A PROJECT ON
PRODUCTION LPG FROM NATURAL GAS
Assume the consumption of the gas is that of Bombay High. The report should include the process design of distillation columns for LPG and propane in addition to the material balances over the entire plant.
Submit a project report on the recovery of LPG from Associated Natural Gas of 3 million cu.
. Main components are propane and butane. It is liquefied petroleum based or natural gas based hydrocarbon which is gaseous at ambient temperature under atmospheric pressure by compression .LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
It is a mixture of hydrocarbon.
blangas formed by cracking oil. Several containers in the United States. use had been made of gas compressed containers Limited amounts of this product were sold in cylinder in England as early as 1870.INTRODUCTION
Long before time. was liquefied by compressing it to about 1800 psig. Around 1907. despite attendant difficulties such as transportation costs and complexity of equipment needed for its utilization. however.
. In 1870 pintsch gas was developed and later used in railway car lighting.
GENRAL METHODS OF PRODUCTION OF LPG LPG is produced by Distillation at low temperature Absorption and desorption Compression and Expansion Combined methods
1. 3. 2. 4.
CRYOGENIC GAS-FLUID SEPARATION FRACTIONATION SCHEME
ABSORPTION ² STRIPPING FRACTIONATION SCHEME
2.LPG FROM NATURAL GAS
The process schemes for recovery of LPG from natural gas are given below
. the feed gas is contacted with presaturated refrigerated lean oil. The overhead product is separated in a two column fractionation train to recovery propane overhead in the second column and natural gasoline as a bottom product from the second column. The rich oil is partially stripped in the lower half of the column to control the ethane content of the rich oil to comply with the propane specification Heat is recovered from the hot lean oil in the fractionation reboilers and the absorber stripper reboiler.ABSORPTION²STRIPPING FRACTIONATION SCHEME
Associated gas after compression and glycol drying is chilled and flows into a deethanizing absorber / stripping in the absorption / stripper.
c3 and c4 fraction is recovered from the top as LPG product and is pumped to LPG sphere. The condensate is separated from the gas stream which is discharged into main lean gas header. Light hydrocarbons (c1. c5 + are drawn as natural gasoline and sent to storage tank after cooling with cooling water.CRYOGENIC GAS-FLUID SEPARATION FRACTIONATION SCHEME
Associated gas. In LPG column. c2 and c3 (max 100%) are removed from the top and fed to lean gas header via residual gas compressor. L & F bottoms (c3 + bottoms) is fed to LPG column.LPG column bottoms which are heavy hydrocarbons i.e.
. Condensed liquid from the separators is fed to a light end fractionating column after exchanging the heat with the feed gas. after dehydrating in molecular sieve dryers. is chilled in a cascade of cold boxes (Plate heat exchangers) and shell and tube heat exchangers to -370 C.
. This means that a large amount of LPG can be stored in a small place. taking up only around 1/250th of its gaseous volume. Easily liquefied by pressure. An odourising agent is added before distribution to give its characteristic smell. Colourless and odourless. Half as heavy as water when in liquid form.PROPERTIES
LPG is liquefied petroleum gas and is obtained during the processing of crude oil. It will float on water before vaporizing. or direct from the North Sea.
These are similar in use but propane has a boiling point and hence a higher storage pressure.PROPERTIES
Either commercial butane or commercial propane. 15 degrees Celsius). At ambient temperature (i. Commercial propane is predominantly an outdoor fuel. propane and butane bottles contain the following pressures: Commercial BUTANE 2BAR (28psig) Commercial PROPANE 7BAR (100psig)
. No solvents are required in the process. The heat exchange is optimized in process for minimum energy input. no additional power input is necessary. So. cooling and flash vaporization to obtain the desired streams of propane at appropriate temperatures. The refrigeration required for the entire plant would be supplied by propane compression. Hence the storage facilities are limited to LPG and natural gasoline The capital investment or regeneration of solvents for recycle is fully saved.SELECTION OF THE PROCESS
The reasons for the selection areas follows: The process is the most economical one. The propane compressor is run by a turbine using a fraction of lean gas.
The compressor suction line is steam traced down stream of suction knock out drum to avoid any condensation due to ambient cooling.PROCESS DETAILS
The wet gas from main fractionator overhead accumulator is first flashed in compressor suction knock out drum. The gases from compressor first stage mix with unstabilised Naphtha from accumulator along with wash water and are cooled in compressor interstage cooler. The flashed gases from the drum are compressed in a two stage centrifugal compressor to 16kg/cm2g. The mixture of cooled gases condensate and water is flashed in the compressor interstage knock out drum operating at a pressure of 2.64kg/cm2g and 380C.35 Kg/cm2g and400C to remove any condensate. which is operated at a pressure of 0.
condensed liquid and water are separated in the HP receiver operating at a pressure of 15kg/cm2g and a temperature of 380C. since the cracked gas handled by compressor has appreciable quantity of olefins and diolefines. The sour water from the high-pressure receiver boot is sent to interstage cooler as discussed above.PROCESS DETAILS
The compressed gas is mixed wash water. primary absorber bottom liquid and the top vapors from the stripper before entering the compressor after cooler. interstage condensate. The condensed liquid from the receiver is pumped to stripper top tray. The mixture of cooled gases.
. The uncondensed vapors are routed to the primary absorber for recovery of C3·S and C4·S. it leads to deposition of gummy material on the impeller surface.
o The column is designed to remove the undesirable light hydrocarbons from the liquefied C3+ hydrocarbon stream to control the vapor pressure of the LPG product. The stripper reboiler is of once through horizontal thermosiphon type having two shells connected in series and stacked. The bottom stream of the stripper flows on its own pressure to the debutaniser for separation of LPG and stabilized Naphtha. o The amount of heat supplied through the reboiler is such that it eliminates any absorbed C1 and C2 from the bottom product.
STRIPPER COLUMN o The stripper column is a reboiled column having 26 valve trays. Column operating at a pressure of 16.3kg/cm2g and 1400C at the bottom and 16kg/cm2g pressure and 480C at the top.
The overhead vapors from the debutaniser are condensed in the debutaniser overhead condenser.7 kg/cm2g and 640C temperature at the top. which is a total condenser. The net product LPG is pumped by LPG pumps to ATU Merox block air flow control for treatment and then is routed at a pressure of 19.
.7kg/cm2g and 2020C at the bottom and at a pressure of 11.PROCESS DETAILS
NAPHTHA STABILIZER (OR) DEBUTANISER The debutaniser consists of 40 valve trays.0 kg/cm2g and a temperature of 400C to storage.0 kg/cm2g after its treatment in the treatment units. Column operating at a pressure of 12. The cooled product stream is partly recycled to primary absorber on flow control. where as the other is sent to storage at a pressure of 13. The Naphtha stream after heat recovery is cooled in the stabilized Naphtha air Cooler and finally in the stabilized Naphtha trim cooler to required temperature of 380C.
75 crores = 2./day for recovering LPG is estimated to be 15 crores.m.COST ESTIMATION
The total capital investment to process 3 million cu. 85% of FCI Working capital.25 crores
The depreciable capital investment is also estimated to be 12.000 tonnes/annum) = 11.22 crores.75 crores. 15% of FCI = 12. The total turnover (7480 MT of LPG @ 15. Total capital investment of the plant = 15 crores Fixed capital.
Manufacturing cost = direct production cost + fixed charges + plant overhead cost = 6.0321 = 2.9845 crores Turnover ratio = Gross annual sales/ Fixed capital 11.275) = 5.88 Payout time = (Depreciable fixed capital investment)/(Avg. Profit/year + Avg.4025 + 0.643 years =
.732 + 1.22 ² 9.8976 = 9.0321 crores Gross profit = net sales ² manufacturing cost = 11.9845+1.75 = 0. Depreciation/year) = 12.75/(0.1879 crores Net profit (Gross profit less taxes @ 55%) = 0.