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Fluid Mechanics

- Van Everdingen, A.F. and Hurst, W.: The Application of the Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs
- Hydrodynamics
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- Analysis of a Ship Propeller using CFD codes
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- CHAPTER 11.docx
- ARMA-04-502
- A new formulation of the dispersion tensor in homogeneous porous media
- Chapter 1 Lecture 1
- Flow Calculation for Gases

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Mechanics

(It is the oldest physical science that deals with

both stationary and moving bodies under the

influence of forces)

Static Dynamics

(The branch of (The branch of

mechanics that deals mechanics that deals with

with bodies at rest) bodies in motion)

Fluid Mechanics

It is the science deals with the behavior of fluids at rest

[fluid statics] or in motion [fluid dynamics]

(Study of the motion of (Study of the motion of

incompressible fluids) compressible fluids)

Hydraulics Aerodynamics

(Liquid flows in pipes (Flow of air over bodies)

and open channels)

Is Fluid Mechanics Old- or low-tech?

Fluid Mechanics and Your MP3 Player

Is Fluid Mechanics Old- or low-tech?

Fluid Dynamic and Das Dynamic Bearing

Fluid Dynamic and Das Dynamic Bearing

Fluid Mechanics Overview

Fluid Mechanics

F 0i F 0 , Flows

i

Air, He, Ar,

N2, etc. Alcohols, Pressure Buoyancy Compressible/

etc.

Incompressible

Laminar/

Surface

Turbulent

Tension

Steady/Unsteady

Compressibility Density Viscosity Vapor Viscous/Inviscid

Pressure Fluid Dynamics:

Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Fluid Statics

Rest of Course

What is a fluid?

• A fluid is a substance in the gaseous or liquid form

• Distinction between solid and fluid?

– Solid: can resist an applied shear by deforming.

Stress is proportional to strain

– Fluid: deforms continuously under applied shear.

Stress is proportional to strain rate

Solid Fluid

F F V

A A h

Characteristics of Fluids

• Gas or liquid state

• “Large” molecular spacing relative to a solid

• “Weak” intermolecular cohesive forces

• Can resist a shear stress when it is at rest

• Will take the shape of its container

• Generally considered as a continuum

• Viscosity distinguishes different types of fluids

Fluid as a Continuum

• Molecules are widely spaced in

the gas phase. However, we

can disregard the molecular

nature of a substance.

• View it as a continuous,

homogeneous matter with no

holes, that is, a continuum.

• This allows us to treat

properties as smoothly varying

quantities.

• Continuum is valid as long as

size of the system is large in

comparison to distance

between molecules.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

V Smallest volume for which the mass

can be considered continuum

property is assumed to have a definite value at every

point in space. They are considered to be continuous

functions of position and time. For example

Mean Free Path

It is the average distance covered by a moving particle

(such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between

successive impacts (collisions) which modify its

direction or energy or other particle properties.

Pressure in

Vacuum range Molecules / cm3 Molecules / m3 Mean free path

(mbar)

Ambient

1013 2.7 × 1019 2.7 × 1025 68 nm

pressure

Low vacuum 300 – 1 1019 – 1016 1025 – 1022 0.1 – 100 μm

Medium

1 – 10−3 1016 – 1013 1022 – 1019 0.1 – 100 mm

vacuum

High vacuum 10−3 – 10−7 1013 – 109 1019 – 1015 10 cm – 1 km

Ultra high

10−7 – 10−12 109 – 104 1015 – 1010 1 km – 105 km

vacuum

Extremely high

<10−12 <104 <1010 >105 km

vacuum

Basic Equations

Analysis of any problem in fluid mechanics

necessarily includes statement of the basic laws

governing the fluid motion. The basic laws are

• Conservation of mass

• Newton’s second law of motion

• The principle of angular momentum

• The first law of thermodynamics

• The second law of thermodynamics

Methods of Analysis

System

(or “Closed System”)

Control Volume

(or “Open System”)

Dimensions and Units

• A dimension is a measure of any physical

quantity (without numerical values) .

• A unit is a way to assign a number or

measurement to that dimension.

• Basic dimensions include: Mass M, length L,

time T, and temperature θ or Force F, length L,

time T, and temperature θ.

• Unit systems include English system and the

metric SI (International System).

• Dimensional homogeneity is a valuable tool in

checking for errors. Make sure every term in an

equation has the same units.

Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight:

ρ = m/V (kg/m3)

Different fluids can vary greatly in density

Liquids densities do not vary much with

pressure and temperature

Gas densities can vary quite a bit with

pressure and temperature

• Specific volume is defined as

v = 1/ρ = V/m (m3/kg)

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight:

• Specific gravity, or relative density is defined as

the ratio of the density of a substance to the

density of some standard substance at a specified

temperature (usually water at 4°C), i.e.,

SG = r/rH20

SG is a dimensionless quantity.

unit volume, i.e.,

γ = ρg

where g is the gravitational acceleration and γ has

units of N/m3.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Viscosity: Introduction

• Viscosity is a property that represents the internal

resistance of a fluid to motion.

• The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the

flow direction is called the drag force, and the

magnitude of this force depends, in part, on

viscosity.

Types of Drag

There are essentially three types of drag: Friction

drag, Form or Pressure drag, and Induced drag.

• Form drag is directly proportional to the cross-

sectional area of the object traveling through a fluid.

occurs whenever a moving object

redirects the airflow coming at it.

Shape and Form Skin

flow drag friction

0% 100%

~10% ~90%

~90% ~10%

100% 0%

Viscosity

a

(b)

(a)

plates. (b) Forces acting on upper plate.

Viscosity

No slip

condition

Viscosity: Newtonian vs. Non-Newtonian Fluids

Fluids for which the

shearing stress is

linearly related to the

rate of shearing strain

are designated as

Newtonian Fluids.

Fortunately most

common fluids, both

liquids and gases, are

Newtonian.

Linear variation of du

shearing stress with rate of

shearing strain dy

Toothpaste

Latex Paint

Corn Starch

shearing strain for several types of fluids

related to the rate of shearing strain are designated as

Non-Newtonian Fluids.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Dynamic (absolute) viscosity of some common fluids as

a function of temperature.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

The effect of temperature on viscosity can be closely

approximated using two empirical formulas.

• For gases by the Sutherland correlation

1

aT 2

1 b / T

Where T is the absolute temp and a and b are

experimentally determined constants.

For air, the values of these constants are

a = 1.458 10-6 kg/m.s.K1/2 and b = 110.4 K

at atmospheric conditions

• For liquids an empirical equation that has been used is

b

T c

a 10

Where T is the absolute temp and a, b, and c are

experimentally determined constants.

For water using the values

a = 2.414 10-5 N.s/m2, b = 247.8 K and c = 140

K results in less than 2.5 percent error in viscosity

in the temperature range of 0oC to 370oC.

This equation is often referred to as Andrade’s

equation.

Viscosity: Kinematic Viscosity

r

• It is another way of representing viscosity

• Used in the flow equations

• The units are of L2/T or m2/s and ft2/s

1 poise (P) = 100 centipoise (cP)

1 cP = 1/100 poise = 0.001 N.s/m 2

Compressibility of Fluids: Bulk Modulus

How compressible is the fluid?

dp dp

E

d V / V dr / r

change in pressure needed to

create a differential change in

volume dV, of a volume V.

• Units of the bulk modulus (also

referred to as the bulk modulus of

elasticity) are N/m2 (Pa).

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Compressibility of Fluids: Bulk Modulus

• Large value for the bulk indicate that the fluid is

relatively compressible-that is, it takes a large

pressure change to create a small change in

volume.

• For example, at atmospheric pressure and

temperature of 15oC it would require a pressure

of 21.5 MPa to compress a unit volume of water

1%.

• Since large pressure are required to effect a

change in volume, we conclude that liquids can

be considered as incompressible for most

practical engineering applications.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Compressibility of Fluids: Compression of Gases

When gases are compressed or expanded the

relationship between P and ρ depends on the nature

of the process.

Isothermal Process (constant temperature):

p

r

constant E p

Isentropic Process (frictionless, no heat exchange):

p

r k

constant E kp

k is the ratio of specific heats k c p / cv

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Compressibility of Fluids: Compression of Gases

• Note that in both cases the bulk modulus varies

directly with pressure.

• For air under standard atmospheric conditions

with p = 101.3 kPa (abs) and k = 1.4, the

isentropic bulk modulus is 142 kPa. For water

under the same conditions is 2150 kPa. It shows

that air is approximately 15,000 times as

compressible as water.

• It is thus clear that in dealing with gases, greater

attention will need to be given to the effect of

compressibility on fluid behavior.

Compressibility of Fluids: Speed of Sound

A consequence of the compressibility of fluids is that

small disturbances introduced at a point propagate at a

finite velocity. Pressure disturbances in the fluid

propagate as sound, and their velocity is known as the

speed of sound or the acoustic velocity, c.

dp Ev

c or c

dr r

kp

Isentropic Process : c

r

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

A sonic boom produced by an aircraft moving at

M=2.92, calculated from the cone angle of 20 deg.

An observer hears the boom when the shock wave,

on the edges of the cone, crosses his or her location.

Vapor Pressure : The Microscopic View

Evaporation occurs in a fluid when liquid molecules

at the surface have sufficient momentum to

overcome the intermolecular cohesive forces.

container, the molecules cannot escape.

• Some of the gas molecules will eventually strike

the condensed phase and condense back into it.

Vapor Pressure: The Microscopic View

• When the rate of condensation of the gas becomes

equal to the rate of evaporation of the liquid, the

amount of gas and liquid no longer changes.

• The gas in the container is in equilibrium with the

liquid. Then the vapour is said to be saturated.

• The pressure exerted by the gas on the liquid

surface in equilibrium with a liquid in a closed

container at a given temperature is called the vapor

pressure.

Vapor Pressure: Measurements (Basic)

barometer tube in a trough of

mercury, at 1 atmosphere

pressure the column will be

760 mm tall.

Vapor Pressure: Measurements

into the tube, it will rise to form a

thin layer floating on top of the

mercury. Some of the liquid will

evaporate and you will get the

equilibrium. It is only an equilibrium

if both liquid and vapour are present.

mercury level down a bit. In this case, the mercury has been

forced down by a distance of 760 - 630 mm. The saturated

vapour pressure of this liquid at the temperature of the

experiment is 130 mmHg.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Vapor Pressure: The Microscopic View

The vapor pressure of a liquid varies with its

temperature, as the following graph shows for

water.

Evaporation and Boiling

in some aspects.

Evaporation occurs at the liquid-vapor interface

when the vapor pressure in the air is less than the

saturation pressure of the liquid at a given

temperature.

Boiling occurs at the solid-liquid interface when a

liquid is brought into contact with surface

maintained at a temperature Ts sufficiently above

the saturation temperature Tsat of the liquid.

Evaporation and Boiling

Evaporation and Boiling

Atmosphere air can be viewed as a mixture of dry air

(air with zero moisture) and water vapor (moisture).

Patm Pa Pv

air Pa and the pressure of water vapor, called the vapor

pressure (Pv).

Evaporation and Boiling

For liquid water that is open to the atmosphere, the

criterion for phase equilibrium -> The vapor pressure

(Pv) in the air must be equal to the saturation pressure

of water at the water temperature.

Pv Psat@T

where relative humidity

Psat@T saturation pressure of liquid

at the specificed temperature

Ex: Pv Psat@25o C 0.6 3.17 kPa

1.90 kPa

temperature, some liquid will evaporate.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Vapor Pressure: Cavitation

It is the formation of air bubbles, forming on the

low pressure region in a flowing fluid and they are

swept into regions of higher pressure where they

suddenly collapse.

Vortex pump

Propeller

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Vapor Pressure: Cavitation

Surface Tension

• A drop of blood forms a hump on a horizontal

glass.

• A drop of mercury forms a near-perfect sphere and

can be rolled just like a steel ball over a smooth

surface.

• Water droplets from rain or dew hang from

branches or leaves of trees.

• A liquid fuel injected into an engine forms a mist of

spherical droplets.

• Water dripping from a leaky faucet falls as nearly

spherical droplets.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Surface Tension

• Water beads up into small drops on flower petals.

• A soap bubble released into the air forms a nearly

spherical shape.

Water beading on a leaf Water dripping from a tap Mercury droplets on a table

Surface Tension

In these and other observances, liquid droplets

behave like small spherical balloons filled with

liquid, and the surface of the liquid acts like a

stretched elastic membrane under tension.

parallel to the surface and is due to the attractive

forces between molecules of the liquid. The

magnitude of this force unit length is called surface

tension σ and is usually expressed in the unit N/m.

Surface Tension : A Microscopic View

and one deep within the liquid body. The attractive

forces applied on the interior molecule by the

surrounding molecules balance each other because of

the symmetry.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Surface Tension : A Microscopic View

The attractive force on surface molecule is not

symmetric, and the attractive forces applied by the

gas molecules above are usually very small.

Therefore, there is a net attractive force acting on

molecules at the surface of the liquid, which tends to

pull the molecules on the surface towards the interior

of the liquid. This force is balanced by the repulsive

forces from the molecules below the surface that are

trying to be compressed. The result is that the liquid

to minimize its surface area. This is the reason for the

tendency of liquid droplets to attain a spherical shape.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Work in Changing a Surface Area

A liquid film suspended on

a U-shaped wire frame with

a movable side. Both sides

of the thin film are surfaces

exposed to air, and thus the

length along which the

surface tension acts in this

case 2l. Then a force

balance on the movable wire

gives

F 2l

F

2l

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Calculation of Pressure inside a liquid droplet

Real Fluid Drops Mathematical Model

along the line: F 2 R Applied to Circumference

surface

Fpressure Dp R 2 Applied to Area

2

Dp pi pe

R

Dp is the pressure difference between the inside and outside.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Surface Tension: Liquid Droplet and Soap Bubble

4

Dp

R

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Surface Tension: Capillary Effect

The rise or fall of a liquid in a small-diameter tube

inserted into the liquid is called as capillary effect . It is

the consequence of surface tension. The curved free

surface of a liquid in the tube is call the meniscus.

“Wetted” “Non-Wetted”

Adhesion

Cohesion

Adhesion

Cohesion

contact.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Capillary Effect : Wetting and Nonwetting Fluid

The strength of

capillary effect is

quantified by the

contact angle ø,

defined as the angle

that the tangent to

the liquid surface

makes with the solid

surface at the point

of contact.

Capillary Effect : A Microscopic View

• Cohesive forces are the forces between like

molecules, such as water and water and adhesive

force are the forces between unlike molecules such

as water and glass.

• The liquid molecules at the solid-liquid interface are

subjected to both cohesive forces by other liquid

molecules and adhesive forces by the molecules of

the solid.

• The relative magnitudes of these forces determine

whether a liquid wets a solid surface or not. Thus

water tends to rise along the glass surface and the

opposite occurs for mercury.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Calculation of Capillary Rise

The weight of the fluid is balanced with the vertical

force caused by surface tension.

Fsurface 2R cos

W R h 2

2 cos

Free Body Diagram h

R

• For clean glass in contact with water, θ 0°

• For a clean glass in contact with mercury, θ 130°.

Thus h is negative or there is a push down of the fluid.

Surface Tension

Torque

Torque also called moment or moment of force is the

tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,

fulcrum, or pivot.

T r F

T rF sin

Where T is the torque vector and

r is the displacement vector

is the angle between the force

vector and the lever arm vector.

Torque

The torque on a body determines the rate of change of

the body's angular momentum.

dL

T

dt

where L is the angular momentum vector. If multiple

torques are acting on the body,

dL

T1 T2 Tn Tnet

dt

For rotation about a fixed axis L I

where I is the moment of inertia and ω is the angular

velocity. It follows that

dL d I I d

Tnet I

dt dt dt

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

Moment of inertia

Moment of inertia, also called mass moment of

inertia or the angular mass, is a measure of an

object's resistance to changes in its rotation rate.

Moment of inertia

increase their rates of rotation.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics

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