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Progression of Technology



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A typical COǥway back

At the company, an operator was

appointed, who handled all the calls.
6All switching logic had to be
6Analog transmission.
6Pre-1960¶s technology.

6 =witching systems were not easily scalable

because changes had to be implemented in
6 As systems were upgraded, services were
not the same in all areas.
6 The existing technology was not able to
handle the changing needs of callers.
6 As modems became popular the nature of
calls changing from voice to data put a
strain on the analog switches due to the
variation in the length of calls. Data calls
tend to be much longer than voice calls.
Circuit switching











 °    °




jther functions of an exchange are:

1. SIGNALING: Exchange of information with the

external environment.
2. CjNTRjL: Processing the signaling information
and controlling the operation of
signaling network.


PHY=#,0P,&H=H0$ PHY=#,0P,&H=1=$
$1 23&H2&  )Y,2%%+
&%+#,00 =1)=# ) =+% =,00
$1 ,&%2
In this mode, different time-slots of I/C and
O/G PCM highways are interconnected by
re-assigning the channel sequence. For e.g. TSx
Of I/C HWY connected to TSy of O/G HWY.
& 5
P# & * P#

4# %43
In this mode, corresponding time-slots of I/C and O/G
PCM highways are interconnected . For e.g. TSi of I/C
HWY (say HWY1) connected to TSi of O/G HWY (say
HWY 2).
P# &=5 P#

4# %43
6 C-DOT DSS MAX ²XL is a universal digital switch, which can be
configured for different application as local, transit or
integrated local cum transit switch.

6MAX-XL has capacity upto 40,000 lines as local exchange and

15,000 trunks as Trunk Automatic exchange.

6 The switch can handle 8,00,000 BHCA and 7,800 E traffic.

6 The hardware architecture: includes microprocessor based

control & hybrid integrated circuits.

6 The software has been written in high level language(C) & the
man machine interface language is a simple English like
! —

6 The system employs a T-S-T (Time ²Space-Time) switching

configuration and is based on a 32 channel PCM structure.

6 It uses a basic rate of 64 Kbps & 2 mbps primary multiplexing

ë   ë  

CDjT DSS MAX-XL exchanges can be configured from four basic
6ÑM-XL is the basic growth unit of CDOT DSS. It interfaces
the external world to the switch. The interface may be
subscriber lines, analog & digital trunks, CCM & PÑX lines &
digital links from remote modules & line concentrators.

6 Each Ñase Module can interface up to 2024 terminations.

6 The numbers of ÑM directly correspond to the exchange

size. COT MAX-L & CDOT MAX-XL can contain maximum
16 & 32 ÑM respectively.
6 It
carries out majority of call processing function and in a
small exchange application, it also carries out operation and
maintenance function with the help of Input-Output Module.

6 The BM is capable of serving upto 2000 lines or 512 trunks,

interconnected via a Central Module (CM) .

6 By interconnecting upto 32 such BMs through a Central Module

(CM),the switch can support upto 40,000 lines.The system can
support upto 4:1 concentration. Lines and trunks can be
inter-mixed in the same BM.
6Base Module can be remotely located as a RSU ( REMOTE
SWITCH UNIT) parented to the main exchange using PCM
6BM can be act as a remote switching module & communicate
with host exchange via digital links. Speed of digital link is 2
Even when digital links fail between RSU and main exchange,
local call processing function will not be affected within the
6 There are two types of Base Modules :-
1. Single Base Modules(SBM)
2. Multi Base Module(MBM)







6 %&


6 (       

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%&=W&#H 2% ,0)
Ô. Type of connectivity is
Ô. Type of connectivity used is through E-Ô cards of
data cables. 2mbps.
2. Contains Time Switch 2. Contains Enhancement
Cards . Switch Cards.
3. Situated at a Distance. 3. Should be inside CM.
Responsible for
between Base Distribution and
Space switching
Module and network
of inter-Base
Administrative synchronization.
Module calls.


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Each BM interfaces with CM via two 5Ô2 channel parallel buses

each operating at 4 Mbps. These buses carry voice information of
5Ô2 termination of the Base Module towards CM. In the reverse
direction, after space switching has been done in the Space Switch
under the control of Space Controller (SSC), the same buses carry
the switched voice information for 5Ô2 termination towards BM.
6 It performs all the memory and time intensive call
processing support functions and also administration &
maintenance functions.

6 AM-XL consists of a duplicated Ô 32-bit controller called

the Administrative Processor Controller.

6 It communicates with Base Processors via the Central

Message Switch for control messages and with the
duplicated Input Output Processors in the Input Output
Module for interfacing peripheral devices.
6 %-0   
6#(7#   8

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