Capacitors and Inductors

Chapter 6

Chap. 6, Capacitors and Inductors
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduction Capacitors Series and Parallel Capacitors Inductors Series and Parallel Inductors

Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors

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6.1 Introduction
‡ ‡ Resistor: a passive element which dissipates energy only Two important passive linear circuit elements:
1) Capacitor 2) Inductor

‡

Capacitor and inductor can store energy only and they can neither generate nor dissipate energy.
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Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors

Michael Faraday (1971-1867) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 4 .

6.854 v 0  (F/ ) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 5 . A C! d I ! I rI 0 I 0 ! 8.2 Capacitors ‡ A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator (or dielectric).

Material permittivity: the higher the permittivity. the greater the capacitance. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 6 . the greater the capacitance. Spacing between the plates: the smaller the spacing. the greater the capacitance. 3. 2. Area: the larger the area.! ‡ d Three factors affecting the value of capacitance: 1.

Fig 6. (c) Electrolytic capacitor Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 7 . (b) Ceramic capacitor.4 (a) Polyester capacitor.

5 Variable capacitors Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 8 .Fig 6.

Fig 6.3 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 9 .

Fig 6.2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 10 .

Charge in Capacitors ‡ The relation between the charge in plates and the voltage across a capacitor is given below. q ! Cv 1 !1C V q Linear Nonlinear v Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 11 .

If the voltage across the capacitor is so large that the field intensity is large enough to break down the insulation of the dielectric. the plate charge increases as the voltage increases. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 12 . The electric field intensity between two plates increases. Hence. the capacitor is out of work. every practical capacitor has a maximum limit on its operating voltage.Voltage Limit on a Capacitor ‡ Since q=Cv.

I-V Relation of Capacitor + v - i C dq dv q ! Cv. i ! !C dt dt Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 13 .

Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 14 . the capacitor in this case is the same as an open circuit. a capacitor is impossible to have an abrupt change in its voltage except an infinite current is applied. then the current will have an infinite value that is practically impossible. Hence. then i= . a constant voltage across a capacitor creates no current through the capacitor. ‡ If v is abruptly changed.Physical Meaning dv i !C dt + v i C ‡ when v is a constant voltage.

7 ‡ A capacitor is an open circuit to dc. Abrupt change Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 15 .Fig 6. ‡ The voltage on a capacitor cannot change abruptly.

dv i !C dt 1 v (t ) ! C 1 t v(t ) ! ´ idt C g .

v(g) ! 0 + v - i C ´ t to idt  v (to) .

v(to) ! q(to) / C ‡ The charge on a capacitor is an integration of current through the capacitor. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 16 . the memory effect counts. Hence.

Energy Storing in Capacitor dv p ! vi ! Cv dt v (t ) dv 1 2 w ! ´g pdt ! C ´g v dt ! C ´v ( g ) vdv ! Cv dt 2 t t v (t ) v ( g ) 1 (t ) ! Cv 2 q 2 (t ) (t ) ! 2C Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 2 (t ) ( v ( g ) ! 0 ) + v - i C 17 .

Model of Practical Capacitor Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 18 .

(b) ind the energy stored in the capacitor.1 (a) Calculate the charge stored on a 3-p capacitor with 20V across it. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 19 .Example 6.

Example 6.1 Solution: (a) Since q ! Cv. q ! 3 v 10 12 v 20 ! 60p (b) The energy stored is 1 2 1 12 w ! Cv ! v 3 v 10 v 400 ! 600pJ 2 2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 20 .

2 ‡ The voltage across a .Q capacitor is v (t ) ! 10 cos 6000t V Calculate the current through it.3 sin 6000 t A Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 21 .Example 6. Solution: ‡ By definition. the current is dv 6 d (10 cos 6000 t ) ! 5 v 10 i!C dt dt ! 5 v 10 6 v 6000 v10 sin 6000 t ! 0.

Example 6. Solution: ‡ Since v ! 1 t idt  v(0) and v(0) ! 0. ´0 C t 1 3000 t 3 v 103 3000 t t 3 v! 6e dt ™ 10 ! e  6 ´0 0 2 v 10  3000 ! (1  e 3000t )V Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 22 .3 ‡ Determine the voltage across a 2-Q capacitor if the current through it is i (t ) ! 6 e  3000 t mA Assume that the initial capacitor voltage is zero.

9. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 23 .4 ‡ Determine the current through a 200.Example 6.Q capacitor whose voltage is shown in ig 6.

4 Solution: ‡ The voltage waveform can be described mathematically as 50t V 0 t 1 ® ± 100  50t 1 t 3 v (t ) ! ¯  200  50t 3 t 4 ± 0 other ise ° Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 24 .Example 6.

we take the derivative of to obtain 0 t 1 0 t 1 ® 10m ® 50 ± 50   1 t 3 ± 10m 1 t 3 6 !¯ i (t ) ! 200 v 10 v ¯ 3 t 4 50 3 t 4 10m ± ± 0 otherwise ° 0 otherwise ° ‡ Thus the current waveform is shown in Fig.10.4 ‡ Since i = C dv/dt and C = 200 QF.6. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 25 .Example 6.

4 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 26 .Example 6.

12(a) under dc condition. 6. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 27 .5 ‡ Obtain the energy stored in each capacitor in Fig.Example 6.

5 Solution: ‡ Under dc condition. By current division. v 2 ! 4000i ! V 1 1 2 3 2 @ w1 ! C1v1 ! ( 2 v 10 )(4) ! 16mJ 2 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 ! C2 v2 ! (4 v 10 )( ) ! 12 mJ 2 2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 28 .Example 6. 3 i! (6 m ) ! 2 m 3 2 4 @ v1 ! 2000 i ! 4 V. we replace each capacitor with an open circuit.

 C N Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 29 .14 Ceq ! C1  C2  C3  .Fig 6....

..6.  iN dv dv dv dv i ! C1  C2  C3  ..  C N ‡ The equivalent capacitance of N parallelconnected capacitors is the sum of the individual capacitance.3 Series and Parallel Capacitors i ! i1  i2  i3  ... Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 30 ...  C N dt dt dt dt N ¨ C ¸ dv ! C dv ! ©§ K ¹ eq dt ª k !1 º dt Ceq ! C1  C2  C3  .

.Fig 6.  Ceq C1 C2 C3 CN Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 31 ..15 1 1 1 1 1 !    .

 Ceq C1 C2 CN ..  C N )´g X t ‡ The equivalent capacitance of seriesconnected capacitors is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual capacitances.  v N (t ) 1 Ceq 1 1 1 1 t id id ´g X ! ( C1  C2  C3  . 1 1 1 C1C2 !  Ceq ! Ceq C1 C2 C1  C2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 32 q (t ) q (t ) q (t ) q (t ) !  ..Series Capacitors v(t ) ! v1 (t )  v2 (t )  ...

The equivalent capacitor of capacitors connected in parallel or series can be obtained via this point of view. so is the Yconnection and its transformation Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 33 .Summary ‡ These results enable us to look the capacitor in this way: 1/C has the equivalent effect as the resistance.

16.6 ‡ Find the equivalent capacitance seen between terminals a and b of the circuit in Fig 6.Example 6. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 34 .

Example 6. 30 v 60 Ceq ! QF ! 20QF 30  60 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 35 .6 Solution: y 20  QF and 5  QF capacitors are in series : 20 v 5 @ ! 4 QF 20  5 y 4  QF capacitor is in parallel with the 6  QF and 20  QF capacitors : @ 4  6  20 ! 30 QF y 30  QF capacitor is in series with the 60  QF capacitor.

find the voltage across each capacitor.Example 6.1 .7 ‡ For the circuit in Fig 6. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 36 .

Example 6.7 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 37 .

because they are in series with the 30-v source. ( A crude way to see this is to imagine that charge acts like current.Example 6.7 Solution: ‡ Two parallel capacitors: @ Ceq ! ‡ Total charge 1 1 1 1   60 30 20 3 mF ! 10mF q ! Ceq v ! 10 v 10 v 30 ! 0.3 C ‡ This is the charge on the 20-mF and 30-mF capacitors. since i = dq/dt) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 38 .

Example 6.3 q @ v3 ! ! ! 5V 3 60mF 60 v 10 39 . 3 C1 20 v 10 0. since the 40-mF and 20-mF capacitors are in parallel. we now use KVL to determine v3 by v3 ! 30  v1  v2 ! 5V ‡ Alternatively. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 0 .3 ‡ Therefore. they have the same voltage v3 and their combined capacitance is 40+20=60mF. v1 ! ! ! 15 V.3 q v2 ! ! ! 10 V 3 C2 30 v 10 ‡ Having determined v1 and v2.7 q 0.

Joseph Henry (1979-1878) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 40 .

4 Inductors ‡ An inductor is made of a coil of conducting wire N QA L! l 2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 41 .6.

Fig 6. Q : permeability of the core Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 42 .22 N QA L! l Q ! Qr Q Q ! Tv 7 (H/ N : number of turns. A: cross  sectional area. l :length.

Fig 6.23 (a) air-core (b) iron-core (c) variable iron-core Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 43 .

Flux in Inductors ‡ The relation between the flux in inductor and the current through the inductor is given below. J ! Li Linear 1H ! 1 Weber/A Nonlinear i Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 44 .

Energy Storage Form ‡ An inductor is a passive element designed to store energy in the magnetic field while a capacitor stores energy in the electric field. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 45 .

I-V Relation of Inductors ‡ An inductor consists of a coil of conducting dJ wire. i + v - di v! !L dt dt L Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 46 .

Physical Meaning dJ di v! !L dt dt ‡ When the current through an inductor is a constant. ‡ The inductor can be used to generate a high voltage. then the voltage across the inductor is zero. used as an igniting element. ‡ No abrupt change of the current through an inductor is possible except an infinite voltage across the inductor is applied. same as a short circuit. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 47 . for example.

25 ‡ An inductor are like a short circuit to dc. ‡ The current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 48 .Fig 6.

1 di ! vdt L 1 i! L 1 i! L ´ t g v ( t ) dt + v - ´ t to v (t ) dt  i (to ) L The inductor has memory. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 49 .

Energy Stored in an Inductor ¨ di ¸ P ! vi ! © L ¹ i ª dt º t t + v di ¸ L ¨ L idt ! ´g pdt ! ´g © ¹ ª dt º i (t ) 1 2 1 2 ! L ´i ( g ) i di ! Li (t )  Li ( g) i ( g) ! 0. 2 2 ‡ The energy stored in an inductor 1 2 w(t ) ! Li (t ) 2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 50 .

Model of a Practical Inductor Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 51 .

Example 6.8
‡ The current through a 0.1-H inductor is i(t) = 10te-5t A. Find the voltage across the inductor and the energy stored in it. Solution: di Since v ! L and L ! 0.1H, dt d 5t 5 t 5 t 5 t v ! 0.1 (10te ) ! e  t (5)e ! e (1  5t )V dt The energy stored is 1 2 1 2 10 t 2 10 t w ! Li ! (0.1)100t e ! 5t e J 2 2
Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 52

Example 6.9
‡ Find the current through a 5-H inductor if the voltage across it is 2 30 ® t , t "0 v(t ) ! ¯ t 0 ° 0, Also find the energy stored within 0 < t < 5s. Assume i(0)=0. Solution: 1 t ince i ! ´t v(t )dt  i (t0 ) and L ! 5H. L 3 1 t 2 t 3 i ! ´0 30t dt  0 ! 6 v ! 2t A 5 3
0
Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 53

Example 6.9
The power p ! vi ! 60t , and the energy stored is then
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t 5 ! ´ pdt ! ´0 60t dt ! 60 ! 156.25 kJ 60 Alternatively, we can obtain the energy stored using Eq.(6.13), by writing 1 2 1 w(5)  w(0) ! Li (5)  Li (0) 2 2 1 3 2 ! (5)(2 v 5 )  0 ! 156.25 kJ 2 as obtained before.
5 5
Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 54

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and iL.10 ‡ Consider the circuit in Fig 6. find: (a) i.Example 6.2 (a). Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 55 . Under dc conditions. vC. (b) the energy stored in the capacitor and inductor.

vc ! 5i ! 10 V 1 5 (b ) 1 1 2 wc ! Cvc ! (1)(10 ) ! 50J. 2 2 1 2 1 2 wL ! Li ! (2)(2 ) ! 4J 2 2 2 56 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors .Example 6.10 Solution: (a ) nder dc condition : capacitor p open circuit inductor p short circuit 12 i ! iL ! ! 2 A.

..Inductors in Series Leq ! L1  L2  L3  .  LN Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 57 .

Inductors in Parallel 1 1 1 1 !  .  Leq L1 L2 LN Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 58 .

.  LN Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 59 .6.5 Series and Parallel Inductors ‡ Applying KVL to the loop..  LN dt dt dt dt di ! ( L1  L2  L3  ..... v ! v1  v2  v3  ..  LN ) dt N ¨ L ¸ di ! L di !© K ¹ eq dt ª K !1 º dt Leq ! L1  L2  L3  .  vN ‡ Substituting vk = Lk di/dt results in di di di di v ! L1  L2  L3  ..

Parallel Inductors ‡ Using KCL.......  iN 1 t ‡ But ik ! ´t vdt  ik (t0 ) Lk o 1 @i ! Lk ´t t 0 1 1 t vdt  i1 (t0 )  ´t vdt  is (t0 )  ..  LN L2 0 0 ´t vdt  iN (t0 ) 0 t ¨1 1 1 ¸t ! ©   .  iN (t0 ) LN º ª L1 L2 N ¨N 1¸t 1 t ! © § ¹ ´t vdt  § ik (t0 ) ! ´t vdt  i (t0 ) Leq k !1 ª k !1 Lk º 0 0 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 60 . i ! i1  i2  i3  ..  ¹ ´t vdt  i1 (t0 )  i2 (t0 )  .

Hence. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 61 . the Ytransformation of inductors can be similarly derived.‡ The inductor in various connection has the same effect as the resistor.

Table 6.1 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 62 .

11 ‡ Find the equivalent inductance of the circuit shown in Fig. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 63 .Example 6.31. 6.

12H.11 ‡ Solution: Series : 20H.Example 6. 10H p 42H v 42 ! 6H Parallel :  42 @ Leq ! 4  6  ! 1 H Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 64 .

11 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 65 .Practice Problem 6.

Example 6. find : (a) i (0) (b) v(t ). and v2 (t ). 6.33.12 ‡ Find the circuit in Fig. i (t ) ! 4( 2  e If i2 (0) ! 1 mA. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 66 . v1 (t ). (c) i1 (t ) and i2 (t ) 1 10t )mA.

12 Solution: 10 t (a ) i (t ) ! 4(2  e ) mA p i (0) ! 4(2  1) ! 4mA.Example 6. @ i1 (0) ! i (0)  i2 (0) ! 4  (1) ! 5mA (b) The equivalent inductance is Leq ! 2  4 || 12 ! 2  3 ! 5H di @ v(t ) ! Leq ! 5(4)(1)(10)e 10 t mV ! 200e 10t mV dt di 10 t 10 t v1 (t ) ! 2 ! 2(4)(10)e mV ! 0e mV dt 10 t @ v2 (t ) ! v(t )  v1(t ) ! 120e mV Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 67 .

Example 6.12 1 t (c) i ! ´0 v(t ) dt  i (0)   L 120 t 10t 1 t i1 (t ) ! ´0 v2 dt  i1 (0) ! ´0 e dt  5 mA 4 4 10 t t ! 3e  5 mA ! 3e 10 t  3  5 !  3e 10t mA 0 1 t 120 t 10 t i2 (t ) ! ´0 v2 dt  i2 (0) ! ´0 e dt  1mA 12 12 10 t t 10 t 10 t ! e  1mA ! e  1  1 ! e mA 0 ote that i1 (t )  i2 (t ) ! i (t ) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 68 .

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