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Mathematics

Chapter 8

Relations

大葉大學 資訊工程系 黃鈴玲(Lingling Huang)

Outline

8.1 Relations and their properties

8.3 Representing Relations

8.4 Closures of Relations

8.5 Equivalence Relations

8.6 Partial Orderings

Ch8-2

8.1 Relations and their properties.

※The most direct way to express a relationship between

elements of two sets is to use ordered pairs.

For this reason, sets of ordered pairs are called binary

relations.

Def 1

Let A and B be sets. A binary relation from A to B is

a subset R of A B = { (a, b) : aA, bB }.

Example 1.

A : the set of students in your school.

B : the set of courses.

R = { (a, b) : aA, bB, a is enrolled in course b }

Ch8-3

Def 1’. We use the notation aRb to denote that (a,

b)R, and aRb to denote that (a,b)R.

Moreover, a is said to be related to b by R if aRb.

Example 3. Let A={0, 1, 2} and B={a, b}, then

{(0,a),(0,b),(1,a),(2,b)} is a relation R from A to B.

This means, for instance, that 0Ra, but that 1Rb.

(1,b) , (2,a) , (2,b)}

0

a R R

1

b

2

R

Ch8-4

Example (上例) : A : 男生, B : 女生, R : 夫妻關系

A : 城市, B : 州, 省 R : 屬於 (Example 2)

A relation can be used to express a 1-to-many

relationship between the elements of the sets

A and B.

( function 不可一對多，只可多對一 )

( i.e., a relation from A to A ).

Ch8-5

Example 4.

Let A be the set {1, 2, 3, 4}. Which ordered pairs are

in the relation R = { (a, b)| a divides b }?

Sol :

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

(2,2), (2,4),

(3,3),

(4,4) }

Ch8-6

Example 5. Consider the following relations on Z.

R1 = { (a, b) | a b }

R2 = { (a, b) | a > b } Which of these relations

R3 = { (a, b) | a = b or a = -b } contain each of the pairs

R4 = { (a, b) | a = b } (1,1), (1,2), (2,1), (1,-1),

R5 = { (a, b) | a = b+1 } and (2,2)?

R6 = { (a, b) | a + b 3 }

Sol : (1,1) (1,2) (2,1) (1,-1) (2,2)

R1 ● ● ●

R2 ● ●

R3 ● ● ●

R4 ● ●

R5 ●

R6 ● ● ● ● Ch8-7

Example 6. How many relations are there on a set

with n elements?

Sol :

A relation on a set A is a subset of AA.

AA has n2 elements.

AA has 2n subsets.

2

There are n 2

2 relations.

Ch8-8

Properties of Relations

Def 3. A relation R on a set A is called reflexive (反身性)

if (a,a)R for every aA.

Example 7. Consider the following relations on

{1, 2, 3, 4} :

R2 = { (1,1), (1,2), (2,1) }

R3 = { (1,1), (1,2), (1,4), (2,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,1), (4,4) }

R4 = { (2,1), (3,1), (3,2), (4,1), (4,2), (4,3) }

which of them are reflexive ?

Sol :

R3

Ch8-9

Example 8. Which of the relations from

Example 5 are reflexive?

R1 = { (a, b) | a b }

R2 = { (a, b) | a > b }

R3 = { (a, b) | a = b or a = -b }

R4 = { (a, b) | a = b }

R5 = { (a, b) | a = b+1 }

R6 = { (a, b) | a + b 3 } Sol : R1, R3 and R4

positive integers reflexive?

Sol : Yes.

Ch8-10

Def 4.

(1) A relation R on a set A is called symmetric

if for a, bA,

(a, b)R (b, a)R.

(2) A relation R on a set A is called

antisymmetric (反對稱) if for a, bA,

(a, b)R and (b, a)R a = b.

i.e., a≠b and (a,b)R (b, a)R

若a=b則不要求， (a,a)R or (a, a)R 皆可

Ch8-11

Example 10. Which of the relations from Example 7

are symmetric or antisymmetric ?

R2 = { (1,1), (1,2), (2,1) }

R3 = { (1,1), (1,2), (1,4), (2,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,1), (4,4) }

R4 = { (2,1), (3,1), (3,2), (4,1), (4,2), (4,3) }

Sol :

R2, R3 are symmetric

R4 are antisymmetric.

Example 11. Is the “divides” relation on the set of

positive integers symmetric? Is it antisymmetric?

Sol : It is not symmetric since 1|2 but 2 | 1.

It is antisymmetric since a|b and b|a implies a=b.

Ch8-12

補充 :

antisymmetric 跟 symmetric可並存

sym. (b, a)R

(a, b)R, a≠b

antisym. (b,a)R

R is both symmetric and antisymmetric, but

not reflexive.

Sol :

R = { (1,1),(2,2) } Ch8-13

Def 5. A relation R on a set A is called

transitive(遞移) if for a, b, c A,

(a, b)R and (b, c)R (a, c)R.

positive integers transitive?

Sol : Suppose a|b and b|c

a|c

transitive

Ch8-14

Example 13. Which of the relations in Example 7 are

transitive ?

R2 = { (1,1), (1,2), (2,1) }

R3 = { (1,1), (1,2), (1,4), (2,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,1), (4,4) }

R4 = { (2,1), (3,1), (3,2), (4,1), (4,2), (4,3) }

Sol :

R2 is not transitive since

(2,1) R2 and (1,2) R2 but (2,2) R2.

R3 is not transitive since

(2,1) R3 and (1,4) R3 but (2,4) R3.

R4 is transitive.

Ch8-15

Example 16. How many reflexive relation are

there on a set with n elements?

Sol : A relation R on a set A is a subset of AA.

AA has n2 elements

R contains (a,a) aA since R is reflexive

There are 2 n 2-n

reflexive relations.

Exercise: 7, 43

Ch8-16

Combining Relations

Example 17. Let A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4}.

The relation R1 = {(1,1), (2,2), (3,3)}

and R2 = {(1,1), (1,2), (1,3), (1,4)} can be

combined to obtain

R1 ∪ R2 = {(1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (1,2), (1,3), (1,4)}

R1 ∩ R2 = {(1,1)}

R1 － R2 = {(2,2), (3,3)}

R2 － R1 = {(1,2), (1,3), (1,4)}

R1 R2 = {(2,2), (3,3), (1,2), (1,3), (1,4)}

symmetric difference, 即 (R1R2) – (R1 R2)

Ch8-17

Def 6. Let R be a relation from a set A to a set B and

S a relation from B to a set C. The composite (合成)

of R and S is the relation consisting of ordered pairs

(a,c), where aA, cC, and for which there exists an

element bB such that (a,b)R and (b,c)S. We

denote the composite of R and S by S R.

S, where R is the relation from {1, 2, 3} to {1, 2, 3, 4}

with R = {(1, 1), (1, 4), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 4)} and S is the

relation from {1, 2, 3, 4} to {0, 1, 2} with S = {(1, 0),

(2, 0), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1)}?

Sol. S R is the relation from {1, 2, 3} to {0, 1, 2} with

S R = {(1, 0), (1,1), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 0), (3, 1)}. Ch8-18

Def 7. Let R be a relation on the set A.

The powers Rn, n = 1, 2, 3, …, are defined recursively

by R1 = R and Rn+1 = Rn R.

Example 22. Let R = {(1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 3)}.

Find the powers Rn, n=2, 3, 4,….

Sol. R2 = R R = {(1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 1), (4, 2)}.

R3 = R2 R = {(1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 1), (4, 1)}.

R4 = R3 R = {(1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 1), (4, 1)} = R3.

Therefore Rn = R3 for n=4, 5, …. Exercise: 54

Thm 1. The relation R on a set A is transitive if and

only if Rn R for n = 1, 2, 3, ….

Ch8-19

8.3 Representing Relations

Representing Relations using Matrices

to B = {b1, b2,…, bn }.

The relation R can be represented by the matrix

MR = [mij], where

1, if (ai,bj)R

mij =

0, if (ai,bj)R

Ch8-20

Example 1. Suppose that A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2}

Let R = {(a, b) | a > b, aA, bB}.

What is the matrix MR representing R?

Sol :

R = {(2, 1), (3, 1), (3, 2)}

B

1 2

1 0 0 0 0

A 2

1 0

M R 1 0

3 1 1 1 1

Note. 不同的A,B的元素順序會製造不同的 MR 。

若A=B, 行列應使用相同的順序。 Exercise: 1

Ch8-21

※ Let A={a1, a2, …,an}.

A relation R on A is reflexive iff (ai,ai)R,i.

a1 a2 … … an

i.e., a1 1

1

a2

MR :

對角線上全為1

:

an 1

This means mij = mji (即MR是對稱矩陣).

1

M R 1 0 ( M R ) t

0

Ch8-22

※ The relation R is antisymmetric iff

(ai,aj)R and i j (aj,ai)R.

This means that if mij=1 with i≠j, then mji=0.

i.e.,

1

0 0

MR

1 0

0

※ transitive 性質不易從矩陣直接判斷出來，需做運算

Ch8-23

Example 3. Suppose that the relation R on a set is

represented by the matrix

1 1 0

M R 1 1 1

0 1 1

Is R reflexive, symmetric, and/or antisymmetric ?

Sol :

reflexive

symmetric

not antisymmetric

Ch8-24

eg. Suppose that S={0, 1, 2, 3}. Let R be a relation

containing (a, b) if a b, where a S and b S.

Is R reflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric ?

Sol :

0 1 2 3

0 1 1 1 1 ∴ R is reflexive and

0 1 1 1 antisymmetric,

1

MR not symmetric.

2 0 0 1 1

3 0 0 0 1

Exercise: 7

Def. irreflexive(非反身性) : (a,a)R, aA

Ch8-25

Example 4. Suppose the relations R1 and R2 on a set

A are represented by the matrices

1 0 1 1 0 1

M R1 1 0 0 M R2 0 1 1

0 1 0 1 0 0

What are the matrices representing R1 R2 and

R1 R2?

Sol :

1 0 1 1 0 1

M R1 R2 1 1 1 M R1 R2 0 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 0

Ch8-26

Example 5. Find the matrix representing the relation

SR, where the matrices representing R and S are

1 0 1 0 1 0

M R 1 1 0 M S 0 0 1

0 0 0 1 0 1

Sol :

1 1 1

M S R M R M S 0 1 1

0 0 0

Ch8-27

Example 6. Find the matrix representing the relation

R2, where the matrix representing R is

0 1 0

M R 0 1 1

1 0 0

Sol :

0 1 1

M R2 1 1 1

0 1 0

Exercise: 14

Ch8-28

Representing Relations using Digraphs

Def 1. A directed graph (digraph) consists of a set V

of vertices (or nodes) together with a set E of

ordered pairs of elements of V called edges (or arcs).

Example 8. Show the digraph of the relation

R={(1,1),(1,3),(2,1),(2,3),(2,4), (3,1),(3,2),(4,1)}

on the set {1,2,3,4}. Exercise: 26,27

Sol : 1 2

vertex(點) : 1, 2, 3, 4

edge(邊) : (1,1), (1,3),

(2,1), (2,3), (2,4),

(3,1), (3,2),

4 3

(4,1) Ch8-29

※ The relation R is reflexive iff

for every vertex,

(每個點上都有loop)

vertices x≠y, either

x y

or x y

(兩點間若有邊，必為一對不同方向的邊)

or x

or

x y y x y

兩點間若有邊，必只有一條邊

Ch8-30

※ The relation R is transitive iff

for a, b, c A,

(a, b)R and (b, c)R (a, c)R.

This means:

a b a b

d c d c

Ch8-31

Example 10. Determine whether the relations R

and S are reflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric,

and/or transitive b

a

Sol :

S

R: a reflexive, c d

not symmetric,

not reflexive,

not antisymmetric,

symmetric

not transitive

not antisymmetric

(a→b, b→c, a→c)

not transitive

(b→a, a→c, b→c)

b c

irreflexive(非反身性)的定義在 p.528

Exercise: 31 即 (a,a)R, aA

Ch8-32

8.4 Closures of Relations

※ Closures

The relation R={(1,1), (1,2), (2,1), (3,2)} on the set

A={1, 2, 3} is not reflexive.

Q: How to construct a smallest reflexive relation Rr

such that R Rr ?

Sol: Let Rr = R {(2,2), (3,3)}.

i. e., Rr = R D, where D={(a, a)| a A}.

Rr is a reflexive relation containing R that is as small

as possible. It is called the reflexive closure of R.

Ch8-33

Example 1. What is the reflexive closure of the

relation R={(a,b) | a < b} on the set of integers ?

Sol : Rr = R ∪ D = {(a,b) | a < b} ∪ { (a, a) | aZ }

= { (a, b) | a b, a, bZ }

Example :

The relation R={ (1,1),(1,2),(2,2),(2,3),(3,1),(3,2) } on

the set A={1,2,3} is not symmetric. Find a smallest

symmetric relation Rs containing R.

Sol : Let R-1={ (b, a) | (a, b)R }

Let Rs= R∪R-1={ (1,1),(1,2),(2,1),(2,2),(2,3),

(3,1),(1,3),(3,2) }

Ch8-34

Example 2. What is the symmetric closure

of the relation R={(a, b) | a > b } on the set

of positive integers ?

Sol :

R∪{ (b, a) | a > b } = { (c, d) | c d }

Exercise: 1,9

Ch8-35

Def :

1.(reflexive closure of R on A)

Rr=the smallest reflexive relation containing R.

Rr=R∪{ (a, a) | aA , (a, a)R}

2.(symmetric closure of R on A)

Rs=the smallest symmetric relation containing R.

Rs=R∪{ (b, a) | (a, b)R and (b, a) R}

3.(transitive closure of R on A) (後面再詳細說明)

Rt=the smallest transitive relation containing R.

Rt=R∪{(a, c) | (a, b)Rt and (b, c)Rt, but (a, c)Rt}(repeat)

Note. There is no antisymmetric closure，因若不是antisymmetric，

表示有a≠b, 且(a, b)及(b, a)都R，此時加任何pair

都不可能變成 antisymmetric.

Ch8-36

Paths in Directed Graphs

Def 1. A path from a to b in the digraph G is a

sequence of edges (x0, x1), (x1, x2), …, (xn-1, xn) in G,

where nZ+, and x0= a, xn= b. This path is denoted by

x0, x1, x2, …, xn and has length n.

Ex.

1 2 3 4 5 A path from 1 to 5

of length 4

path of length n, where nZ+, from a to b if and only if

(a, b) Rn.

Ch8-37

Transitive Closures

Def 2. Let R be a relation on a set A. The connectivity

relation R* consists of pairs (a, b) such that there is a

path of length at least one from a to b in R.

i.e., R *

R i

i 1

equals the connectivity relation R*.

then n

R* R i

i 1

Ch8-38

Example. Let R be a relation on a set A, where

A={1,2,3,4,5}, R={(1,2),(2,3),(3,4),(4,5)}.

What is the transitive closure Rt of R ?

Sol :

1 3 ∴Rt = R R2 R3 R4 R5

= {(1,2),(2,3),(3,4),(4,5),

(1,3), (2,4), (3,5),

(1,4), (2,5),

(1,5)}

5

2 4

Ch8-39

Theorem 3 Let MR be the zero-one matrix of the

relation R on a set with n elements. Then the

zero-one matrix of the transitive closure R* is

M R* M R M R M R .

[ 2] [n]

closure of the relation R where 1 0 1

M R 0 1 0

Sol : 1 1 0

1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

M R* M R M R M R 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

[2] [3]

Exercise: 25

Ch8-40

8.5 Equivalence Relations (等價關係)

Def 1. A relation R on a set A is called an

equivalence relation if it is reflexive, symmetric,

and transitive.

Example 1.

Let R be the relation on the set of integers such

that aRb if and only if a=b or a=-b. Then R is an

equivalence relation.

Example 2.

Let R be the relation on the set of real numbers

such that aRb if and only if a-b is an integer.

Then R is an equivalence relation.

Ch8-41

Example 3. (Congruence Modulo m)

Let m Z and m > 1. Show that the relation

R={ (a,b) | a≡b (mod m) } is an equivalence relation on

the set of integers.

( a is congruent to b modulo m, a 與b除以m後餘數相等)

∵ a≡a (mod m) (a, a)R reflexive

If a≡b(mod m), then a-b=km, kZ

b-a= (-k)m b≡a (mod m) symmetric

If a≡b(mod m), b≡c(mod m)

then a-b=km, b-c=lm

a-c=(k+l)m a≡c(mod m) transitive

∴ R is an equivalence relation. Ch8-42

Example 4.

Let l(x) denote the length of the string x.

Suppose that the relation

R={(a,b) | l(a)=l(b), a,b are strings of English letters }

Is R an equivalence relation?

Sol :

(a,a)R string a reflexive

(a,b)R (b,a)R symmetric Yes.

(a,b)R,(b,c)R (a,c)R transitive

Ch8-43

Example 7.

Let R be the relation on the set of real numbers such

that xRy if and only if x and y differ by less than 1, that

is |x- y| < 1. Show that R is not an equivalence relation.

Sol :

xRx x since x- x =0 reflexive

xRy |x- y| < 1 |y- x| < 1 yRx

symmetric

xRy, yRz |x- y| < 1, |y- z| < 1

|x- z| < 1

Not transitive

Exercise: 3, 23

Ch8-44

Equivalence Classes

Def 3.

Let R be an equivalence relation on a set A.

The equivalence class of the element aA is

[a]R = { s | (a, s)R }

For any b[a]R , b is called a representative of this

equivalence class.

Note:

If (a, b)R, then [a]R=[b]R.

Ch8-45

Example 9.

What are the equivalence class of 0 and 1

for congruence modulo 4 ?

Sol :

Let R={ (a,b) | a≡b (mod 4) }

Then [0]R = { s | (0,s)R }

= { …, -8, -4, 0, 4, 8, … }

[1]R = { t | (1,t)R } = { …,-7, -3, 1, 5, 9,…}

Exercise: 25, 29

Ch8-46

Equivalence Classes and Partitions

Def.

A partition (分割) of a set S is a collection of disjoint

nonempty subsets Ai of S that have S as their union.

In other words, we have Ai ≠, i,

Ai∩Aj = , for any i≠j, and ∪Ai = S.

Example 12.

Suppose that S={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. The collection

of sets A1={1, 2, 3}, A2={4, 5}, and A3={6} form a

partition of S.

Ch8-47

Thm 2.

Let R be an equivalence relation on a set A.

Then the equivalence classes of R form a partition of A.

Example 13.

List the ordered pairs in the equivalence relation R

produced by the partition A1={1, 2, 3}, A2={4, 5}, and

A3={6} of S={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.

Sol :

R={ (a, b) | a, b A1} { (a, b) | a, b A2}

{ (a, b) | a, b A3}

={(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2),

(3, 3), (4,4), (4, 5), (5,4), (5, 5), (6, 6)}

Exercise: 47

Ch8-48

Example 14.

The equivalence classes of the congruence modulo

4 relation form a partition of the integers.

Sol :

[0]4 = { …, -8, -4, 0, 4, 8, … }

[1]4 = { …, -7, -3, 1, 5, 9, … }

[2]4 = { …, -6, -2, 2, 6, 10, … }

[3]4 = { …, -5, -1, 3, 7, 11, … }

Ch8-49

8.6 Partial Orderings

Def 1. A relation R on a set S is called a partial

ordering (偏序) or partial order if it is reflexive,

antisymmetric, and transitive. A set S together with

a partial ordering R is called a partially ordered set,

or poset, and is denoted by (S, R).

Example 1.

Show that the “greater than or equal” () is a partial

ordering on the set of integers.

Sol :

x x xZ reflexive

If x y and y x then x = y. antisymmetric

x y, y z x z transitive

Exercise: 1, 5, 9 Ch8-50

Def 2.

The elements a and b of a poset (S, ) are called

comparable if either a b or b a. When a and b are

elements of S such that neither a b or b a, a and b

are called incomparable.

Example 5.

In the poset (Z+, |), are the integers 3 and 9

comparable? Are 5 and 7 comparable?

Sol :

3|9 comparable

5 | 7 and 7 | 5 incomparable Exercise: 14

Ch8-51

Def 3. If (S, ) is a poset and every two elements of S

are comparable, S is called a totally ordered or linearly

ordered set, and is called a total order (全序) or a

linear order. A totally ordered set is also called a chain.

Example 6.

The poset (Z, ≤) is totally ordered, because a ≤ b or

b ≤ a whenever a and b are integers.

Example 7.

The poset (Z+, |) is not totally ordered.

Ch8-52

Lexicographic Order (辭彙編纂的)

The words in a dictionary are listed in alphabetic, or

lexicographic, order, which is based on the ordering of

the letters in the alphabet.

lexicographic ordering on A1 A2 is defined as

(a1, a2) (b1, b2) either if a1 1 b1 or

if both a1 = b1 and a2 2 b2

We obtain a partial ordering by adding equality to

the ordering on A1 A2.

Ch8-53

Example 9.

In the poset (ZZ, ), where is the lexicographic

ordering constructed from the usual ≤ relation on Z.

(3, 5) (4, 8),

(3, 8) (4, 5),

(4, 9) (4, 11) Exercise: 17

將poset用圖形表示，若a, b是comparable且 a b，

則將ab間連一條邊，並將b節點放在a節點的上面，

但若a b c，則不畫ac間的邊。

Ch8-54

Example 12.

Draw the Hasse diagram representing the partial

ordering {(a, b) | a divides b} on {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12}.

Sol :

8 12

4 6

2 3

Ch8-55

Example 13.

Draw the Hasse diagram for the partial ordering

{(A, B) | A B} on the power set P(S) where S={a, b, c}.

Sol : {a, b, c}

{a, b}

{a, c} {b, c}

{a} {b}

{c}

Exercise: 23

Ch8-56

Maximal and Minimal Elements

Def.

An element aS is maximal in the poset (S, ) if

there is no bS such that a b. Similarly, an element

aS is minimal if there is no bS such that b a.

a is the greatest element of the poset (S, ) if b a

for all bS. a is the least element of (S, ) if a b

for all bS.

8 12

Example 12 中

8, 12 是maximal， 4 6

1是least也是minimal， 2 3

沒有greatest element

1

Ch8-57

Def.

Let A be a subset of a poset (S, ). If u is an element

of S such that a u for all elements aA, then u is

called an upper bound of A.

If l is an element of S such that l a for all elements

aA, then l is called an lower bound of A.

Ex 8 12 A={2, 6}

upper bound of A: 6, 12

4 6

lower bound of A: 1, 2

2 3

1

Ch8-58

Def.

Let A be a subset of a poset (S, ). An element x is

called the least upper bound of A if x is an upper bound

of A and x z whenever z is an upper bound of A.

Let A be a subset of a poset (S, ). An element x is

called the greatest lower bound of A if x is a lower

bound of A and y x whenever y is a lower bound of A.

Ex g

A1={d, e}, A2={b, c}

f

least upper bound of A1= f

d e

A1 has no greatest lower bound

b c A2 has no least upper bound

a

greatest lower bound of A2= a

z

Ch8-59

Lattices

Def. A partially ordered set in which every pair of

elements has both a least upper bound and a greatest

lower bound is called a lattice.

Example 21.

Determine whether the following posets are lattices.

(a) f (b) f (c) h

d e

e e f g

c d

b c b c d

b

a

a

a yes (b,c) 沒有l.u.b. no yes

Ch8-60

Example 22.

Is the poset (Z+, |) a lattice?

Sol : For any a, bZ+,

gcd(a,b) is the greatest lower bound of a, b.

lcm(a,b) is the least upper bound of a, b.

Yes

Example 23.

Determine whether the posets ({1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, |) and

({1, 2, 4, 8, 16}, |) are lattices.

Sol :

In ({1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, |), 2 and 3 has no l.u.b. No.

In ({1, 2, 4, 8, 16}, |),

any a, b has l.u.b. and g.l.b. Yes. Exercise: 43

Ch8-61

Topological Sorting

Suppose that a project is made up of 20 different

tasks. Some tasks can be completed only after others

have been finished. How can an order be found for

these tasks?

Def.

A total ordering is said to be compatible (相容)

with the partial ordering R if a b whenever aRb.

Constructing a compatible total ordering from a partial

ordering is called topological sorting.

Lemma 1.

Every finite nonempty poset (S, ) has at least one

minimal element.

Ch8-62

Topological sorting 的方式：逐次output minimal element，

即得到由小到大的compatible total ordering

Example 26.

Find a compatible total ordering for the poset

({1, 2, 4, 5, 12, 20}, | ).

Sol :

12 20

1 2 5 4 12 20

4 2跟5的順序可交換，12跟20也是

2 5

1

Exercise: 62

Ch8-63

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