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TECHNOLOGY

THE PARTICLE FILTER

Date :
Instructor:
Location:
Duration: 7Hrs30
septembre 2005PPT 00000/0 - F - 04/2006 - DEFI
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

All the values and information given in this presentation are


as an indication only.
They are subject to modification and have no contractual
value.
For all checking of or working on the
Particle Filter systems, refer to the manufacturer's document.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

CONTENT

- PRESENTATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------Page 4

- QUIZ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Page 9

- PRESENTATION OF THE PARTICLE FILTER SYSTEMS-----------------Page 25


• Composition of the system ------------------------------------------- Page 29
• The Cerine additive system------------------------------------------- Page 55
• Regeneration management ------------------------------------------- Page 68
• Second generation supervisor -------------------------------------- Page 88
• Diagnostic ----------------------------------------------------------------- Page 104
• PF summary ---------------------------------------------------------------- Page 111

- GLOSSARY -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Page 115


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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE COURSE OBJECTIVES

Classroom

• The trainees acquire theoretical knowledge on the functioning principles of the particle
filter
Practical work in the workshop:

• Discovering the PF parameters with the diagnostic tool,


• Discovering the particle filter air circuits, Particle filter diagnostic by simulated faults on
the vehicles
At the end of the course, the trainee is capable of identifying and carrying out a
diagnostic on the particle filter system components, using the diagnostic and test tools in
order to return the vehicle to conformity.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

COURSE PROGRAM

TIMES:

8.30am – 11.30am
7H30
1.00pm – 5.30pm

8H30 9H00 10H00 11H00 12H00 13H00 14H00 15H00 16H00 17H00

G1 POSTE A POSTE B POSTE C


PAUSE

REPAS

PAUSE
QUIZ

PRESENTATION PRESENTATION
G2 POSTE B POSTE C POSTE A
FAP FAP
G3 POSTE C POSTE A POSTE B
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

PRACTICAL WORK ORGANISATION

WORKSTATION A on a 607 EDC15C2

 Discovering the PF parameters with the


diagnostic tool

 Discovering the air circuit

 Diagnostic on the EDC15C2 PF system


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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

PRACTICAL WORK ORGANISATION

WORKSTATION B on 407 EDC16C3

 Discovering the PF parameters with the


diagnostic tool

 Discovering the air circuit

 Diagnostic on the EDC15C3 PF system


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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

PRACTICAL WORK ORGANISATION

WORKSTATION C on 407 SID 803

 Discovering the PF parameters with the


diagnostic tool

 Discovering the air circuit

 Diagnostic on the SID803 PF system


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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

QUIZ

Start of course column

End of course column

Correction with the instructor

1 2 3
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

QUESTION 1

Which of these five types of engine may be fitted with a particle


1 2 3
filter?

Petrol engine, indirect multipoint injection

Diesel engine "Ricardo" type indirect injection.

Petrol engine, direct multipoint injection

Diesel engine, direct injection, common rail.

Diesel engine, direct injection, "EPIC" managed injection pump


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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

QUESTION 2

1 2 3 The particle filter is used to?

Increase engine torque

Increase engine power

Increase the engine capacity

Minimise emission of soot particles in order to optimise the emission


control standards.

To reduce fuel consumption


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QUESTION 3

1 2 3 Which of these photos shows a particle filter?


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QUESTION 4

1 2 3 Which of these photos shows a differential pressure sensor?


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QUESTION 5

1 2 3 What are the second generation additive system components?


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QUESTION 6

1 2 3 What is the role of the particle filter?

Filter and trap the exhaust gas CO and CO2.

Filter the CO and the CO2 then mix them with the exhaust gases.

Filter and trap the exhaust gas NOx.

Filter and trap the exhaust gas particles.

Filter the particles to separate them from the hydrocarbons.


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QUESTION 7

1 2 3 What is the role of the catalyser?

Obtain additional heat for particle filter regeneration.

To reduce the CO2 emissions in the exhaust.

To reduce the CO emissions in the exhaust.

To reduce the NOx emissions in the exhaust.

To reduce the HC emissions in the exhaust.


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QUESTION 8

1 2 3 What are the roles of the particle filter system temperature sensors?

Monitor the engine running temperature

To determine if catalyser optional functioning has been reached

Monitor the engine oil temperature.

To determine if the particle filter regeneration point has been reached

Monitor the exhaust gas temperature to protect the turbo.


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QUESTION 9

1 2 3 The differential pressure sensor is used to monitor:

To measure the difference in pressure between the catalyser inlet and


outlet.

The degree of clogging of the particle filter.

The pressure difference between the particle filter inlet and outlet.

Whether the catalyser optimum functioning point has been reached.

The pressure difference between the catalyser inlet and the particle filter
outlet.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

QUESTION 10

1 2 3 The Eolys® additive is injected into:

The particle filter

The engine

The exhaust manifold

The diesel fuel tank

The air inlet system


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QUESTION 11

1 2 3 The additive ECU manages?

The particle filter regeneration

The quantity of additive to be injected into the diesel fuel tank

The additive injection into the diesel fuel tank.

the quantity of additive remaining in the additive tank,

The quantity of additive in the particle filter.


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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

QUESTION 12

1 2 3 When functioning normally, PF regeneration occurs:

Exactly every 1500 km, naturally.

By injecting a special additive into the exhaust pipes.

When the PF is full (from 80,000 to 240,000 km depending on the


version).

By a sufficient increase in the exhaust gases temperature.

When optimum conditions triggered by the engine ECU are met.


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QUESTION 13

The Eolys® DPX 42 and Eolys® 176 additives may be mixed


1 2 3
together:

True

False

Only if the vehicle DAM number is subsequent to 9491 (24/10/2003).

Only if the vehicle has been upgraded from first to second generation.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

QUESTION 14

1 2 3 The role of the Eolys® additive is:

To reduce fuel consumption by improved combustion.

To reduce the PF regeneration time.

To clean the filter by diluting the particles.

To lower the natural combustion temperature of the particles.

To cool the exhaust line when the particles are burning.


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QUESTION 15

1 2 3 When servicing a particle filter system, one must:

Plug the clogged filter, put it in the plastic bag supplied with the new filter
and return it in the same carton as the new filter.

Throw the waste into the rubbish bin.

Use the diagnostic tool to re-initialise certain functions depending on the


part replaced.

Store the additive left-overs in special containers for recycling.

Return the left-over additive to spare parts department for use elsewhere.
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REMINDER ON POLLUTING EMISSIONS

AIR DIESEL

Load Injection pressure


management
Air T°
Altitude (high pressure)
ENGINE
Fuel T° Injection time
management
Engine T°

Reduction of NOx :
POLLUTANTS :
= > EGR = risk of NON-POLLUTANTS :
CO (0.5%)
Nitrogen (73%)
formation of particles CO2 (19%)
HC (0.2%)
NOX (1.9%)
H2O (7.2%)
Soot
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

REMINDER ON POLLUTING EMISSIONS

Composition of
the particles

0.01 to 0.05
μ

 "Pure" carbon
 Polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbon particles romatiques
 Sulfates (SO4) + water 0.1 and 1
 Metal swarf micron

 Ash Toxicity
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

STANDARDS

Limit of the
standards

Maximum emission Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 4


Euro 3
(in g/km) (01/01/93) (01.01.96) (01.01.06)
(01.01.00)

OC 3,16 1 0,64 0,5

NOx - - 0,5 0,25

HC + NOx 1,13 0,7 (0,9) 0,56 0,3

Particles 0,16 0,08 (0,1) 0,05 0,025


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SYSTEM COMPOSITION
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SYSTEM COMPOSITION
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THE CATALYSER

 oxidation of the carbon monoxide, (CO),


and unburned hydrocarbons, (HC)

 increase in the exhaust gas temperature with


post-injection
 T° > 140°C, catalytic conversion
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THE TEMPERATURE SENSORS

DOWNLINE

UPLINE

 Inform the ECU of the exhaust gases temperature to :


 determine if the catalyser conversion maximum
level is reached for efficient regeneration.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE FILTER

SD 991

OS2
 Two generations of filter
Exhaust outlet with particles
removed
Gas inlet carrying particles

Filtration
rate:
0.1 micron
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Compounds trapped in the filter :

 Residue from the engine oil and wear.


Carbon particles.
Cerine.
Ash*
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

PARTICLE COMBUSTION

Regeneration

Exhaust gas Regeneration range


temperature

600°C Natural regeneration temperature


of the particles
550°C -100°C
Additive added
450°C
Temperature of gases
after catalytic post-combustion
350°C +100°C
Temperature of gases with assistance
after post-injection
150°C +200°C
Temperature of gases without assistance
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE ADDITIVE: CERINE

The cerine attaches


itself
to the soot particles

Two types of additive :


Additive
 Eolys® DPX 42
 Eolys® 176 (DPX 10)
Important :
The additives must not be mixed together, and are not interchangeable.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

The role of the additive:

O2 additive
Particle

Without additive With additive


 lowering of the soot combustion
 temperature reduction of the PF
regeneration time.
Regeneration :
Regeneration :
 5 min 450°C for 30g of soot
 30 min at 550°C for 30g of soot
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE ADDITIVE RESERVOIR

EAS 100 first generation

Capacity 5 litres (on 607, 406, 807).

Filling

Pump
Valve
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THE PUMP AND INJECTOR

EAS 100 first generation

Injector
Low sensor

80 l/hr at 3 bars
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE ADDITIVE RESERVOIR

Second generation EAS 200

Maximum capacity: 4 litres or 5 litres


Safety valve.
Breather:

Metering pump Filling

White,
Eolys® DPX 42 Green,
Eolys® 176 (DPX 10)
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE PUMP AND THE DIFFUSER

Second generation EAS 200

Diffuser

No longer
fitted

6.45 mm3 / stroke


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THE POUCHES

5 2

2 3

No additive handling in the dealership.


No contact between the additive and air ( evaporation, chemical transfer.. )
No need for a breather system air ( collapses)
Is fitted with a rapid and self-sealing connection hardware.
No contact with the additive when changing the pouch.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE INJECTION PUMP

Rotary piston pump with built-in electronics

The built-in electronics main functions are:


 Controlling the power side of the pump.
 Receiving from the engine ECU via the BSI the additive quantity and giving of
the additive injection order.
Transmission of the quantity of additive injection to the engine ECU via the BSI.
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THE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE SENSOR

 Measure the pressure difference of the exhaust


gases upline of the catalyser and downline of the
filter.
 Special feature of the DV6 engine:
Upline and downline of the particle filter.
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THE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE SENSOR

IMPORTANT : Do not reverse the upline and downline signal lines,


(filter system malfunction).
Management of the particle filter depends on this information.
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THE TANK FILLER CAP SENSOR

Two magnets at 180°

Informs the additive ECU


of the cap positions.
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THE INLET AIR HEATER

Function

Regeneration assistance.
Cold starting.

This function uses:


 The outside temperature.
 Engine load
 The inlet air temperature
 The coolant temperature
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Operating principle

Cooled air functioning:

Inlet air
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Operating principle

Request for warm air :

Non-cooled inlet air.


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Operating principle

Mixing :

Partially cooled inlet air.


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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE INLET AIR HEATER

With coolant type air heater


Two possible air heater versions (2):

• in the air filter. • on the air circuit.


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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE INLET AIR HEATER

By-pass type

Mixer valve module EGR flap valve (A)


and by-pass valve (B)
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE INLET AIR HEATER

The inlet air flow

The DT17TED4 stepper motor flap valve module

 Limits the quantity of new air into the engine,


 increases the fuel mixture combustion richness,
 facilitates heating of the exhaust gases,
 increases the engine load.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

THE INLET AIR HEATER


DW12BTED4 example
The temperature sensor

Know the air temperature to


calculate the injection fill and
correct turbocharging. This
information is used: for particle
filter regeneration, exhaust gas
recirculation management.

DT17TED4 example
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ADDITIVE INJECTION
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CERINE ADDITIVE INJECTION

First generation DPX 42


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CERINE ADDITIVE INJECTION

Second generation
DPX 10

CAN example

CAN / VAN example


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THE ADDITIVE ECU

Types of additive ECU:

Additive ECU Type Actuators Network

EAS 100 1st generation Pump and injector VAN

EAS 200 2nd generation Mixer pump VAN

EAS 300 Ditto Mixer pump CAN


EAS 200

Management Controlled by the engine Hard-wired mixer CAN


incorporated into the ECU pump
engine ECU

Management Controlled by the engine MUX pump LIN


incorporated into the ECU via the BSI
engine ECU
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THE ADDITIVE ECU

It manages:
• fuel additive injection.
• the quantity of additive injected as from when the
PF is in operation.
• the fallback strategies.
• diagnostic with fault memorisation.
• dialog with the engine ECU and the BSI.
• It activates the injection pump.
• It activates the injector (depending on the system).

CONFIGURING THE ECU


AFTER SERVICING
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ADDITIVE MANAGEMENT

Based on the following information, the additive


ECU (1282):

Ignition key

• detects addition of fuel


• calculates the quantity of additive to inject
• activates additive injection
• initialises the additive counters
• calculates the additive reservoir level
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Events Actions

Detect : Stopping the


Acquisition of Diesel level L1
First generation Engine

Cut off of +VAN Diesel additive ECU to standby

ECU wake-up.
Cap opened
Cap open memorised

Cap closed Diesel additive ECU to standby

Re-start engine Wake up of BSI +VAN and Diesel additive ECU

Acquisition of Diesel fuel level L2 Checks filler cap

ΔL>0 ΔL=0
ΔL>0 ΔL=0
+ cap procedure fault or no + cap procedure fault or
+ cap procedure + cap procedure
procedure no procedure

Fuel additive injection Fuel additive injection Fuel additive injection Nothing

Gauge 7 litre minimum Normal functioning


Normal functioning Cap faulty
level
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Events Actions

Detect :
Second generation Ignition cut off Filtered level stored in memory

Cap opened
Filtered level loaded
Special case:
DRAINING THE TANK
• Turn on the ignition tank empty and filler cap fitted. Waiting for cap to close
• Turn on the ignition.
• Cap opened.
• Add fuel and close cap

Li – Lf > 5 L Li – Lf < 5 L Li – Lf > 10 L Li – Lf < 10 L


+ cap closed + cap closed + cap not closed + cap not closed

No additive
Fuel additive injection Additive for 0.5 litres Fuel additive injection
injection

Normal functioning Normal functioning Filler cap sensor fault

Filler cap sensor fault


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Calculate the quantity to inject :

Injection curve, (fuel Q)


Injection coefficient, (pump)
Injection metering
(DPX42 or DPX10)

Calculate the
additive injection

Maintenance
with the tool

Controls the Counter


actuators management
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Inject the additive :

Calculation of the Q < 5 litres


additive quantity to
inject
Q= Li - Lf

Q > 5 litres Q < 0.5 litres

Calculation of the
number of pulses

If V > 20km

Activate the
injection pump

Li = instantaneous level Lf = filtered level


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Managing the quantity of additive


injected
Quantity of cerine already injected
+
Quantity of cerine to inject

 Memorisation of the quantity of additive injection in


order to know the total quantity of cerine injection
into the fuel in order to:

• measure the change in the filter content


"Quantity of cerine trapped in PF" counter

• manage the level of additive in the reservoir


"Quantity of cerine in the additive reservoir" counter.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

ADDITIVE MANAGEMENT

Integration of the additive


functions into the engine
ECU

Example of the 407 Coupé DT17 system


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Integration of the additive


functions into the engine
ECU
Example of the 307 (T6) 207 version with MUX pump
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REGENERATION MANAGEMENT
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REGENERATION MANAGEMENT

First generation supervisor


Inlet air flow
Pressure
differential

Downline Specific gas flow


gas T°

Atmospheric
pressure

DEGREE OF FILTER CLOGGING


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SIX FILTER CLOGGING LEVELS


m900 mbar
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE
bar

Regeneration
request

Normal
functioning

EXHAUST GAS SPECIFIC FLOW (litres/hour)

a) hole in filter d) filter clogged


b) filter regenerated e) filter overloaded
c) filter in mid-way state f) filter clogged
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SPECIAL RANGES
900 mbar
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

EXHAUST GAS SPECIFIC FLOW (litres/hour)

a) hole in filter d) filter clogged


b) filter regenerated e) filter overloaded
c) filter in mid-way state f) filter clogged
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Change in the PF degree of clogging due to the accumulation of cerine*


* (regenerated state).
900 mbar
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

Δ Py) differential pressure


of PF 80000 km

ΔPx differential pressure


if PF 0 km

EXHAUST GAS SPECIFIC FLOW (litres/hour)

g) filter new at 0 km ax) functioning status if PF 0 km


h) filter at 80 000 km ay) functioning status if PF 80000 km
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Adaptation of the ECU mappings to the accumulation of cerine.

900 mbar
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

Δ Py

g) filter new at 0 km ΔPx


h) filter at 80 000 km

EXHAUST GAS SPECIFIC FLOW (litres/hour)


ΔPx) differential pressure if PF 0 km
Δ Py) differential pressure if PF 80000 km
ax) functioning status if PF 0 km
ay) functioning status if PF 80000 km
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Effect of driving conditions on the differential pressure

town and open road driving. motorway driving

mbar mbar

a) filtered exhaust gases


b) cerine
L/h L/h

IMPORTANT : For the same quantity of cerine and for the same vehicle distance covered, the differential
pressure may be different.
In all cases, after regeneration, the cerine is heated and pushed to the end of the filter.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

REGENERATION MANAGEMENT

First generation supervisor

DEGREE OF FILTER CLOGGING


Distance covered

Filter monitoring
Upline gases T°

ASSISTANCE
Additive qty

Efficiency monitoring
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REGENERATION ASSISTANCE FUNCTION

• periodically burn off the particles to


maintain the filter in optimum flow
condition.

• manage the monitoring function requests,


• activate the functions necessary for regeneration,
• determine the assistance level necessary,
• monitor the effects of post-injection.

The cerine in the fuel :


• is not burned with the soot
• accumulates on the walls of the particle filter.
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REGENERATION ASSISTANCE ACTIVATION CONDITION

Minimum distance
covered since last
regeneration

PD monitoring
Kms between each
LA regeneration
Engine speed
OR ≥ a threshold
Coolant Differential
temperature pressure ∆ Pn
≥ 60°C
ASSISTANCE
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REGENERATION ASSISTANCE FUNCTION

2. Consuming equipment activation


1. EGR inhibit

ASSISTANCE
3. Heating of
inlet air
Turbo
Regulated mode

4. Post-injection
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REGENERATION ASSISTANCE FUNCTION

Filter monitoring

ASSISTANCE
Post-injection

Effect
T° Upline
and T° Downline LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2
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Activation of electrical power consuming equipment

Consuming equipment activation order :

 heated rear screen, (depends on external air T°).


 MFU slow speed imposed,
 MFU medium speed
 pre/post-heating plugs power imposed. Function synoptic diagram

If auto box option:


• Pressure increase: 8 bar
to 17 bar.

Note :
Not with DT17TED4 engine
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FIRST GENERATION ASSISTANCE FUNCTION

LEVEL 1

Main injection
Post-injection
Pilot
injection

Post-injection delay
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FIRST GENERATION ASSISTANCE FUNCTION

LEVEL 2 Injection 20° to 120° after TDC

Maintaining the exhaust


gas temperature

Pilot Main injection Post-injection


injection

Post-injection
delay
Increases
catalytic
post-combustion
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Activation of regeneration assistance by the distance covered parameter

Activation

Regeneration frequency (km)


Regeneration
Soot combustion

N1 ≥ N2
Post-injection

Post-injection time (T2)

Distance covered by the PF Time


T2 post-injection moment.

N is the distance (km) covered by the PF.


N1 is the distance covered (km) since the last regeneration.
N2 is the distance covered (km) which triggers regeneration
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Activation of regeneration assistance


using the differential pressure parameter (ΔP)

Activation
Regeneration
Soot combustion (random duration)

ΔP ΔP
ΔPy ≥ ΔPn ΔPy = ΔPz

Post-injection Qv Qv

Post-injection time (T1)

ΔPn is equal to the differential pressure which triggers


Time
ΔPy is equal to the differential pressure read
Qv specific flow
ΔPz is equal to the differential pressure to be reached

IMPORTANT :
In both cases (ΔPn and N1) it is possible for post-injection to be interrupted (example: vehicle stopped),
in this case, regeneration assistance will recommence from the start.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

Assistance with " ECOnomic" regeneration


EAch monitoring point (N2 and ΔPn) has a lower monitoring level
called the economical level

ΔP

N3 is equal to the distance covered at which the economic monitoring range starts.

ΔPn
ΔP
x
• activated when the filter degree of clogging is low
• or distance covered point (N) is close.

ΔPx equal to the differential pressure at which the economic monitoring range starts
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

Effect of activation of artificial regeneration.

CYLINDER PRESSURE

TIME

a) pre-injection d) reduction in the main injection time


b) main injection e) excess torque due to post-injection
c) post-injection f) reduction in cylinder pressure
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REFRESHERS

The first generation supervisor:


 distance steps,
 differential pressure,
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THE SECOND GENERATION SUPERVISOR


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THE SECOND GENERATION SUPERVISOR

IMPROVEMENTS

• filter degree of clogging with soot,


• driving conditions,
(current and future to take advantage of
opportunities).

FUEL SAVINGS • optimised decision-making,


(clog filter less),

• minimise over-consumption,
OPTIMISE
SUCCESS RATE
• engine protection,
 PF back-pressure,
 oil dilution by the diesel fuel.
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PARTICLE FILTER TECHNOLOGY

OPTIMISATION OF GENERATION ASSISTANCE

Calculate the
CURRENT DRIVING CONDITIONS quantity of soot
Town, Open road… 1
=> success rate CAPACITY
=> Opportunities

2 CONSUMPTION
SUPERVISOR
• Future driving
conditions
Decides to assist
• Frequencies

ASSISTANCE

Efficiency monitoring
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REGENERATION STRATEGIES

Need to regenerate Regeneration possibility

Filter degree Current Future


Fuel
of clogging driving driving
consumption
module conditions conditions
module
module module
Carbon quantity

Decide, check
Decision
module

Regeneration
DIAGNOSTIC Functions request
module module cut-off
PF status, degree
of clogging

Downgraded
modes
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NEED TO REGENERATE MODULE

Filter soot content module


Inlet air flow
Pressure
differential

Specific gas
Downline gas T°
flow

Atmospheric
pressure

Filter
Soot volume
degree of clogging

MONITORING THE DEGREE OF CLOGGING


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NEED TO REGENERATE MODULE

Soot quantity calculation :

Soot quantity Type


in the particle of driving
filter (g/mn) conditions
0,015 "a" difficult traffic
0,027 "b" free-flowing traffic
0,045 "c" very free flowing traffic
0,044 "d" open road
0,053 "e" motorway

DETERMINE THE QUANTITY OF SOOT IN


RELATION TO THE TYPE OF DRIVING
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NEED TO REGENERATE MODULE

Fuel consumption module

Calculation of the optimum distance covered for


Calculate an regeneration based on the driving conditions…
optimum
period … bearing in mind that the levels given for specific
profiles are only examples:
• Motorway: 1,700 km
• Mountains: 1,200 km
Compare • Open road: 1500 km
• City: 950 km
Optimum
Distance since consumption • Intensive urban: 850 km
last regeneration position

CALCULATION OF AN OPTIMUM DISTANCE


(KM) IN ORDER TO REGENERATE

The term « optimum » is to be understood in the sense of an optimum fuel


consumption.
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REGENERATION POSSIBILITY MODULE

Current driving conditions module

 Modelisation of the driving profile:


• Motorway
• Mountains
• Open road
• Town Intensive town

CALCULATION OF A
REGENERATION SUCCESS PROBABILITY
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REGENERATION POSSIBILITY MODULE

Future driving conditions module

 Driving conditions over the last five regenerations,


( updated once an hour).
 Define the vehicle driving profile.
 Plan for the most favourable moment to activate particle
filter regeneration, based on the vehicle usage history.

DEDUCING THE PROBABILITY OF


FUTURE DRIVING CONDITIONS
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REGENERATION DECISION MODULE

Decide / check module

Filter degree Fuel Current Future


of clogging consumption driving driving
module module conditions conditions
module module

Decide / check 1
Decision
module
3 2 Regeneration
DIAGNOSTIC Functions request
module module cut-off
PF status, degree
of clogging

Downgraded modes
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REGENERATION DECISION MODULE

 Six indicators:
1. filter load,
2. consumption
3. driving,
4. history,
 Five decision-making rules:
5. functions,
6. state of PF. 1. consumption,
2. ensure regeneration,
3. PF and engine protection,
4. management of assistance time,
5. downgraded modes:
standard distance.

The decision module incorporates data from the other


modules and defines a regeneration strategy
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Favourable event.
 URBAN DRIVING Type of road mountain
or motorway
Degree of Degree of
Degree of clogging
clogging 61 % clogging 81 %
96 % or 33 gr
or 20 gr or 23 gr Very favourable event
1235 km Mountain or motorway type
785 km 1043 km

500 1000 1500 2000 km

61 % or 20 gr 70 % 26 gr 96 % or 33 gr
 ROAD 1,227 km 1,396 km 1,931 km

500 1000 1500 2000 km

 MOTORWAY 61 % or 20 gr 70 % 26 gr 96 % or 33 gr
1316 km 1657 km 2071 km

500 1000 1500 2000 km


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FUNCTIONING SAFETY :

Specific gas flow

DEGREE OF FILTER CLOGGING

SECURITY
Maximum clogging limit
Example at 80 000 Km
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PARTICLE FILTER DEGREE OF CLOGGING:


differential pressure (mbar).

filter clogged

filter overloaded
NOTE:
Theses states
are read with
the diagnostic
tool, under
parameter intermediate state
measurement.

filter holed

specific air flow (l/hr).

ESSENTIAL : If a "filter clogged" fault is present, the reason for clogging must be found, as
the filter may become damaged.
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REGENERATION ASSISTANCE FUNCTION

Filter monitoring

Filter status

Effect on
ASSISTANC
Post-injection E LEVEL 3
T° > 480°C

LEVEL 1
Triggering of
catalytic conversion
T° Upline
Downline T° < 250 C°
LEVEL 2
T°: > 250°C < 480°C
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REGENERATION ASSISTANCE ACTIVATION CONDITIONS

(BY THE MONITORING FUNCTION)

Parameters Regeneration assistance.

Volume of soot Volume of soot in the particle filter since


Activation
in the particle last regeneration (above a certain level) (*)
filter
(calculation) Effective post-injection time
De-activation
(above a certain level) (*)
Activation Differential pressure (above a certain level)
Differential
pressure Effective post-injection time
(measurement) De-activation
(above a fixed level)

(*) depending on driving conditions.


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DIAGNOSTIC
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DIAGNOSTIC

Detect malfunctions, apply "downgraded modes"

Acquisition
Test Apply
of fault the validity of the The Downgraded mode

codes for outputs from downgraded Functioning


each module modes
each variable

Memorise
the information in downgraded Inform
the driver
mode

Help service department


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DIAGNOSTIC
DRIVER
INFORMATION

SERVICE LIGHT

ENGINE DIAGNOSTIC LIGHT

FILLER CAP FAULT PICTOGRAM

PF OVERLOAD PICTOGRAM
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DONWGRADED FUNCTIONING MODE

• lighting of the engine diagnostic light.

reduced flow

• exhaust gas temperature

• pressure
• particle filter clogged or holed
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Fuel additive injection

Function is cut off for:


- electrical faults
- coherence of system sensors and
actuators.
Network fault
Function recovers:
- disappearance of faults

Gauge fault

Filler cap fault


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RISK OF CLOGGING THE PARTICLE FILTER

Inefficient regeneration

The filter is clogged by the excess particles


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ADDITIVE LOW LEVEL REACHED

Request to flash SERVICE light on instrument cluster

« DIESEL ADDITIVE LOW LEVEL »


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PF SUMMARY

Particle filter Additive ECU (1282) Notes

Two generations : Three generations:  ECUs fitted to VAN CAR 2


 M.Marelli (Marwall) DPX 42 up to 9491 (24/10/2003)
First generation EAS_100 EOLYS 176 as from 9492
particle filter: SD991  Fuel additive injector on fuel tank (1284)
 Only one ECU available from Spares
Department (with possibility of configuring
DPX42 or EOLYS 176)
IMPORTANT :
It is impossible to retrofit an old model vehicle equipped with the
DPX 42 additive system with the new EOLYS 176 additive system.

 ECU fitted on VAN CAR 2


Second generation M.Marelli (Marwall)
 EOLYS 176 or DPX 42 are configurable
particle filter: EAS_200
 Additive low level sensor discontinued
(octosquare OS2)
 Fuel additive injector discontinued (1284)
 New metering pump with injector valve

 ECU fitted to CAN CAR


M.Marelli (Marwall)
 Pin allocation changed
EAS_300
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PF SUMMARY

Two regeneration
Modules Examples of systems
supervisors :

PF I One module for the regeneration supervisor :  Bosch EDC 15 C2 only


 particle filter degree of clogging (distance
covered since last regeneration)
 measurement of the differential pressure.

Six modules for the regeneration supervisor :


PF II Particle filter soot content. Examples:
Effect on consumption  Bosch EDC 16C 34

Current driving conditions. Distinguishes the  Siemens SID 803 / 201


future types of driving.
Decision: triggering/cut-off Important:Measurement of the P is
not used for triggering regeneration
Functions module but always present for safety reasons.
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Counter resetting

YES CHANGING
NO
THE PF

YES ADDITIVE
NO YES
ADDITIVE
FILLING FILLING

R Quantity of cerine in the


e Quantity of cerine in Quantity of cerine
PF
S the PF used
e Quantity of cerine used
t
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Thank you for your


attention.
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GLOSSARY

FAP : Filtre A Particules (Particle Filter)

CAN : Controller Area Network

LIN : Local Interconnect Network

VAN : Vehicule Area Network

CAN : Controler Area Network.

BSI : Boîtier de Servitude Intelligent. (Built-in Systems Interface)

BSM : Boîtier de Servitude Moteur (PSF1). (Engine Ancillaries ECU (PSF1))

CMM Calculateur Moteur Multifonctions (Engine ECU)

CTN : Coefficient de Température Négatif. (Negative Temperature Coefficient)

HDi : Haute pression Directe Injection. (High Pressure Direct Injection)

PSF1 : Platine de Servitude boîte à Fusible compartiment moteur (BSM).


(Engine compartment Ancillaries Fuse panel (Engine ancillaries
ECU))
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