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Chapter 6

**Chap. 6, Capacitors and Inductors
**

Introduction Capacitors Series and Parallel Capacitors Inductors Series and Parallel Inductors

Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors

2

6.1 Introduction

Resistor: a passive element which dissipates energy only Two important passive linear circuit elements:

1) Capacitor 2) Inductor

Capacitor and inductor can store energy only and they can neither generate nor dissipate energy.

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Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors

Michael Faraday (1971-1867) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 4 .

A C! d I ! I rI 0 I 0 ! 8.2 Capacitors A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator (or dielectric).854 v 0 (F/ ) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 5 .6.

Spacing between the plates: the smaller the spacing. the greater the capacitance.! d Three factors affecting the value of capacitance: 1. the greater the capacitance. Material permittivity: the higher the permittivity. Area: the larger the area. the greater the capacitance. 3. 2. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 6 .

(b) Ceramic capacitor.4 (a) Polyester capacitor.Fig 6. (c) Electrolytic capacitor Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 7 .

Fig 6.5 Variable capacitors Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 8 .

Fig 6.3 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 9 .

2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 10 .Fig 6.

q ! Cv 1 !1C V q Linear Nonlinear v Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 11 .Charge in Capacitors The relation between the charge in plates and the voltage across a capacitor is given below.

The electric field intensity between two plates increases. If the voltage across the capacitor is so large that the field intensity is large enough to break down the insulation of the dielectric. Hence. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 12 .Voltage Limit on a Capacitor Since q=Cv. every practical capacitor has a maximum limit on its operating voltage. the capacitor is out of work. the plate charge increases as the voltage increases.

i ! !C dt dt Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 13 .I-V Relation of Capacitor + v - i C dq dv q ! Cv.

a capacitor is impossible to have an abrupt change in its voltage except an infinite current is applied. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 14 . a constant voltage across a capacitor creates no current through the capacitor. then i= . If v is abruptly changed. Hence.Physical Meaning dv i !C dt + v i C when v is a constant voltage. the capacitor in this case is the same as an open circuit. then the current will have an infinite value that is practically impossible.

Abrupt change Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 15 . The voltage on a capacitor cannot change abruptly.7 A capacitor is an open circuit to dc.Fig 6.

dv i !C dt 1 v (t ) ! C 1 t v(t ) ! ´ idt C g .

v(g) ! 0 + v - i C ´ t to idt v (to) .

Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 16 . the memory effect counts. v(to) ! q(to) / C The charge on a capacitor is an integration of current through the capacitor. Hence.

Energy Storing in Capacitor dv p ! vi ! Cv dt v (t ) dv 1 2 w ! ´g pdt ! C ´g v dt ! C ´v ( g ) vdv ! Cv dt 2 t t v (t ) v ( g ) 1 (t ) ! Cv 2 q 2 (t ) (t ) ! 2C Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 2 (t ) ( v ( g ) ! 0 ) + v - i C 17 .

Model of Practical Capacitor Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 18 .

Example 6. (b) ind the energy stored in the capacitor.1 (a) Calculate the charge stored on a 3-p capacitor with 20V across it. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 19 .

1 Solution: (a) Since q ! Cv. q ! 3 v 10 12 v 20 ! 60p (b) The energy stored is 1 2 1 12 w ! Cv ! v 3 v 10 v 400 ! 600pJ 2 2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 20 .Example 6.

Example 6.2 The voltage across a . the current is dv 6 d (10 cos 6000 t ) ! 5 v 10 i!C dt dt ! 5 v 10 6 v 6000 v10 sin 6000 t ! 0. Solution: By definition.Q capacitor is v (t ) ! 10 cos 6000t V Calculate the current through it.3 sin 6000 t A Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 21 .

Solution: Since v ! 1 t idt v(0) and v(0) ! 0.3 Determine the voltage across a 2-Q capacitor if the current through it is i (t ) ! 6 e 3000 t mA Assume that the initial capacitor voltage is zero. ´0 C t 1 3000 t 3 v 103 3000 t t 3 v! 6e dt 10 ! e 6 ´0 0 2 v 10 3000 ! (1 e 3000t )V Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 22 .Example 6.

Example 6. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 23 .Q capacitor whose voltage is shown in ig 6.4 Determine the current through a 200.9.

4 Solution: The voltage waveform can be described mathematically as 50t V 0 t 1 ® ± 100 50t 1 t 3 v (t ) ! ¯ 200 50t 3 t 4 ± 0 other ise ° Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 24 .Example 6.

4 Since i = C dv/dt and C = 200 QF. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 25 .Example 6. we take the derivative of to obtain 0 t 1 0 t 1 ® 10m ® 50 ± 50 1 t 3 ± 10m 1 t 3 6 !¯ i (t ) ! 200 v 10 v ¯ 3 t 4 50 3 t 4 10m ± ± 0 otherwise ° 0 otherwise ° Thus the current waveform is shown in Fig.6.10.

4 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 26 .Example 6.

5 Obtain the energy stored in each capacitor in Fig. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 27 . 6.12(a) under dc condition.Example 6.

v 2 ! 4000i ! V 1 1 2 3 2 @ w1 ! C1v1 ! ( 2 v 10 )(4) ! 16mJ 2 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 ! C2 v2 ! (4 v 10 )( ) ! 12 mJ 2 2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 28 . 3 i! (6 m ) ! 2 m 3 2 4 @ v1 ! 2000 i ! 4 V. we replace each capacitor with an open circuit.5 Solution: Under dc condition.Example 6. By current division.

.14 Ceq ! C1 C2 C3 .. C N Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 29 ..Fig 6.

C N The equivalent capacitance of N parallelconnected capacitors is the sum of the individual capacitance..6... C N dt dt dt dt N ¨ C ¸ dv ! C dv ! ©§ K ¹ eq dt ª k !1 º dt Ceq ! C1 C2 C3 . Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 30 ..3 Series and Parallel Capacitors i ! i1 i2 i3 . iN dv dv dv dv i ! C1 C2 C3 ....

Fig 6..15 1 1 1 1 1 ! . Ceq C1 C2 C3 CN Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 31 ..

1 1 1 C1C2 ! Ceq ! Ceq C1 C2 C1 C2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 32 q (t ) q (t ) q (t ) q (t ) ! . v N (t ) 1 Ceq 1 1 1 1 t id id ´g X ! ( C1 C2 C3 . C N )´g X t The equivalent capacitance of seriesconnected capacitors is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual capacitances...Series Capacitors v(t ) ! v1 (t ) v2 (t ) . Ceq C1 C2 CN ...

so is the Yconnection and its transformation Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 33 .Summary These results enable us to look the capacitor in this way: 1/C has the equivalent effect as the resistance. The equivalent capacitor of capacitors connected in parallel or series can be obtained via this point of view.

16. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 34 .Example 6.6 Find the equivalent capacitance seen between terminals a and b of the circuit in Fig 6.

Example 6. 30 v 60 Ceq ! QF ! 20QF 30 60 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 35 .6 Solution: y 20 QF and 5 QF capacitors are in series : 20 v 5 @ ! 4 QF 20 5 y 4 QF capacitor is in parallel with the 6 QF and 20 QF capacitors : @ 4 6 20 ! 30 QF y 30 QF capacitor is in series with the 60 QF capacitor.

1 .Example 6.7 For the circuit in Fig 6. find the voltage across each capacitor. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 36 .

Example 6.7 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 37 .

3 C This is the charge on the 20-mF and 30-mF capacitors. because they are in series with the 30-v source. ( A crude way to see this is to imagine that charge acts like current.7 Solution: Two parallel capacitors: @ Ceq ! Total charge 1 1 1 1 60 30 20 3 mF ! 10mF q ! Ceq v ! 10 v 10 v 30 ! 0.Example 6. since i = dq/dt) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 38 .

Example 6. 3 C1 20 v 10 0. v1 ! ! ! 15 V.7 q 0. since the 40-mF and 20-mF capacitors are in parallel. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 0 . they have the same voltage v3 and their combined capacitance is 40+20=60mF.3 q @ v3 ! ! ! 5V 3 60mF 60 v 10 39 .3 Therefore.3 q v2 ! ! ! 10 V 3 C2 30 v 10 Having determined v1 and v2. we now use KVL to determine v3 by v3 ! 30 v1 v2 ! 5V Alternatively.

Joseph Henry (1979-1878) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 40 .

6.4 Inductors An inductor is made of a coil of conducting wire N QA L! l 2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 41 .

22 N QA L! l Q ! Qr Q Q ! Tv 7 (H/ N : number of turns.Fig 6. l :length. A: cross sectional area. Q : permeability of the core Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 42 .

Fig 6.23 (a) air-core (b) iron-core (c) variable iron-core Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 43 .

J ! Li Linear 1H ! 1 Weber/A Nonlinear i Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 44 .Flux in Inductors The relation between the flux in inductor and the current through the inductor is given below.

Energy Storage Form An inductor is a passive element designed to store energy in the magnetic field while a capacitor stores energy in the electric field. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 45 .

I-V Relation of Inductors An inductor consists of a coil of conducting dJ wire. i + v - di v! !L dt dt L Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 46 .

used as an igniting element. same as a short circuit.Physical Meaning dJ di v! !L dt dt When the current through an inductor is a constant. for example. The inductor can be used to generate a high voltage. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 47 . No abrupt change of the current through an inductor is possible except an infinite voltage across the inductor is applied. then the voltage across the inductor is zero.

Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 48 .25 An inductor are like a short circuit to dc.Fig 6. The current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously.

1 di ! vdt L 1 i! L 1 i! L ´ t g v ( t ) dt + v - ´ t to v (t ) dt i (to ) L The inductor has memory. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 49 .

2 2 The energy stored in an inductor 1 2 w(t ) ! Li (t ) 2 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 50 .Energy Stored in an Inductor ¨ di ¸ P ! vi ! © L ¹ i ª dt º t t + v di ¸ L ¨ L idt ! ´g pdt ! ´g © ¹ ª dt º i (t ) 1 2 1 2 ! L ´i ( g ) i di ! Li (t ) Li ( g) i ( g) ! 0.

Model of a Practical Inductor Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 51 .

Example 6.8

The current through a 0.1-H inductor is i(t) = 10te-5t A. Find the voltage across the inductor and the energy stored in it. Solution: di Since v ! L and L ! 0.1H, dt d 5t 5 t 5 t 5 t v ! 0.1 (10te ) ! e t (5)e ! e (1 5t )V dt The energy stored is 1 2 1 2 10 t 2 10 t w ! Li ! (0.1)100t e ! 5t e J 2 2

Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 52

Example 6.9

Find the current through a 5-H inductor if the voltage across it is 2 30 ® t , t "0 v(t ) ! ¯ t 0 ° 0, Also find the energy stored within 0 < t < 5s. Assume i(0)=0. Solution: 1 t ince i ! ´t v(t )dt i (t0 ) and L ! 5H. L 3 1 t 2 t 3 i ! ´0 30t dt 0 ! 6 v ! 2t A 5 3

0

Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 53

Example 6.9

The power p ! vi ! 60t , and the energy stored is then

5

t 5 ! ´ pdt ! ´0 60t dt ! 60 ! 156.25 kJ 60 Alternatively, we can obtain the energy stored using Eq.(6.13), by writing 1 2 1 w(5) w(0) ! Li (5) Li (0) 2 2 1 3 2 ! (5)(2 v 5 ) 0 ! 156.25 kJ 2 as obtained before.

5 5

Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 54

6

(b) the energy stored in the capacitor and inductor. vC. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 55 .2 (a).Example 6. Under dc conditions. and iL.10 Consider the circuit in Fig 6. find: (a) i.

vc ! 5i ! 10 V 1 5 (b ) 1 1 2 wc ! Cvc ! (1)(10 ) ! 50J.10 Solution: (a ) nder dc condition : capacitor p open circuit inductor p short circuit 12 i ! iL ! ! 2 A.Example 6. 2 2 1 2 1 2 wL ! Li ! (2)(2 ) ! 4J 2 2 2 56 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors .

LN Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 57 .Inductors in Series Leq ! L1 L2 L3 ...

Inductors in Parallel 1 1 1 1 ! . Leq L1 L2 LN Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 58 .

..5 Series and Parallel Inductors Applying KVL to the loop..6.. vN Substituting vk = Lk di/dt results in di di di di v ! L1 L2 L3 .. LN Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 59 . v ! v1 v2 v3 . LN ) dt N ¨ L ¸ di ! L di !© K ¹ eq dt ª K !1 º dt Leq ! L1 L2 L3 . LN dt dt dt dt di ! ( L1 L2 L3 ....

¹ ´t vdt i1 (t0 ) i2 (t0 ) ...... iN 1 t But ik ! ´t vdt ik (t0 ) Lk o 1 @i ! Lk ´t t 0 1 1 t vdt i1 (t0 ) ´t vdt is (t0 ) . i ! i1 i2 i3 . iN (t0 ) LN º ª L1 L2 N ¨N 1¸t 1 t ! © § ¹ ´t vdt § ik (t0 ) ! ´t vdt i (t0 ) Leq k !1 ª k !1 Lk º 0 0 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 60 ..Parallel Inductors Using KCL... LN L2 0 0 ´t vdt iN (t0 ) 0 t ¨1 1 1 ¸t ! © .

Hence. The inductor in various connection has the same effect as the resistor. the Ytransformation of inductors can be similarly derived. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 61 .

Table 6.1 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 62 .

Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 63 .31. 6.Example 6.11 Find the equivalent inductance of the circuit shown in Fig.

11 Solution: Series : 20H.Example 6. 10H p 42H v 42 ! 6H Parallel : 42 @ Leq ! 4 6 ! 1 H Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 64 . 12H.

Practice Problem 6.11 Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 65 .

12 Find the circuit in Fig. find : (a) i (0) (b) v(t ). i (t ) ! 4( 2 e If i2 (0) ! 1 mA. (c) i1 (t ) and i2 (t ) 1 10t )mA. Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 66 .33. and v2 (t ).Example 6. 6. v1 (t ).

@ i1 (0) ! i (0) i2 (0) ! 4 (1) ! 5mA (b) The equivalent inductance is Leq ! 2 4 || 12 ! 2 3 ! 5H di @ v(t ) ! Leq ! 5(4)(1)(10)e 10 t mV ! 200e 10t mV dt di 10 t 10 t v1 (t ) ! 2 ! 2(4)(10)e mV ! 0e mV dt 10 t @ v2 (t ) ! v(t ) v1(t ) ! 120e mV Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 67 .12 Solution: 10 t (a ) i (t ) ! 4(2 e ) mA p i (0) ! 4(2 1) ! 4mA.Example 6.

12 1 t (c) i ! ´0 v(t ) dt i (0) L 120 t 10t 1 t i1 (t ) ! ´0 v2 dt i1 (0) ! ´0 e dt 5 mA 4 4 10 t t ! 3e 5 mA ! 3e 10 t 3 5 ! 3e 10t mA 0 1 t 120 t 10 t i2 (t ) ! ´0 v2 dt i2 (0) ! ´0 e dt 1mA 12 12 10 t t 10 t 10 t ! e 1mA ! e 1 1 ! e mA 0 ote that i1 (t ) i2 (t ) ! i (t ) Ch06 Capacitors and Inductors 68 .Example 6.

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