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CHAPTER 3:

ELECTROMAGNETISM
3.4 : ANALYSING TRANSFORMERS
GROUP’S MEMBERS:
1)NHELL NISHA
2)NG MEI YEE
3)NORFAZIRA
4)NUR SHAHIRA
Working Principle Of Transformer
• The basic principle behind working of a transformer is the phenomenon of
mutual induction between two windings linked by common magnetic flux.
• Basically a transformer consists of two inductive coils; primary winding and
secondary winding. The coils are electrically separated but magnetically
linked to each other.
• When, primary winding is connected to a source of alternating voltage,
alternating magnetic flux is produced around the winding.
• The core provides magnetic path for the flux, to get linked with the
secondary winding. Most of the flux gets linked with the secondary winding
which is called as 'useful flux' or main 'flux', and the flux which does not get
linked with secondary winding is called as 'leakage flux'.
• As the flux produced is alternating (the direction of it is continuously
changing), EMF gets induced in the secondary winding according to
Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.
• This emf is called 'mutually induced emf', and the frequency of
mutually induced emf is same as that of supplied emf. If the
secondary winding is closed circuit, then mutually induced current
flows through it, and hence the electrical energy is transferred from
one circuit (primary) to another circuit (secondary).
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A STEP-UP AND A STEP-
DOWN TRANSFORMER
COMPARISON STEP-UP TRANSFORMERS STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMERS

DEFINITION Step-up transformer increase the output Step-down transformer reduces the
voltage. output voltage.
Voltage Input voltage is low while the output Input voltage is high while the output
voltage is high. voltage is low.
Winding High voltage winding is the secondary High voltage winding is the primary
winding. winding.
Current Current is low on the secondary Current is high on the secondary
winding. winding.
Number of turns Number of turns in secondary coil is Number of turns in the secondary coil
more than that in the primary coil. is less than that in the primary coil.

Size of the conductor Primary winding is made up of thick Secondary winding is made up of thick
insulated copper wire. insulated copper wire.
Application Power plant, X-rays machine, Doorbell, voltage converter
microwaves
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN Np,Ns,Vp AND
Vs FOR AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER
•Vp/Vs = Np/Ns
Vp = primary voltage or input voltage
Vs = secondary voltage or output voltage
Np = number of turns of the primary coil
Ns = number of turns of the secondary coil
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTPUT POWER AND
INPUT POWER OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER

•VpIp = VsIs
EXAMPLE QUESTION :
A transformer enables a 12V lamp to be used with a 240V
mains supply. If there are 600 turns on the primary coil,
calculate
a) The number of turns in the secondary coil
b) The secondary current if the primary is 0.5A
(Assume that there is no energy loss in the transformer)
SOLUTION :
a) Vp/Vs = Np/Ns b) VpIp = VsIs
240/12 = 600/Ns 240 x 0.5 = 12 x Is
20 = 600/Ns 120 = 12Is
20Ns = 600 Is = 120/12
Ns = 600/20
Is = 10.0 V
Ns= 30
EFFICIENCY OF A TRANSFORMER
• A transformer is 100% efficient if its output power is equal to its input
power. A transformer that is 100 % efficient is also known as an ideal
transformer.
• The transformer is very efficient device.
• Well-designed transformers can have an efficiency of up to 99%.
• The efficiency of a transformer can be calculated using the following
equation :
Efficiency = power input/power input x 100%
= Is x Vs / Ip x Vp x 100%
How does the energy losses in a
transformer?
Main Causes for Transformer to Loss
Energy
• Resistance of windings – the low resistance copper wire used for the windings still
has resistance and thereby contribute to heat loss
• Flux leakage – the flux produced by the primary coil may not be all linked to the
secondary coil if the design of the core is bad.
• Eddy currents – the changing magnetic field not only induces currents in the
secondary coil but also currents in the iron core itself. These currents flow in little
circles in the iron core and are called eddy currents. The eddy currents cause heat
loss. The heat loss, however, can be reduced by having the core laminated.
• Hysteresis – The magnetization of the core is repeatedly reversed by the
alternating magnetic field. The repeating core magnetization process expends
energy and this energy appears as heat. The heat generated can be kept to a
minimum by using a magnetic material which has a low hysteresis loss. Hence,
soft iron is often chosen for the core material because the magnetic domains
within it changes rapidly with low energy loss.
Ways that a transformer can lose
energy
• Power losses occur because the changing magnetic field will also induce
currents in the iron core. These induced currents are known as eddy
currents. Eddy currents will generate heat and reduce the transformer's
efficiency. In order to reduce the formation of eddy currents, a laminated
core is used.
• Current flowing through the primary and secondary coils will generate
heat. Low resistance copper wires is used to reduce this effect.
• The core is magnetised and demagnetised alternately when AC current
flows through the primary coil. Energy is lost during this process. This effect
is reduced by using a soft iron core.
• There may be a leakage of magnetic flux in the primary coil. A special core
design is used in a transformer to ensure that all the primary flux is linked
with the secondary coil.
THANK YOU