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Topics Covered

• Bubble column fundamentals

• The general rate expression

• Design Equation

• Axial dispersion model

• Designing factors

• Mixing and RTD

• Practical Examples, Advantages

and Disadvantages

Heterogenous Fluid-fluid reactions

material.

unwanted component from a fluid.

Heterogenous Fluid-fluid reactions

Factors determining how to approach:

two separate phases must contact each other before

reaction can occur, both the mass transfer and the

chemical rates will enter the overall rate expression.

components will limit their movement from phase to

phase and it will determine whether the reaction takes

place in one or both phases.

contacting schemes predominate but batch contacter are

also used

Type Of fluid-fluid Reactor

Contacting patterns for g/L contactors.

Bubble column reactors

Introduction

• Why bubble column reactors?

petrochemical and biochemical industries.

bubbles, comes in contact with liquid.

Bubble column reactors

Bubble column reactors

-Simple vertical cylindrical vessels with intense contact

betweenn the two phases.

specific gas distributorss at the bottom of the column.

the gas flow direction or may be zero.

and distribute the gas uniformly at the bottom of the liquid pool.

Type of Bubble Columns

sieve trays; C) Packed bubble column; D) Multishaft bubble

column; E) Bubble column with static mixers

Contacting Patterns

Gas-Liquid Mixing

Practical examples of reactions taking

place in bubble column reactor:

partial oxidation of ethylenee to acetaldehyde, oxidation of n-

parrafins to sec-alcohols)

• hydrogenation reactions (e.g. saturation of fatty acids,

hydrogenation of glucose to sorbitol)

• chlorination reactions (production of aliphatic and aromatic

chlorinated compounds)

• hydrotreating and conversion of petroleum residues

• Fermentation (production of ethanol and mammalian cells)

• biological waste water treatment

• oxidesulfurization of coal

• oxichlorination of ethylene to dichlorethane

• Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

• methanol synthesis

• polymerisation of olefins

Advantages offered by bubble column

reactor:

• efficient contact between the phases, the gas and the liquid,

and eventually the third phase,, the solid catalyst

• high liquid hold up, recommended for reactions taking place in

the liquid phase (as the case of bubble columns)

• reasonable inter-phase mass transfer rates at low energy

input

• limitation of pressure drop

• easy temperature control

• little maintenance due to the simple construction

• lack of moving parts

• high adaptability for a specific process

• no serious erosion and plugging problems due to the catalyst

• low costs of construction and operation

Disadvantages of bubble column reactor:

liquid and the gas phase

• short gas phase residence time

• higher pressure drop with respect to packed

columns

• rapid decreasing of interfacial area above values

of the aspect ratio greater than, say 12, due to the

increased rate of coalescence

• Scale up is still poorly understood

Gas Distributions

• The gas is dispersed to create small bubbles and

distribute them uniformly over the cross section of

the equipment to maximize the intensity of mass

transfer.

in coalescence-hindered systems and in the

homogeneous flow regime.

be obtained at the gas distributor through a high

local energy-dissipation density.

Static Gas Spargers

Dynamic Gas Spargers

Flow Regimes

Fluid Dynamics

• Rising gas bubbles entrain liquid in their

wakes.

much greater than the net liquid flow rate.

exist in which the liquid is predominantly

moving downward.

Fluid Dynamics

Cell Structure in BCs

Concentration profile

• There is a concentration

drop around the spherical

bubble because it is

migrating outward,

interface there should be a

discontinuity in CA at the

interface due to the

solubility of species A and a

consequent equilibrium

distribution between

phases.

Bubble Size

Sauter diameter dbS

(mean bubble diameter, calculated from the volume to

surface ratio)

0.6 0.25

2 0.5 G

d bs 0.4 G

eM L L

This formula is based on Kolmogorov's theory of isotropic

turbulence.

For low-viscosity liquids, the maximum bubble diameter

is given by

Bubble Size Distribution (BSD)

• Narrow BSD

– For bubble columns with relatively low gas

volume fraction.

– In homogeneous regime.

• Wide BSD

– As gas velocity and therefore, gas volume

fraction increases, a heterogeneous or churn-

turbulent regime sets in.

Bubble Rise Velocity

Dispersion of the Liquid Phase

Dispersion of the Gas Phase

Gas Holdup

• Gas holdup is one of the most important

operating parameters because it not only

governs phase fraction and gas-phase

residence time but is also crucial for mass

transfer between liquid and gas.

but also to a great extent on the gas – liquid

system involved.

Gas Holdup

• Gas holdup is defined as the volume of the gas phase

divided by the total volume of the dispersion:

VG

G

VG VL

• The relationship between gas holdup and gas velocity

is generally described by the proportionality:

G ~ U Gn

• In the homogeneous flow regime, n is close to unity.

When large bubbles are present, the exponent

decreases, i.e., the gas holdup increases less than

proportionally to the gas flow rate.

Gas Holdup

the gas holdup and is based on the investigation of

numerous systems

Interphase Forces

• Drag force

-Resultant slip velocity between two phases.

-Arising from the inertia effect.

• Basset force

-Due to the development of a boundary layer around a

bubble.

-Created by gradients in relative velocity across the bubble

diameter, may also act on the bubble.

Speciﬁc Interfacial Area

• The area of the gas – liquid interface is one of the most important

process parameters. Especially at high reaction rates (e.g., when a

bubble column is employed as an absorber), the interfacial area

becomes a crucial factor in equipment sizing. Like gas holdup,

interfacial area depends on the geometry, operating conditions, and

gas – liquid system. Gas holdup and interfacial area per unit volume

are related as:

Speciﬁc Interfacial Area

• The speciﬁc interfacial areas attainable in various gas – liquid

reactors can be compared on the basis of power input P per unit

volume. Experimental values can be described by the relation. The

exponent m is between 0.4 and 1

Interface behaviour for the liquid-

phase reaction

• Case A: Instantaneous reaction with low C,

with reaction in the film and in

the main body of the liquid

body but with film resistance

transfer resistance

Conti…

Volumetric Mass-Transfer

Coefﬁcient

• The mass-transfer coefﬁcient

and the gas rate are again

proportional to one another:

where n can be between 0.7 and

0.92

Volumetric Mass-Transfer

Coefﬁcient

• According to experimental results, the col umn diameter above

about 15 cm has no effect on mass-transfer coefﬁcient. Some

correlations nonetheless include reactor diameter. Akita and

Joshida state that the value of the column diameter used for

calculation should not be increased beyond 0.6m. Based on this

premise, their correlation for kL a is

The General Rate Equation

• Assumptions:

enter the gas.

or in both

The General Rate Equation

• The overall rate expression for the reaction will

have to account for the mass transfer resistance

(to bring reactants together) and the resistance

of the chemical reactions step.

Conti…

Hence the overall rate expression is:

Where

The Rate Equation for Straight

Mass Transfer (Absorption)

• No chemical reaction takes place

• Also known as Physical Absorption

• Here we have two resistances in series, of the gas

film and of the liquid film.

equation is as follows:

Design Equation For Bubble Column

Reactor

• We assume that the rate is fast enough so that no unreacted

A enters the main body of the liquid. This assumes that the

Hatta modulus is not very much smaller than unity.

the loss of A from the gas because G is in plug flow, and an

overall balance for B because L is in mixed flow.

..(i)

Where moles A/mole inert in the gas

Conti…

whole, a balance about the whole reactor gives

..(ii)

Conti…

also using Eq.(ii) gives

Axial Dispersion in Bubble Column

Reactor

• Most realistic model is that of dispersed plug-flow in both

phases but this is also the most complicated model.

column is usually much longer than that of the gas, hence

liquid phase will be well-mixed even when the gas phase is not.

• In our case reaction is very fast and occurs wholly within the

liquid film surrounding the bubbles and concentration in the bulk

of the liquid of the species A is zero, and the mixing pattern in

the liquid has therefore no influence on the rate of transfer.

Axial Dispersion in Bubble Column

Reactor: Model Development

• Assumptions:

species are assumed to be uniform at any cross-section of

the pipe,

-Mixing or ‘dispersion’ in the direction of flow (i.e. in the

axial r-direction) is taken into account

- fluid have a constant density so that the mean velocity u is

constant.

Conti…

• The axial mixing is described by exactly the same way as

in molecular diffusion.

coeficient in the longitudinal

direction.

the pipe travels more quickly

than that near the wall, the

overall result being mixing in

the axial direction.

Conti…

differences in velocity at different radial positions

rather than by turbulent eddy.

the tracer distribution, the concentration will vary

with both z the position in the pipe and, at any

fixed position, with time.

dz), in a time interval dt unit area of cross-

section.

Conti…

Conti…

• For very fast steady state gas-liquid reaction,

the reactant A is transferred & thus removed

from the gas phase at a rate which is

proportional to the concentration of A in

the gas, i.e. as in a homogeneous first-

order reaction.

so we have

i.e. reaction is assumed to be confined to the

reaction vessel itself

Conti…

• Boundary conditions:

- rate of transfer is made up of two contributions, the

convective flow & diffusion-like dispersive flow

1. Across the plane at the inlet to the reactor, these two

fluxes must be equal which gives

Conti…

• 2. Now consider the outlet pipe from the reactor

concentration of reactant as the fluid just inside

the outlet plane, which yields

in the diff eq.() we get

Conti…

Conti…

Axial Dispersion in Bubble Column

Reactor

sectional area occupied by the gas, i.e. the region

in which gas dispersion occurs.

coefficient is:

Conti…

• Empirical equation for the gas-phase dispersion

coefficient is:

conditions

where

Conti…

• The rate of transfer per unit volume of

dispersion is thus:

• From the ideal gas law the gas-phase

concentration

Factors to be considered for the

Design Of Bubble Column Reactor

plug G/mixed L.

For gas bubbles rising in liquid kg is low, k, is high.

• (c) Flow rates. more flexible in that they work well in a wider

range of Fl/Fg values.

from bubble contactors.

Conti…

• (e) Solubility.For gases of low solubility in the liquid, thus

high H value liquid film controls

so

not helpful.

is helpful and does speed up the rate.

reaction need to be known or measured which may be

affected by temperature.

Mixing in bubble phases and

Residence time distribution

• If an isolated bubble rises in the reactor, then the

flow pattern in this phase is clearly unmixed, and

this phase should be described as a PFTR.

1. In simplest case ,an isolated bubble which rises a

clearly unmixed situation.

Conti…

coalesce, the residence time distribution of the species in this

pase is narrow or roughly that of a PFTR,

then in the limit of very rapid stirring, the residence time

distribution will be same as in CSTR.

effects tend to mix the contents of the bubbles or drops

CFD Modeling of Bubble Columns

• Eulerian-Lagrangian approach

-To simulate trajectories of individual

bubbles (bubble-scale phenomena)

• Eulerian-Eulerian approach

-To simulate the behavior of gas-liquid

dispersions with high gas volume fractions

(e.g. to simulate millions of bubbles over a

long period of time)

High Aspect-Ratio Bubble Columns

• Bubble column with a low aspect ratio or a single- impeller

agitated tank behaves essentially as a well-mixed reactor

plug flow.

use a bubble column which is tall in relation to its diameter.

diameter column, there are two advantages:

more nearly in a state of plug flow.

Conti…

Conti…

2.Assuming that gas is supplied at the same

volumetric flowrate:

be increased.

-specific interfacial area and the gas hold-up also

increase with superficial gas velocity

-which increase in the rate of reaction per unit

volume of dispersion.

compressing the gas to overcome the additional

hydrostatic head.

Heat Transfer

• the following relation for the heat transfer coefﬁcient α

can be derived

Bubble Column Modeling

Mass transport Fluid

mixing properties

Reaction

Fluid Dynamics

Enhancement

Phase distribution

transfer

resistance Limitation

Mass transfer

Gas hold-up Heat transfer

Interfacial area

Bubble driving force

recirculation mixing

Fluid

Turbulence

Bubble breakage properties

shear stress

And coalescence

terminal

velocity

residence time

References

• Coulson & Richardson's CHEMICAL ENGINEERING VOLUME 3 THIRD

EDITION “Chemical & Biochemical Reactors & Process Control” , J.

F. RICHARDSON ,Department of Chemical Engineering,University of

Wales Swansea and D. G. PEACOCK ,The School of Pharmacy,London

Levenspiel;Department of Chemical Engineering,Oregon State

University

SCHMIDT,University of Minnesota

Institute for Molecular Sciences (HIMS)

Engineering,The University of British Columbia

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