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External Structures of the Eye
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EYELIDS (PALPEBRAL) & EYELASHES
 crotect the eye from foreign particles

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  m m 
¦ cink; lines inner surface of eyelids
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¦ hite with small blood vessels, covers
anterior sclera

LACRIMAL APPARATUS (LACRIMAL GLAND & ITS


DUCTS AND PASSAGES)
¦ croduces tears to lubricate the eye & moisten the cornea
¦ ears drain into nasolacrimal duct which empties into nasal cavity
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1. EYEBALL
3 LAYERS OF THE EYEBALL
 
£ fibrous coat that supports the eye
A. SCLERAE
£ ough, white connective tissue ³white of the eye´
£ located anteriorly & posteriorly
B. CORNEA
£ ransparent tissue through which light enters the
eye.
£ Located anteriorly
 m

 second layer of the eyeball
£ vascular & highly pigmented

  
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ë TER AL STRUCTURES OF THE EYE
mm0 m1
£ a thin, delicate structure in which the fibers of the optic nerve
are distributed
£ bordered externally by the choroid & sclera and internally by the
vitreous
 contains blood vessels & photoreceptors (cones & rods)
£ light sensitive layer
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1. CONES
£ Specialized for fine discrimination, central vision & color
vision
£ unctions at bright levels of illumination
2. RODS
£ ore sensitive to light than cones
£ Aid in peripheral vision
£ unctions at reduced levels of illumination
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ë TER AL STRUCTURES OF THE EYE
2. FLUëS OF THE EYE
A. AQUEOUS HUMOR
£ Clear, watery fluid that fills the anterior &
posterior chambers of the eye
£ produced by the ciliary processes, & the fluid
drains in the Canal of Sclemm
£ he anterior chamber lies between the cornea &
iris
£ the posterior chamber lies between the iris & lens
£ serves as refracting medium & provides nutrients
to lens & cornea
£ contributes to maintenance of IOc
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ë TER AL STRUCTURES OF THE EYE
2. FLUëS OF THE EYE
B. VëTREOUS HUMOR
£ Clear, gelatinous/jell£like material that fill the posterior cavity of
the eye
£ aintains the form & shape of the eye
£ crovides additional physical support to the eye
£ It is produced by the vitreous body

3. VëTREOUS BOY
£ contains a gelatinous substance that occupies the
vitreous chamber which is the space between the lens & retina
£ transmits light & gives shape to the posterior eye
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ë TER AL STRUCTURES OF THE EYE
4. OPTëC ëSK
£ a creamy pink to white depressed area in the retina
£ the optic nerve enters & exits the eyeball in this area
£ Referred to as the ºm 2

·. MACULA LUTEA
£ Small, oval, yellowish pink area located lateral
& temporal to the optic disk
£ the central depressed part of the macula is the º

m 2 which is an area where acute vision occurs
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Î. CA AL OF SCHLEMM
£ a passageway that extends completely around the eye
£ permits fluid to drain out of the eye into the systemic circulation
so that a constant IOc is maintained

å. LE S
£ A transparent circular structure behind the iris & in front of the
vitreous body
£ Bends rays of light so that the light falls on the retina

8. PUPëLS
£ Control the amount of light that enters the eye & reaches the
retina
£ Darkness produces dilation while light produces constriction
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ë TER AL STRUCTURES OF THE EYE
9. EYE MUSCLES
£ uscles do not work independently but work in
conjunction with the muscle that produces the
opposite movement

A. RECTUS MUSCLES
£ Exert their pull when the eye turns temporally

B. OBLëQUE MUSCLES
£ Exert their pull when the eye turns nasally
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ë TER AL STRUCTURES OF THE EYE
10. ERVES
A. CRA ëAL ERVE ëë
£ Optic nerve (nerve of sight)

B. CRA ëAL ERVE ëëë


£ Oculomotor

C. CRA ëAL ERVE ëV


£ rochlear

. CRA ëAL ERVE Vë


£ Abducens
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ë TER AL STRUCTURES OF THE EYE
11. BLOO VESSELS
A. OPTHALMëC ARTERY
£ ajor artery supplying the structures in the eye

B. OPTHALMëC VEë S
£ enous drainage occurs through vision
ABBREIAION
± L Eye OS
± R Eye OD
± Both Eyes OU
± RE
± Rapid eye movement
± EO
± Extra ocular muscles
± cERRLA
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¦ Color vision
¦ Colored numbers
within a circle of
colored dots

¦ Nursing care:
± Read the numbers
± Each eye tested
¦ 
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ONOEER AccARAUSES
OcALOSCOc
¦ An ophthalmoscope is an
instrument used to
examine the retina and
vitreous. Ophthalmoscopy
requires dilating the pupils
with drops to give the
doctor the best view inside
the eye.
¦ Internal and external eye
structures
REIE OR 10 INUES AND E
ILL AEA QUIZ!!!
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£ a lens implantation may be performed at the time of
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ë TERPRETATëO
 
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sensorineural
hearing loss
ESIBULAR ASSESSEN O
E EAR
 

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£ also known as conductive£
conductive£sensorineural hearing loss
£ client has both sensorineural & conductive hearing loss

   
|
 Frequently asking people to repeat statements
 Straining to hear
 Turning head or leaning forward to favor one ear
 Shouting in conversations
 Ringing in the ears
 Failing to respond when not looking in the direction of the
sound
 Answering questions incorrectly
 Raising the volume of the television or radio
 Avoiding large groups
 Better understanding of speech when in small groups
 Withdrawing from social interactions
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pulling the pinna down & back  
   
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 Avoid strenuous exercise
 Avoid rapid head movements, bouncing or bending
 Avoid straining on bowel movement
 Avoid drinking through a straw
 Avoid traveling by air
 Avoid forceful coughing
 Avoid contact with persons with colds
 Avoid washing hair, showering or getting the head wet for a week as
Rx
 ënstruct the client that if she/he needs to blow the nose, blow one
side at a time with wide mouth open
 ënstruct the client to keep ears dry by keeping a ball of cotton coated
with petroleum jelly in the ear & to change cotton ball daily
 ënstruct the client to report excessive ear drainage to the physician
Õ Õ



£ a chronic infective, inflammatory, or allergic response involving
the structure of the middle ear
£ surgical treatment is necessary to restore hearing
£ the type of surgery can vary & include a simple reconstruction of
the tympanic membrane, a myringotomy, or replacement of the
ossicles within the middle ear

 | 
£ a reconstruction of the middle ear may be attempted to improve
conductive hearing loss
2 2



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¦ Administer antibiotic eye drops as Rx
¦ Clear the ear of debris as Rx & irrigate ear with a solution of
equal parts of vinegar & sterile water as Rx
£ to restore normal p of the ear
¦ Instruct to avoid persons with URI
¦ Instruct client to obtain adequate rest, eat a balanced diet &
drink adequate fluids
¦ Instruct in DBE & coughing but forceful coughing avoided.
£ increases pressure in the middle ear esp. post£op
2 2


  m m

¦ Inform client that initial hearing after surgery is diminished &
hearing will improve after the ear canal packing is removed
¦ eep dressing clean & dry
¦ eep client flat with operative ear up for at least 12 hours
¦ Administer antibiotics as Rx
¦ Instruct the client that he/she may return to work in
approximately 3 weeks post£op
 


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