Values and Attitudes | Attitude (Psychology) | Job Satisfaction


Is this behaviour ethical?
Is it ethical to
take office stationary for home use? Make personal long-distance calls from the office? Use company time for personal business? Or do these behaviours constitute stealing?

If you exaggerate your credentials in an interview, is it lying? Is lying to protect a coworker acceptable? How do you differentiate between a bribe and a gift?

Is it immoral to do less than your best in terms of work performance? If there are slight defects in a product you are selling, are you obliged to tell the buyer? If you pretend to be more successful than you are in order to impress your boss, are you bring deceitful?

They represent basic convictions that ³ a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence´.What is Value? Values are broad preferences concerning courses of action or outcomes. .

but they change slowly Values contain ³content attributes´( mode of conduct) and ³ intensity attributes´ .Certain Characteristics of Values Values contain a judgmental element They are relatively stable and enduring Values are not fixed.

equity and democracy are societal values. peace. cooperation.Sources of Value System A significant portion is established during early years The environment in which the individual is brought up also influences one¶s value system Certain values are developed over time and these are continuously reinforced ( In America achievement. In India tolerance. god fearing and renunciation are important social values) . respect. sacrifice.

Importance of Values Values lay the foundation for the understanding of perception & motivation They influence our attitudes & behaviour Once a value is internalized. . it becomes a standard for selecting and guiding an action.

responsible) . helpful. or means of achieving the terminal values ( hardworking. freedom.the desirable end-states of existence ( a comfortable life.Types of Values ( Milton Rokeach Value Survey) Terminal Values. working for the unprivileged) Instrumental values-the preferable modes of behaviour.

wealth Lasting friendships Recognition from peers Salvation. satisfaction in life Knowledge and wisdom Peace and harmony in the world Pride in accomplishment Prosperity. finding eternal life Security.Terminal Values           Happiness. freedom from threat Self-respect .

being counted upon by others Education and intellectual pursuits Hard work and achievement Obedience. standing up for yourself Being helpful or caring toward others Dependability. independence Truthfulness. honesty Being well-mannered and courteous toward others . following the wishes of others Open-mindedness.Instrumental Values           Assertiveness. receptivity to new ideas Self-sufficiency.

Value Ranking of Executives Terminal Values Self respect Family security Freedom A sense of accomplishment Happiness Instrumental Values Honest Responsible Capable Ambitious Independent .

Value Ranking of Union Members Terminal Values Family security Freedom Happiness Self respect Mature love Instrumental Values Responsible Honest Courageous Independent Capable .

dislike of authority. loyalty to career Xers. dislike of rules. ambition. financial success. conservative. team oriented.< 30 confident. confirming. loyalty to relationships Nexters. loyalty to self & relationship . team oriented. achievement.(20-40) work-life balance. loyalty Boomers ( 40-65) success. self reliant.Work values of different generations Veterans(65+) hardworking.

Values Across Culture (Geert Hofstede¶s findings) Power distance Individualism versus collectivism Masculinity Vs femininity Uncertainty avoidance Long term versus short-term orientation .

The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures Assertiveness Future orientation Gender differentiation Uncertainty avoidance Power distance Individualism/collectivism In-group collectivism Performance orientation Human orientation .

intimacy. which an Indian learns to value and look for in life. caring . sacrificing yet demanding.Indians are exposed to warm and personal relationship with family members and others. Values like empathy. mutual understanding and respect are shown in the workplace. authoritative and strict dimension of the father. concern for one another.dependable. Relationship. togetherness. .Values in Indian Society Karta ± it is the nurturing.

for comfort rather than risk.immense faith in luck and fate and in past karma. Security.parent-child relationship of dependence produces a preference for security rather than venturing out. complacency) . Simple living and high thinkingSurvival.( undervalues the power of human endeavour to change the destiny.Proximity to power.powerlessness and dependency experienced in the childhood and adolescence results in giving high value to power source.

social obligation) . rule following) and those drawn from Indian culture and society (affiliation.Indian managers experience a clash between the values acquired from their education and professional training (rationality.

) .(quality consciousness respect for employees. concern for environment. community development. which are principles that guide a company¶s actions and practices. maintaining confidentiality etc. non-discriminating nonexploitative practices) Work values are conception of an individual of a desirable work activity(finishing tasks in time.Organizational Values & Work Values Organizational values comprise core values.

Luthans. Infosys and L&T show how ethics and profitability go together. . WIPRO. There is increasing evidence that ethical practices translate into better financial performance for organizations. (188 Fortune 500 companies convicted for unethical practices had significantly lower return on assets as well as returns on sales.2002) In India companies like Tata.Values and Ethics Ehtics is an extension of value considerations.

especially in countries where work values are different.Certain Conclusions Value system of employees are important They differ among different groups Value system keeps on changing from one generation to another OB theories and concepts are not universally applicable to manage people around the world. .

What is an attitude? Attitude can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object. or events. They are evaluative statements. .either favorable or unfavorable ±concerning objects. people.

.the opinion or belief statement of an attitude. Affective/Evaluative/Emotional component-one¶s feeling or how you feel about a particular thing. Behavioral intention to behave in certain way toward someone or something.Three Components of an Attitude Cognitive component.

BELIEFS & VALUES My job Lacks Responsibility ATTITUDES INTENDED BEHAVIOUR I am going to quit My job I do not Like My job (Antecedents) (feelings) (Results) .

Job related Attitudes Job satisfaction Job involvement Organisational commitment .

When there is an inconsistency. attempts are made either to alter the attitudes or the behaviour or to develop rationalization for the discrepancy. .Are Attitudes Consistent? People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behaviour.

The desire to reduce the dissonance would be determined by‡ The importance of the elements ‡ The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements ‡ The rewards that may be involved in the dissonance .Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Leon Festinger) Cognitive Dissonance refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes or between his or her behaviour and attitudes.

.Do Attitudes Influence Behaviour? Attitudes influence behaviour when attitudes are important specific accessible and the person has direct experience. Discrepancies between attitudes and behaviour are more likely to occur when social pressures to behave in certain ways hold exceptional power.

Can Attitudes be Changed? How to change attitudes? New information Resolving the discrepancies Influence of friends & peers Reduced relevance of an object Use of fear Barriers to change Prior commitment Insufficient information Lesser importance .

Conclusions Attitudes influence behaviour and vice versa. cross cultural sensitivity training) . gender sensitive training. Attitude surveys on a regular basis provides managers with valuable feedback Organisations are investing in training to help reshape the attitudes of employees(diversity training.

.What is job satisfaction? Job satisfaction is the overall attitude of an individual toward his or her job. E. Locke(1976) defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one¶s job or job experience.A.

How satisfied people are? People are generally satisfied with their jobs. . Satisfaction level is going down Satisfaction level varies for different groups JS is a relatively stable disposition.

of dependents Personality General life satisfaction Personality-job fit .Determinants of Job Satisfaction Organisational Factors Reward system Nature of work Quality of supervision Working condition Supportive colleagues Decentralisation of power Individual Determinants Status and seniority Age Marital Status No.

The Effect of JS on Work Behaviour Job performance Absenteeism Turnover Accidents Customer satisfaction OCB .

Measuring Job Satisfaction Single global rating Summation score(Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire) Critical incident method Interview Confrontation meeting Rating scales & Questionnaires ‡ Job descriptive index ‡ Pay satisfaction survey .

How Employees Can Express their Dissatisfaction? Exit (Destructive & Active) Neglect (Destructive & Passive) Voice (Constructive & Active) Loyalty (Constructive & Passive) .

What satisfies Indian Employees (Results of 17 research studies conducted between 1965to 1997) Managers/Supervisors.Responsibility. relationship with co-workers are the most important factors contributing to the job satisfaction of Indian managers/supervisor. Workers-Most important factor is money. This is followed by job security. Domestic life and adequate money also satisfy them. ( 12 out of 16 studies confirm this). recognition . work itself. . achievement.

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