化碳。
Deoxygenated
parts
The path of blood flow

Oxygenated
parts
2.2 Human Blood
Human blood

Red blood cell


Red blood Carries oxygen
cell

Involved in immune
Blood cell White system
( 45%) blood cell
免疫系统
Help blood clotting
Platelet
凝血
Human
blood transport digested food, mineral
salts and vitamins

Distribute heat around the body


Plasma
(55%) Transport carbon dioxide, water and
urea
Human blood are produced in the
bone marrow
Blood group
YOU CAN RECEIVE
BLOOD TYPE IS…

您可以接收
A B AB O
如果您的血型是...

B
IF YOUR

AB

O
2.3 transport system in plants
2.3 transport system in plants
• Transpiration : a process by which water is
lost in the form of water vapour from the
surface of a plant into the air by
evaporation.
• [一个过程,其中水是从植物的表面失去水
蒸汽的形式进入空气通过蒸发。]
Guard cells control the opening and closing
of stomata in leaves.
Stomata viewed under microscope
Closer view of stomata
Factors affecting transpiration.
1) Light intensity
2) Temperature
3) Wind
4) Humidity of air
Roles of transpiration:
[蒸腾作用]
a) Get rid of excess water from plants
[甩掉多余的水分]
b) Cool plants on hot days
[酷植物]
c) Transport water and dissolved mineral
salts from the roots to other parts of
plants
[交通运输水和溶解矿物质]
Transport tissues that help transpiration in
plants.
Transport tissues that help transpiration in
plants.
Xylem – carries water and mineral salts from
the roots to the leaves.
[携带水和矿物盐]
Phloem - carries food made in the leaves to
other parts of a plant
[承载着叶子制成的食品]
Canbium -produces new xylem and phloem
cells.
Leaf
[叶子]

Stem
[干]
Root
[根]
Xylem and phloem for monocot and
dicot plants
Xylem and phloem for monocot and
dicot plants
Transpiration experiment.
Photometer is an apparatus which is used to
measure the rate of transpiration in plants.
(bubble photometer and weight photometer)
Bubble Photometer
• rate of transpiration is determined by the
distance travelled by the air bubble over a
period of time.
Weight Photometer
• the rate of transpiration is determined by the
difference weight of photometer over a period
of time.
• http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/biolog
y/measuring-transpiration.html#2
Excessive transpiration
causes mesophyll cells to
become flaccid.

wilting results
The ringing experiment
•In the ringing experiment, a ring of bark
is scraped away that also removes the
phloem.
The ringing experiment

• The phloem tissues have been removed.

• Manufactured food substances (e.g sugar and amino acid) accumulate


above the cut region and cause swelling.

• This suggests that food is made in the leaves and are transported through
the phloem.
Label the xylem and phloem tissues on
the following diagram.