Presentation On Power Steering

By Sahaj Harnal 07AU626

The steering system allows the operator to guide the vehicle along the road and turn left or right as desired. The system includes the steering wheel, which the operator controls, the steering mechanism, which changes the rotary motion of the steering wheel into straight-line motion, and the steering linkage. Most systems were manual until a few years ago. Then power steering became popular. It is now installed in most vehicles manufactured today. The steering system must perform some important functions like ± ‡Provide precise control of front-wheel direction. ‡Maintain the correct amount of effort needed to turn the front wheels.

Steering linkage is a series or arms, rods, and ball sockets that connect the steering mechanism to the steering knuckles. The steering linkage used with most manual and power steering mechanisms typically includes a pitman arm, center link, idler arm, and two tie-rod assemblies.

How Car Steering Works? .

Turning the Car For a car to turn smoothly. If we draw a line perpendicular to each wheel. Since the inside wheel is following a circle with a smaller radius. the lines will intersect at the center point of the turn. each wheel must follow a different circle. . The geometry of the steering linkage makes the inside wheel turn more than the outside wheel. it is actually making a tighter turn than the outside wheel.

Turning the Car While turning. the inside wheel turn more than the outside wheel .

The steering ratio is a number of degrees that the steering wheel must be turned to pivot the front wheels 1 degree. higher the steering ratio. the steering wheel must turn 30 degrees to pivot the front wheels 1 degree. all other things being equal. However. . This means that a relatively small applied force can produce a much greater force at the other end of the device. the easier it is to steer the vehicle. In a machine or mechanical device. it is the ratio of the output force to the input force applied to it. the more the steering wheel has to be turned to achieve steering. The higher the steering ratio.STEERING RATIO One purpose of the steering mechanism is to provide mechanical advantage. With a 30: 1 steering ratio.

However.Variable steering ratio "Variable steering ratio" means that the ratio is larger at one position than another. . At the center or straight-ahead position. Therefore the wheels are turned faster at certain positions than at others. This design is very helpful for parking and maneuvering the vehicle. as the wheels are turned. giving more steering control. the ratio decreases so that the steering action is much more rapid. the steering gear ratio is high.

There are several different types of manual steering systems. It is tight. which are as follows: 1. Worm and sector Worm and rotter Cam and lever Worm and nut Rack and pinion . 4. and accurate in maintaining steering control. greater front overhang on larger vehicles and a trend toward wide tread tires have increased the steering effort required. larger and heavier engines. fast. 3. However. Steering mechanisms with higher gear ratios were tried.MANUAL STEERING SYSTEMS Manual steering is considered to be entirely adequate for smatter vehicles. 5. 2. but dependable power steering systems were found to be the answer.

Worm and sector type steering system Worm and roller type steering system Cam and lever type steering system Worm and nut type steering system .

Manual Steering System Manual Steering System .

. which meshes with a long rack.Rack and Pinion The rack-and-pinion steering gear has become increasingly popular on smaller passenger vehicles. the pinion gear on the end of the steering shaft rotates. more direct acting. The pinion gear moves the rack from one side to the other. As the steering wheel is rotated. and may be straight mechanical or power-assisted. ‡It provides a gear reduction. It is simpler. making it easier to turn the wheels. The rack-and-pinion gearset does two things: ‡It converts the rotational motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion needed to turn the wheels. This turns the wheels to one side or the other so the vehicle can be steered. This action pushes or pulls on the tie rods. In the rack-and-pinion steering system the end of the steering gear shaft contains a pinion gear. forcing the steering knuckles or wheel spindles to pivot on their ball joints.

Rack-and-pinion steering gear Rack-and-pinion steering gear .


the piston slides in its cylinders. When the control valve routes oil pressure into one end of the piston.Power Steering Power steering systems normally use an engine-driven pump and hydraulic system to assist steering action. Piston movement can then be used to help move the steering system components and front wheels of the vehicles. . Pressure from the oil pump is used to operate a piston and cylinder assembly.

The pump must be designed to provide adequate flow when the engine is idling. As the vanes spin. they pull hydraulic fluid from the return line at low pressure and force it into the outlet at high pressure. It contains a set of retractable vanes that spin inside an oval chamber. So. The amount of flow provided by the pump depends on the car's engine speed. . The pump contains a pressure-relief valve to make sure that the pressure does not get too high. This pump is driven by the car's engine via a belt and pulley.Pump The hydraulic power for the steering is provided by a rotary-vane pump. the pump moves much more fluid than necessary when the engine is running at faster speeds.

Since the inner part of the spool valve is also connected to the steering shaft.Rotary Valve The device that senses the force on the steering wheel is called the rotary valve. As the bar twists. and the bottom of the bar is connected to the pinion or worm gear (which turns the wheels). the amount of rotation between the inner and outer parts of the spool valve depends on how much torque the driver applies to the steering wheel. The key to the rotary valve is a torsion bar. The top of the bar is connected to the steering wheel. . it rotates the inside of the spool valve relative to the outside. The bottom of the torsion bar connects to the outer part of the spool-valve assembly. so the amount of torque in the torsion bar is equal to the amount of torque the driver is using to turn the wheels.

ports open up to provide high-pressure fluid to the appropriate line. . both hydraulic lines provide the same amount of pressure to the steering gear.Working of the rotary Valve When the steering wheel is not being turned. But if the spool valve is turned one way or the other.

Part of the rack contains a cylinder with a piston in the middle. .Power Rack-and-pinion In the rack-and-pinion power-steering system. the rack has a slightly different design. The piston is connected to the rack. Supplying higher-pressure fluid to one side of the piston forces the piston to move. There are two fluid ports. providing the power assist. which in turn moves the rack. one on either side of the piston.

Upper Pinion seal. 2. or at the rack-and-pinion assembly. With pressure over 1. leakage occurs from:1. In Steering gear box. in hoses. .Power Steering Leakage A common problem with power steering systems is fluid leakage.000 psi.Rack bush side seal. 3. at the gearbox seals. leaks can develop easily around fittings.Pinion side seal.

internal oil leak test).  Pinion assembly.  Assembly of feed tubes.Power Steering Assembly line The main processes on the Power Steering assembly line are: Parts washing (cylinder tube. pinion housing).  Final inspection. .  Oil purge.  Tests (Air leak test.  Rack housing and bearing Pressing.  Assembly of bellows and OBJ. grease application and insertion.  Rack bar washing.  Assembly of IBJ.  Rack bush assembly. Rack twist adjustment.

Electronic Power Steering (EPS) .

Pump speed is regulated by an electric controller to vary pump pressure and flow. The pump can be run at low speed or shut off to provide energy savings during straight ahead driving . In electro-hydraulic steering.Electronic Power Steering Electrically powered steering uses an electric motor to drive either the power steering hydraulic pump or the steering linkage directly. providing steering efforts tailored for different driving situations. The power steering function is therefore independent of engine speed. one electrically powered steering concept uses a high efficiency pump driven by an electric motor. resulting in significant energy savings.

electric power steering is more energy efficient. hoses. It eliminates the need for a power Steering pump. . hydraulic fluids. As a result. and a drive belt and pulley on the engine.Electronic Power Steering (EPS) Electronic Power Steering (EPS) is an advanced power steering system.

Control block diagram for EPS system .

The sensor inputs are then compared to determine how much power assist is required according to a preprogrammed "force map" in the control unit's memory.Working A "steering sensor" is located on the input shaft. .The steering sensor is actually two sensors: a "torque sensor" that converts steering torque input and its direction into voltage signals. Inputs from the steering sensor are digested by a microprocessor control unit that also monitors input from the vehicle's speed sensor. There is an "interface" circuit that converts the signals from the torque sensor and rotation sensor into signals that are sent to a microprocessor. The motor pushes the rack to the right or left depending on which way the voltage flows (reversing the current reverses the direction the motor spins). The control unit then sends out the appropriate command to the "power unit" which then supplies the electric motor with current. and a "rotation sensor" that converts the rotation speed and direction into voltage signals. Increasing the current to the motor increases the amount of power assist.

3. Column assist type. 2. Pinion assist type. Rack assist type. .Classifications of EPS EPS can mainly classified in to 3 kinds depending up on the position of the motor: 1.

controller and the torque sensor are attached to the steering column. .Column-Assist Type: ‡The power assist unit. ‡Shafts offer long-term durability performance at much higher torsion loading. ‡This system is compact and easy to mount on vehicle. ‡An integrated pivot/mount and integrated controller option increase mounting flexibility.

.Pinion-assist type: ‡The power assist unit is attached to steering gears pinion shaft. ‡The power assist unit is outside the vehicles passenger compartment. this system can suffice with a compact motor and offer superior handling characteristics. allowing assist torque to be increased greatly without raising interior noise. ‡Combined with a variable ratio steering gear.

Rack-assist type: ‡The power assist unit is attached to the steering gear rack. ‡Electric power steering rack assist is a scalable system. . suitable for midsize cars to full-size trucks. allowing great flexibility in layout design. ‡The power assist unit can be located freely on the rack. ‡The power assist units¶ high reduction gear ratio enables very low inertia and superior driving feel.

Helps improve fuel economy by reducing the pressure the pump has to work against during straight-ahead highway speed driving. Compact. modular design and flexible tuning capability. Reduced steering system operating temperature. Enhances dependability and safety. Lower noise under all driving conditions.Advantages of EPS over Hydraulic Power Steering: EPS has got upper hand compared to Hydraulic power steering because: Reduced driver fatigue. . Accommodates most vehicle platforms.

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