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Presentation

on
Gas Turbine Instrumentation
List of contents

1.GT introduction
2.Why Instrumentation system
3.Speedtronic system
4.Control schemes
5.Protection system
6.Startup & shutdown sequence
7.MARK-IV Hardware configuration
8.Introduction to MARK-V
9.Difference between MARK-IV &MARK-V
GAS TURBINE
A machine which transfers fuel energy into mechanical energy
AIR FUEL TO EXHAUST

SD LOAD
Starting
device HEAT WORK
COMPRESSION ADDITION EXPANSION DONE

By heating up compressed air expanding it in nozzles


mechanical/rotational energy is obtained
GAS TURBINE CYCLES (JOULE/BRAYTON)
3
2 3

P T 2

4
4
1
1
V S

1 -2 COMPRESSION (COMPRESSOR)
2 - 3 HEAT ADDITION (COMBUSTION CHAMBER)
3 - 4 EXPANSION (TURBINE)
4 - 1 HEAT REJECTION
WHY GT
GT is a mechanical driver can be used for driving,

Compressor
Generator
Ships
Air crafts
Pumps
Single shaft machines

Compressor & turbine are coupled to common single shaft

Normally used in process where less speed variation is required

Extremely suitable for generator drives

Due to large rotor mass the speed can easily be kept constant
Two shaft machines
Nozzle

High pressure (HP) turbine & compressor are attached to one shaft

Low pressure (LP) turbine are attached to another

These machines provide wide speed range with sufficient power & efficiency

By varying nozzle angle speed control is achieved considerably


Well suited for mechanical drive (compressors & pumps )

More complex than single shaft machines (Ex. More no. of bearings)
GT should be protected from,
*Over temperature
*Over speed
*Loss of flame
*Vibration
*High pressure
*Fire

Hence control system plays vital role for safe running of GT

Any control system should be designed

# To crank the turbine


# Bring it to purging speed
# Fire it (Heat addition )
# Bring the unit to operating speed
# Synchronize the GT to line

These sequences must occur automatically


> A dedicated control system designed by General Electric (G.E ), U.S.A
> First Speedtronic system introduced in 1968
> The latest version of GE control system is Speedtronic Mark-V

Speedtronic system takes care of,


* Startup control
* Speed control
* Temperature control
* GT protection
* Control sequencing
* Smooth shutdown &
* power supply
Objective of Speedtronic system
* Improved application flexiblity

* Enhanced operator interface

*A substantial decrease in GT outage rate

* Softening of the startup cycle

* High availability & reliability

This is achieved by distributing control functions among powerful


microcomputers.

These computers continuously monitor GT performance round the clock


Control concepts
Speedtronic system uses triple redundant configuration

There are 3 identical sections to carryout diagnostics

If one section fails the turbine continuous to run under control of


remaining sections

The failed section can be serviced and put back into service

The fourth section is for communication purpose

The 3 identical sections are named as <R>, <S>, & <T> which are powerful
microcomputers

The fourth section is named as <C> as communicator


MARK-IV Functional description

Analog Memory Analog


inputs outputs
Input Output
hardware Processor hardware Logic
Logic unit unit outputs
inputs
(contacts) Software CRT

Turbine mounted sensors monitors turbine operating conditions.


The input hardware unit converts the analog & logic signals from these sensors
into digital data for computation by the processor .
The processor(CPU) calculates the analog & logic signals,required control,
protection & sequencing of Gas turbine. The software (I.e. compute
program)defines this computation.
The output hardware unit then converts the digital results of these computations
to physical analog & logic signals to activate devices like solenoids
In general analog signals position servo valves and logic signals energize relays.
SPEEDTRONIC SCHEMATICS
F *Each computers <R>,<S> & <T>
I are connected independently.
E <R>
L Contact * These computers are generally
D output mentioned as <RST> signifying that
Relay they are identical.
module
S <S>
I * All the critical sensors are distri-
G -buted among <RST> such that each
N section has an independent assessment
A of turbine conditions.
Valve
L <T> Servos * Sensors that are not critical to
control
S operations are brought directly into
<C> ,to avoid extra I/O and
processing in <RST>.
<C>
*GT will continuous to run even if
<C> computer fails.
OP. X-FACE
Voting function
*Output from 3 computers must be voted ordinarily 2 out of 3 are required
* Critical outputs (like trip command )will be issued only if 2 or all 3 of
<RST> computers indicates trip status.
<R> 1 1
AND 0 1
<S> 0 1
Trip command
<S> 0 1 00
AND 10
00 OR
<T>
<T> 0 0 00
<R> 1 1 AND
# If only one computer (Ex. <R>= 1 ) gives trip command output will be ‘0’
It will not do any trip function.
# If 2 computers ( Ex. <R>= 1,<S>= 1) give trip command output will be ‘1’
which will trip the GT.
* This configuration is called 2 out of 3 voting
Logic voting
CIM 1-2 RELAY
RDM
OI <R> 2/3
OI <S> RD NO
Field NC
OI <T>
contact COM.
1/ 1
OI <C> RD
NO
CIM 3-6
NC
CIM - Contact Input Module. COM.
RDM - Relay Driver Module.

After logic execution output from <RST> computers going to relay driver module
Where it is getting hardware voted.
If 2/3 voting is true,trip command goes to de-energize the relay coil.Contacts from
this relay is used for final trip in the field.
There is no 2/3 voting for contacts from <C> computer.
Sequential control

CIM <RST> RDM


Switch

CIM : Contact Input Module RDM : Relay Driver Module

* The sequential control is achieved by ladder logic (like PLC system )

* Contact input module (CIM ) receives close or open status from GT

* Relay driver module ( RDM ) receives command signal from <RST>


computers and sends it to the final control element (like solenoid valves,
pumps etc.
Sequential control
CIM 1-2 RELAY
RDM
OI <R> 2/3
OI <S> RD NO
Field NC
OI <T>
contact COM.
1/ 1
OI <C> RD
NO
CIM 3-6
NC
CIM - Contact Input Module. COM.
RDM - Relay Driver Module.
OI - Optical isolator.
Totally there are 6 contact input modules (CIM) .CIM 1-2 are used for <RST>
computers.Remaining CIM 3-6 are used for <C> computer.
All digital signals are isolated from the field by optical isolators, Where the
signals also triplicate.
Analog control

D/A SERVO
<RST>
VALVE

* Analog / continuous control is achieved by servo valves which has 3 coils

* Each computer drives one coil of 3 coil servo valve

* Digital signals from <RST> computers are converted into analog signals
by A/D converters before going to servo valves

# TWO coils are enough to operate the servo valves


Analog control

LVDT
Vibration Analog <R>
Pressure I/O
module
Speed Servo
<S>
valve
TCM<R>
T/C’s <T>
TCM<S>
Analog
med I/O
TCM<T>
<C> module
TCM
C1 -C3

All analog & Thermocouple (T/C) signals are connected to <RST> &
<C> computers via analog I/O & thermocouple cards.

Analog control takes place in <RST> computers. <C> computer gives


corrective or bias value for analog computation.
1.Maximum selector gate
A
A>B C
B

Analog input signals A & B are compared with one another.The logic output
C becomes ‘1’ if A is greater than B, else C becomes ‘0’.

2.Minimum selector gate


A
A<B C
B

Here C becomes ‘1’ if A is less than B else it becomes ‘0’


3.multiplier

A
AXB C
B

Analog signals A & B are multiplied , the result equals C

4.Divider
A
C
A/B
B

The output C equals the division of the inputs A & B


5Clamper
Minimum

Maximum C (t)

a(t) CLAMP

The analog output C (t) equals a(t) unless C(t) is limited by either the constants
specified as ‘Minimum’ or ‘Maximum’.

6.Median gate
A Median
B Y
selector
C gate

This gate outputs intermediate value of inputs , I.e. it neglects minimum and
maximum value.In median gate minimum and maximum value is defined by user.
Control system

SPEEDTONIC system consists of 4 major controls,

Fuel affecting control

Special control (Nozzle control, IGV control etc.)

Protection system ( speed, temperature, pressure, etc.)

Startup &shutdown sequence


Protections : Flame,temp,pressure etc.
Protection DW
system Tx
FSR TNH
algorithm
Trip CPD
algorithm.
GCV
control
SRV TNH
control
T
N
P2 H

Fuel
SRV P2 GCV
Inter
valve
pressure
SRV control
Fuel affecting control
GCV control

Fuel To combustion chamber


SRV GCV
SRV - Speed / Stop Ratio Valve
GCV - Gas Control Valve

Both SRV & GCV are SERVO VALVES which are operated by high pressure
hydraulic oil.

GCV is responsible for maintaining desired fuel flow.Basically it is a fuel


control valve

SRV does two functions,


1.It acts as a pressure regulating valve. Basically it is a pressure control valve
2.During emergency / normal shutdown it will be in full tight off position
in order to to stop any further flow.
Principle of SRV control

SRV TNH
control
software

Fuel P2 To combustion chamber


SRV Inter GCV
valve
pressure
SRV maintains downstream pressure P2, (called as inter - valve pressure) constant

‘SRV control software’ receives ‘TNH’ signal and maintains P2 according to


control algorithm.

If any trip occurs (TNH becomes zero) SRV becomes full tight shut off position
and does not allow any further fuel flow.
SRV control
<RST> Error amplifier

+ +
TNH
- -

P2 Position feedback

Fuel
in SRV P2

Cylinder LVDT

Dump relay

Analog
Servo valve I/O module
SRV Characteristics LVDT Characteristics

P2
inter LVDT
valve output
pressure

TNH TNH

SRV control is designed such that inter valve pressure is linearly related
with TNH signal.

LVDT is Linear Variable Differential Transformer, which gives linear output


voltage Valve lift position (intern proportional to TNH signal ).
SRV control scheme

* TNH (HP shaft speed )signal is linearly related with inter valve pressure,P2.

* TNH signal is fed to <RST> computers.

* <RST> receives inter valve pressure,P2 signal from 3 pressure transmitters.


It also receives position feedback of servo valve from LVDT.

*As TNH and P2 are linearly related, depends upon TNH, <RST> computers
maintains desired P2 by issuing proper command.

* The inter valve pressure signal P2 is compared with TNH signal and the error
signal (if any )is again compared with LVDT position feedback signal to
reposition the valve.

*In this way SRV maintains constant inter valve pressure, P2 depending upon
TNH signal.
During trip condition No
Gas SRV further
fuel fuel

Cylinder

Trip
oil Dump relay
Drain
Servo valve

Hydraulic oil in

* Whenever trip condition exist trip logic actuates the trip oil

*Trip oil intern actuates dump relay, which will drain all the high pressure
hydraulic oil to drain line.

* As there is no hydraulic oil SRV will suddenly come to shut off position.
Principle of GCV control
GCV - Gas Control Valve Fuel
Purpose : To maintain desired gas fuel flow. in

Start up control
Speed control Minimum
Acceleration control value
FSR GCV
Temperature control selector
signal
Shut down control gate
Manual control

There are six independent fuel flow control algorithms , continuously monitor
their own GCV opening ( generally called Fuel Stroke Reference - FSR ).
These six results are fed to a minimum selector gate, which selects lowest
among them.
In this way the lowest value is assigned to FSR (fuel Stroke Reference) signal
which determines Exact fuel flow to the gas turbine.
Brief over view
The fuel flow to the GT is always determined by the lowest value of the following
six FSR signal algorithms.

1. Start up control : (FSRSU)


This control comprises the ignition, warm up, and the gradual rise of fuel flow to
the acceleration. The algorithm output is ‘FSRSU’.

2.Speed / load control ; (FSRN)


Fuel flow is adjusted by the speed control loop in such a way that the load
demand is maintained. The controller algorithm is ‘FSRN’.

3. Acceleration control : (FSRACC )


This reduces the fuel flow in case of a too high acceleration of the rotor,
Ex. Caused by loss of full load .This prevents excessive vibration . The
algorithm output is ‘FSRACC’.
4. Temperature control : (FSRT)
* This control reduces the fuel flow to prevent overheating of the GT
The control algorithm output is ‘FSRT’.

5. Shut down control : (FSRSD)


* This control reduces the fuel flow during a normal stop (I.e. from the moment
that the generator breaker has opened until flame has extinguished ).
* The control algorithm output is ‘FSRSD’.

6. Manual control : (FSRMAN )


The operator can enter a value of FSRMAN in this mode.
*In this way an upper limit for FSR is established.
*If this mode is not used that means FSRMAN = 100 % is the default value.
Startup control
This control comprises the ignition, warm-up and the gradual raise of fuel
flow for acceleration.

Startup control is a open loop control which increases FSR signal as the GT
startup sequence progresses to pre assigned plateaus.

When the master protection signal (called as L4 signal ) is healthy FSRSU


becomes FSR during startup.

First GT should be purged for blowing out present explosive fuel mixture

Once the purging is over startup control initiates firing command, wait for
sometime warm-up the engine and then gradually raise the fuel flow to
accelerate the GT.
100% Gradual raise of fuel
Warm-up takes place to
period
accelerate
to avoid thermal the GT
shock
FSRSU fuel level slightly decreased
Firing
startsFlame
35.6 detected

23.8 FSRSU signal before reaching


this point FSRN signal I.e. speed
18.8
Purging control loop will take over FSR
period control.So FSRSU will no longer
comes into picture until next
0% time
cycle starts
Once the flame is detected by the flame detectors transition takes place from
firing state warm-up state.

After warm-up period is over gradual raise of fuel takes place until the control
changeover to speed control loop.
Speed control
Objective
Fuel flow is adjusted by the speed control loop in such a way that the
load demand is maintained
Principle
TNH Speed Minimum
control select
TNR S/W gate

TNH - HP turbine shaft speed


TNR - Speed reference corresponding to load

The speed control S/W will change FSR in proportion to the difference between
TNH and TNR
Droop mode
Speed control
Isochronoues mode

Droop mode :

This mode is generally used where the GT is coupled on a large grid system.

As the generator is electrically locked to the grid, speed control of one GT is


not possible but the speed reference will be used for load control.

Load sharing is the main advantage of droop mode.


Droop mode configuration 100 %

Clamper
FSR min FSRN
gate
+ + +
TNR _ _ _

TNH Droop FSNL


correction Full
factor speed
no load

Speed controller on droop is a proportional controller

It changes FSRN signal in proportion to the difference between turbine speed


and speed reference.

The error signal between TNR and TNH is corrected by droop correction factor
and full speed no load level and then it is limited between 100 % and FSRMIN.
104
103
102 4%
101 Droop
100
% Speed
TNR

0% Load 100%

The speed control loop is used as load control loop


The proportional setting is normally 4% droop.

This means that the speed reference signal (TNR) range of 100% to 104%
corresponds to a load range of 0% to 100%.
So depends upon the load changes (0 - 100% ), speed reference signal (TNR)
will vary and control software takes corrective action.
As TNR is directly related with load it is also called load reference. In general
TNR is called as speed/load reference.
FSR max

FSRN
%

FSNL

0% Load 100%
100% TNR 104%
0% Droop 4%

In droop mode depends upon the load conditions speed reference signal (TNH)
is adjusted automatically.

The controller algorithm position the FSRN signal according to speed reference
change , which is a function of load.
Isochronous mode
This mode is generally used for the purpose of stand alone operation of
turbine - generator unit.
FSNL

TNR Control
software GCV GT
valve Generator
T
N
H Speed
sensor TNH
In this mode the speed set point TNR is always 100%
Here the generator load cannot be set by operator, the load is set by the consumer.
As the load increases TNH signal will come down.the error between TNR&TNH
will increase

As long as the error exist control S/W keep on increasing the output until it
reaches zero.
Temperature control
Objective
*Is to reduce the fuel flow to prevent overheating of the
*To maintain constant firing temperature.

NOTE
Highest temperature point takes place in the combustion chamber (around 1200 )

It is practically not possible to measure the temperature at this point

Combustion chamber temperature (called as firing temperature) is computed as


a function of exhaust temperature and compressor discharge pressure according
to thermodynamic laws.

Firing temperature can also be computed as a function of exhaust temperature


and amount of fuel flow (FSR signal) . This can be used as back up, if CPD
signal fails.
1.Firing temperature as a function of CPD

Isothermal line
Exhaust Constant firing temperature (Tf)
temperature
TTRX Tf = TTRX * (CPD)k

CPD
2.Firing temperature as a function of FSR/LOAD

Isothermal line
As Tf is constant just by measuring
Exhaust CPD or
Constant FSR
firing we can compute
temperature (Tf)
temperature
exhaust temperature TTRX . This signal can be used as the
TTRX Tf = TTRX * (FSR)k
temperature control reference value.

FSR
Temperature control
Temperature control algorithm receives actual exhaust temperature ,TTXM
from thermocouples.

It computes corresponding exhaust temperature reference set point (TTRX)


from compressor discharge pressure (CPD) and constant firing temperature.

The difference between set point & measured value (TTRX - TTXM) goes
as command signal to limit the exhaust temperature.

Thermocouples Exhaust plenum

The exhaust temperature is measured by 13 thermocouples, located around


the exhaust plenum.This signal is called as TTXM.
How TTXM is measured ?

1 Reject
2 Receive Sort Reject
all 13 high
high all T/C Average TTXM
T/C &
to less than remaining
values low
13 low constant
T/C
Quantity
13 constant

<RST> computers receives 13 T/C readings and then it sorts out highest value to
lowest value.

Next it rejects all T/C’s less than some constant value.This step is to avoid bad
T/C values

Again it rejects highest & lowest values and then it calculates average of the
remaining T/C’s.The final output is called as actual exhaust temperature TTXM
Acceleration control
To prevent the over speed of the turbine if the load is rejected suddenly.

To limit the rate of change of turbine speed to reduce the thermal shock

constant Mini
+ FSRACC
- select
TNH controller +
gate
+
Z-1 +
FSR
This control compares the present value of the speed signal with the
value at last sample time(0.25 second)
The difference between these two values is the measure of
acceleration. If the acceleration is greater FSRACC is reduced
which will reduce FSR & consequently fuel to the GT.
Manual control (FSRMAN)

In this mode the operator can enter the value for FSR manually.
This mode is not often used , which means that FSRMAN = 100%
will be the default value

Hence FSRMAN acts as the upper limit (100%) for the FSR signal.

FSRMAN is an open loop FSR usually set at 100%. It will stay at


this position until manually lowered to override other control loops.

When FSRMAN becomes lesser than FSRMAX alarm will be


generated to alert the operator.
Manual control contd.

Raise FSR max


FSR min Median
constant1 FSRMAN
select
constant2 gate

Lower
-1
Z

By pressing raise / lower buttons FSRMAN signal value can


be changed manually.
Shutdown control
GT shutdown (called as fired shutdown) when the stop command
is issued .
This results in unloading the turbine I.e. lowering TNR until the
generator breaker opens on reverse power protection or it reaches
full speed no load (FSNL).
From this moment the shutdown control algorithm lowers the value
of FSR value until flame is extinguished.
When all the flame detectors sees no flame FSRSD becomes zero .
After FSRSD becomes zero , cool down sequence starts.This is
achieved by hydraulic mechanism.
This ratchet mechanism rotates the rotor approximately 47 degrees
every 3 minutes .This provides uniform cooling of rotor.
This cool down sequence continuous until cool down off is
manually selected.
Shutdown curve
Stop Lowering of TNR
execute

Lowering
Breaker open of FSR
First can out
Intercept Flame out
Start ramp
FSRMIN
% to blow out Fuel shutoff
FSR

time
How final FSR is calculated
<RST>

FSRSU
FSRSD FSRS1
Mini
FSRT
FSRN select
FSRACC gate
FSRMAN
min Median Final
FSRC select FSR to
max gate servo valve

<C>

FSRS1<R> Median
FSRS1<S> select FSRC
FSRS1<T> gate

Each individual computers <R> <S> & <T> generates their own FSR signal
from minimum selector gate.<C> computer provides corrective bias to <RST>
computer.Hence even if <C> fails GT will continue to run.
Nozzle angle control
Why do we need nozzle angle control ?

In single shaft machines depends upon the load condition turbine shaft speed
can be adjusted by modulating fuel flow & air flow.

But in 2 shaft machines HP & LP turbines are isolated.output hot gasses from
HP turbine enters into LP turbine through nozzles.

Hence by varying nozzle angle the amount pressure drop across each turbine
can be varied .

FSRT algorithm takes care of maintaining constant firing temperature and


FSRN algorithm takes care of load variation.

But nozzle angle control associates with these 2 algorithms to control exhaust
temperature.

This is achieved by controlling pressure drop across HP & LP turbines.


Nozzle angle function

Nozzle angle can be varied from


+15 Full open

-5 Full close
Full open condition
*There will be less back pressure and hence more pressure drop across HP
*HP turbine speed will increase
*LP turbine speed will decrease
Full close condition
*Back pressure will be more consequently less pressure drop across HP
*HP turbine speed will decrease
*LP turbine speed will obviously decrease
Hence by varying nozzle angle HP & LP turbine speed can be varied.
Reference set point calculation(TNRH)

Max
Min Median TNRH
TTRX select
-
+ gate
TTXM

Gain
TTRX is calculated from fixed firing temperature and CPD or FSR signal as
in the case of FSRT algorithm.It acts as reference exhaust temperature.

TTXM is the actual measured exhaust temperature obtained from thermocouples.

TNRH is determined by the difference between TTRX & TTXM and it is


limited between minimum and maximum values.

TNRH acts as reference signal for HP turbine. It also acts as reference signal
for maintaining exhaust temperature.
Nozzle angle control contd.

Full open angle


Full close angle Median
TNRH
select TSRNZ
+
- gate
TNH
OFFSET +
Gain
TNRH is the reference signal for nozzle angle control depends upon exhaust
temperature reference value.

TNH is the measured HP turbine speed obtained from speed sensors.


Deviation between TNH & TNRH determines exact opening of nozzle.
Nozzle angle open/close command ,TSRNZ is limited between max. open
angle & full close angle.

So the ultimate aim of nozzle angle control is to maintain exhaust temperature


constant.
Protection system
Protection system takes care of safe running of gas turbine

It continuously monitors various GT parameters, if any parameter reaches


near danger limit it will give alarm to alert the operator. When it reaches
a predefined danger limit it will trip the GT.

Protection system takes care of

* flame detection

* over speed protection

* over temperature protection

* vibration protection

* combustion monitoring
Protection system schematics
Master Servo GCV
protection
Over speed S/W valve
<R> 2/3
Over temp. Servo
SRV
<S> valve
Vibration 2/3

Flame out 2/3 SV


<T>

Master protection system for <R>,<S> & <T> computers receives


all the critical parameters from the field.
If the master protection system found any abnormalities it will give
trip command individually.
This trip command from all 3 computers voted 2 out of 3.
Overspeed protection
Overspeed system is designed to protect the GT against possible damage
caused by overspeed of the turbine shaft.

Under normal operating conditions the speed of the shaft is the under the
control loop.

Overspeed protection

electronic overspeed protection (primary)

mechanical overspeed protection(secondary)


Electronic overspeed system
LATCH
TNH
A
A>B set Overspeed trip command
Overspeed
B
setpoint
Master reset reset

Electronic overspeed is achieved by computer software

turbine shaft is measured by three magnetic pick up speed sensors connected to


<R> ,<S>&<T>, individually.
When the turbine speed (TNH) exceeds overspeed setpoint it will trip command
through latch circuit.

Output will remain in trip status until master reset is done


Mechanical overspeed (secondary) system
It acts as a back up for electronic overspeed system

Since it is a back up system overspeed setpoint will be greater than electronic


overspeed setpoint

The mechanical overspeed trip system consists of

* overspeed bolt assembly


* overspeed trip mechanism

Overspeed bolt assembly acts as a sensing and feed back mechanism


Centrifugal force is used as a measure of force. Set point is adjusted by spring
force adjustment.

When the overspeed occurs centrifugal force will overcome spring force. The
resultant force will activate trip mechanism
This trip mechanism drains all the hydraulic oil from the servo valve circuit to
stop further fuel flow.
How tripping takes place?

The ultimate aim of trip circuit to shut off the fuel control valve to stop further
fuel flow

Trip command from <RST>computers activates trip oil circuit which finally
closes fuel shutoff valve

Trip oil is controlled by dump solenoid valves which are operated by trip circuits
this dump solenoidvalves are normally enerzised to run

Whenever trip condition exists dump solenoid valve get de energised to trip

This causes all the trip oil get drained. This in term will cause all the high pressure
hydraulic oil in the servo valve will get drained
As there is no hydraulic oil, the servo valve will go to shutoff position.

During running conditions, dump solenoid valves will be energized , trip oil will
alllowes high pressure hydraulic oil to actuate servo valves.
Trip oil schematics Normal condition
Trip condition

Protection Master Trip Mechanical Overspeed trip


signals protection SRV
circuit Fuel
in
Fuel solenoid To GCV
trip valve
20FG

Reset From Servo


latch <RST> valve Drain
Manual
Overspeed trip High pressure
trip hydraulic oil
Overtemperature protection
* this system protects GT against possible damage caused overfiring.
* it is backup system which operate only after failure of the temperature
control loop.

Under normal operating conditions temperature control loop controls fuel


flow when the firing temperature limit is reached.

In certain failure modes however exhaust temperature and fuel flow can
exceed control limits.

Under such circumstances the over temperarture protection system provides


an overtemperature alarm.

If the temperature raises further GT will be tripped.

The actual exhaust temperature TTXM is compared with alarm and trip
set points.

Alarm will be generated if TTXM exceeds the temp control reference TTRX
plus the alarm margin(constant 3).
TTXM A
Constant-3 B A>B Alarm
TTRX A A>B
Constant-2 B OR Trip
A A>B gate
Constant-1 B

Isothermal trip

TTXM Trip
Alarm
TTRX.

Over temperature trip will occur if the exhaust temperature(TTXM)


exceeds temperature control reference plus the trip margin(constant-2)
It also trips if TTXM exceeds isothermal trip value(constant-1)
Flame detection

Fuel should not be allowed without flame existence.Other wise


GT should be tripped.

Flame detectors (Ultra violet scanners) monitor on the turbine and


generate logic signals depends upon flame condition
Flame detectors are utilized both in start up sequence and running
Totally there are 4 flame detectors mounted on the GT
If one flame detector detects flame the stressing sequence is allowed
to proceed. Conversely if one flame detector fails it allow the unit
continue to run but will alarm.
If both detectors detecting loss of flame the unit is immediately
shut down
Flame detection
<RST>
Flame
detector-1 Honey well
flame
Flame detector
To start up
detector-2 Flame
and
detector protection
Flame software
detector-3 Honey well
flame
Flame detector
detector-4
Analog
FIELD input/output
module
Vibration protection

The vibration protection system of a GT composed of several


independent vibration measuring channel.
Each channel detects excessive vibration by means of vibration
pick up mounted on the bearing houses.

If a predetermined vibration level is exceeded the vibration


protection system trips the GT.
Totally there are 7 vibration probes,
Two probes for HP shaft
Two probes for LP shaft
Two probes for generator
One probe for gear box
Vibration <RST>
pickup A/D Transducer
A A<B fault alarm
Analog Fault B
I/O
A A<B Alarm
Alarm B
A A<B
Latch Trip
Trip B
Master reset

Millivolt signal from vibration pickup <RST> computers via A/D


converter.
This vibration signals are compares with predefined constants to
generate trip and alarm signals.
Trip command is issued through latch circuit.Master reset
command is used to reset the system.
Startup sequence

Ready to start

Start command & execute

AOP starts , Diesel engine starts

Turbine is accelerated to cranking speed

Purging takes place, FSR=0

N Purge completed ?
Y
Firing timer is initiated, Firing FSR is set, Spark plugs are energized

N Flame detected

Y
No flame is detected
Trip A
A

FSR level is reduced to warm-up level

N Warm-up time over

Y
FSR is increased exponentially to accelerate limit

Turbine accelerate until 14HA picks up which


indicates turbine has reached minimum governing speed

AOP & AHOP are stopped

Full speed no load displayed

Complete sequence displayed


Startup curves
FSNL 104%
Sequence complete
TNH 14HS
AOP stops
Tx Generator
FSR breaker
TNR opens
MW 70%

14HA

Ignition
14HM Flame

0 1 Boiler 5 10 15 20
Start Base
purge Loading
command load
Cranking
Shutdown sequence

Stop & execute command

TNR gradually reduced resulting in generator


unloading from full load to no load

Generator breaker opens on reverse power

Fired shutdown displayed, AOP stops

FSR level is decreased at 0.05%/sec. Till minimum FSR is reached

Speed reduction takes place without loosing flame

B
B

When TNH reaches below operating speed (14HS)


AOP stops

Turbine decelerates below the Accelerate speed (14HA)

FSR level is decreased till the FD sees no flame

If all FD’s see no flame FSR is set to zero level

Turbine coasts to zero speed (14HR)


104%
100%
TNH
Tx
70% FSR
TNR
MW

Generator breaker
opens

0 1 5 10 15 20
Base Unloading Coasting
load down
What is Hardware ?
Hardware is an electronic circuit arranged in a specific fashion called a module
or a card
This card performs specific functions as directed by the software

The required software (I.e. our requirement) can be stored in any memory unit.

Why should I know about Hardware ?


The hardware rather than software is the most likely cause of a problem in the
Mark-IV control system.

The hardware must be functioning correctly for the software to function properly.

The hardware must be correctly assembled to function properly.


Hardware of Mark-IV

<R>
Critical I/O To
I/O <S> module
signals module field

<T>

Non To
I/O
Critical I/O <C> alarm
module
signals module unit

All the critical inputs which are needed to keep the turbine running are
connected to <RST> computers.

All the non-critical inputs (just for monitoring purpose) are connected to <C>

Even if <C> fails turbine will keep running.


Major hardware components in mark-IV

<R>,<S>, and <T> computers


<C> computer
Analog I/O module
Contact input module

Relay driver module


Relay modules
CRT - Video display module
Power distribution module

All these individual units are arranged in the turbine


control panel compartment to carryout specific tasks.
<C> communicator
The major functions of the <C> communicator is to,

* Perform the non-critical turbine control , protection and sequencing functions.

* Monitor the health of the the controllers <RST>

* Drive the primary display unit (CRT) and printer.

* Perform diagnostic tests.

All this functions are achieved by specific electronic cards (Hardware module)
which are residing in <C> communicator.

<C> communicator contains 16 card slots.Out of which 14 are used in normal


practice ,remaining 2 are optional.
Hardware of <C> communicator

<C> communicator contains 2 rows of 12 card slots(positions).

These card slots are arranged in the form of matrix .

Numbers 1 & 2 designate the top row and bottom row

Letters A through M (except I ) designate the 12 columns from right to left.

A typical arrangement will be

M A
1M 1A 1

2M 2A 2
<C> communicator cards
SLOT CARD NA,ME FUNCTION
1A HVDB VIDEO DRIVER DRIVES CRT DISPLAY
1B HCVA ANALOG INPUT OPTIONAL 2 ANALOG OUTPUT
1C HCVA ANALOG INPUT OPTIONAL 2 ANALOG OUTPUT
1D HCVA ANALOG INPUT OPTIONAL 2 ANALOG OUTPUT
1E HCVA ANALOG INPUT OPTIONAL 2 ANALOG OUTPUT
1F HCMA MASTER HIGHWAY OPTIONAL COMMUNICATION
1G HRMB BRAM BRAM - MEMORY STORAGE
1H HUMA UNIVERSAL MEMORY MEMORY STORAGE
1J HUMA UNIVERSAL MEMORY MEMORY STORAGE
1K HUMA UNIVERSAL MEMORY MEMORY STORAGE
1L HXPD EXPANDER MEMORY, INTERRUPT & LOGIC I / O
1M HMPF MICROPROCESSOR PROCESSOR FUNCTIONS & LOGIC OUTPUT
2A HCMA COMMUNICATOR OPTONAL - ADDITIONAL RS 232 LINK
2B NTCF THERMOCOUPLE OPTIONAL 16 T / C INPUTS
2C NTCF THERMOCOUPLE OPTIONAL 16 T / C INPUTS
2D NTCF THERMOCOUPLE OPTIONAL 16 T / C INPUTS
2E HAIC ANALOG INPUT 16 ANALOG INPUTS
2F HAFA AUXILIARY FUNCTION 14 ANALOG INPUTS & 32 LOGIC OUTPUTS
2G HMHA MASTER HIGHWAY COMMUNICATION
2H HIOD DIGITAL I / O 32 DIGITAL INPUT & 32 DIGITAL OUTPUT
2J HCMA COMMUNICATION RS 232 SERIAL DATA LINK TO <R> & <S>
2K HIOD DIGITAL I / O 32 DIGITAL INPUT & 32 DIGITAL OUTPUT
2L HCMA COMMUNICATION RS 232 SERIAL DATA LINK TO <T> & PRINTER
2M HIOD DIGITAL I / O 32 DIGITAL INPUT & 32 DIGITAL OUTPUT
<C> Interface diagram
L-BUS
HMPF
HXPD
Digital
HUMA RDM RELAY output
HIOD
3-6
HRMB
HAIC

HVDV Digital
CRT CIM
input
OPM
<R>
HCMA NTCF TCM
<S>

<T> HAFA
HCMA Analog
PRINT HMHA AIO input
Analog
HCVA output
<RST> computers

Each controller <R>, <S>, and <T>

Performs the critical turbine control, protection and sequencing functions.

Performs diagnostic tests.

Exchanges data with <C> communicator.

<RST> controller contains required software and hardware that will keep the
turbine running and perform a normal shutdown even if <C> fails.

The hardware and software are identical in each controller.


<RST> controller hardware
All the critical inputs are fed into each controllers.

All these critical outputs are hardware voted on 2 out of 3 basis.

All the non-critical outputs from <RST> controllers fed to <C>


where they are software voted.

Totally there are 12 cards arranged in matrix form.

F E D C B A
1
1F 1A

2F 2A 2
<RST> controller cards

SLOT CARD NAME FUNCTION


1A HPRB Pulse rate 4 pulse rate/Digital inputs
1B HAFA Auxiliary function 14 Analog & 32 Logic inputs
1C NTCD Thermocouple 16 Thermocouple inputs
1D HXPD Expander Memory,Interrupt & Logic I/O
1E HCVA Vibration / pressure Optional 2 Analog input
1F HMPF Microprocessor Processor fn.,memory & 8 logic O/P’s
2A NVCB Vibration /pressure Optional 6 vibration & 4 analog I/P
2B NVCB Vibration / pressure 6 vibration & 4 analog I/P
2C HAIC Analog input 16 analog inputs
2D HSAA Servo amplifier Optional 2 LVDT I/P’s & Servo O/P’s
2E HSAA Servo amplifier Optional 2 LVDT I/P’s & Servo O/P’s
2F HSAA Servo amplifier Optional 2 LVDT I/P’s & Servo O/P’s
<RST> controller interface diagram
L-BUS
<C>
HMPF HCMA
Thermocouple
input TCM NTCF

Flame HAIC
HAFA
signal RDM Relay
Logic
Vibration NVCB outputs
HXPD
AIO
LVDT HSAA
Analog
output NVCA
Logic
Speed HPRB CIM
input
SPEEDTRONIC MAK - V
It is an advanced version of Mark-IV, introduced by general Electric in 1991.

The Speedtronic Mark-IV control & protection system is based on microcomputers.

This system can be used for both single shaft & double shaft machines.

Triple redundancy I.e.3 redundant computers (<R>,<S> &<T> )is applied


for the essential control & protections.

A fourth non-redundant computer <C>,is used for the communication with


the operator interface <I>.
MARK V - AN OVERVIEW

•3 Redundant computers <R> , <S> & <T> denoted by <Q>.

•<C> for communication.

•<P> for protection.

•<I> for operator interface.

•<BOI> for backup operation.(communication via backup net)

•Data exchange between <R> , <S> , <T> & <C> is done by DE net.
•Digital inputs &outputs are transferred to the respective locations
via IO net.
•Only one computer votes and if it fails another computer takes
over immediately.
Functional description of Mark-V

Arithmetic
unit

Control
From
unit To
field A/D D/A
field
Memory

All the field signals are converted into digital form and then stored in the memory.
The memory also contains the program for Gas turbine control & instructions of
the system software.
The control unit executes all the programs with the help of Arithmetic unit.
The result of this digital operation is stored in the memory and then converted
into analog signals.
Principle of Mark-V system

Logic inputs
Mark-V system uses Software Implemented Fault Tolerance(SIFT) technique.

This means all the 3 computers individually vote all 3 corresponding logic inputs.

Logic output
Logic output value is software voted by one redundant computer (the voter).
Only for the master protection system a hardware 2 out of 3 voting with relays
is executed in the protection module <P>.
The voted master protection signal (=trip signal) controls the power of trip
relays and solenoids.

Analog values
Analog inputs are converted into digital form , processed by the processor and then
converted back into analog form to actuate servos.
Principle of Mark-V

Analog I/P A/D D/A Analog O/P


<R>
Digital I/P 2/3 2/3 Digital O/P

A/D D/A
,, <S> ,,
2/3 2/3

A/D D/A
,, ,,
<T>
2/3 2/3

A/D D/A
,, <C> ,,
1/1 1/1
DE net
Mark-V system configuration

The major component of mark-V are,

<I> Computer
It is the operator interface,just like personal computer (PC) with color screen.

<BOI> Module
The backup operator interface communicates via a backup net with the redundant
computers <RST>.The malfunctioning of <C> or a unpowered <C> does not
affect this communication.

<C> Communicator
It is a common non-redundant computer.Mainly dedicated for communication
with <I> computer.Though if <C> fails the turbine can still be operated from
the <BOI>and is controlled by <RST> computers.

<RST> computers
These are 3 identical redundant computers.
<P>Module
This module is called protective module which acts as interface between
<RST> computers and field solenoids.
This module receives trip command from <RST> computers and performs
2 out of 3 voting . Then it issues trip command to field solenoids.

<CD> module
It is a digital I/O module of which digital input & output signals are routed
to/from <C> communicator.
This module provides 96 contact inputs and 60 contact outputs.

<QD1> Module
The digital I/O module of which the digital inputs & output signals are
routed to/from <RST> computers.
This module provides 96 contact inputs & 60 contact outputs .

* Analog inputs & outputs for <RST> are connected to terminal boards of
<RST>computers
MARK-V System configuration
<I>

<CD> Analog <C>


I/O

Analog <R>
I/O
Logic
Input/ <QD> <P>
output Analog <S>
I/O

Analog <T>
I/O
DE net
MARK - IV MARK - V

<R>
<R>

<S>

<S> <C>
<C>

<T> <T>
Difference between Mark-IV & Mark-V

MARK - IV MARK - V

There is no direct <R>, <S>,& <T>


<R> , <S> <T> talk to each other
inter communication

Protection functions done by <RST> There is a special <P> computer for


computers. protection functions.

There is a mechanical over speed bolt No mechanical over speed trip .


trip in addition to electrical over speed Instead an additional electronic trip
trip has been provided

<R>, <S> & <T> can talk to <C> <R, <S> < T> & <C> can talk via
independently DE net
MARK - IV MARK - V

Startup of GT cannot be performed All control operations of the GT can be


if <C> has failed.During normal performed through the <BOI>. Hence
operation, however failure of <C> even if <C> fails the GT can be started
does not affect the GT operation. using <BOI>.
(The auxiliary display cannot be
used for startup.

On failure of <C> triple redundant Triple redundancy is not affected by


of Mark-IV is lost the failure of <C>.

All cards are plugged into their Mother board concept is not there.
respective mother boards. All cards are interconnected via
ribbon cables.