y A person is said to have influence over another

person when he/she can get him to do something he/she would not do otherwise. Influence can be brought about coercive or non-coercive means. Non-coercive means = non-threatening means, such as persuasion, discussion, argumentation etc.

y Coercion is show of force or the use of

threat to intimidate other person or group. Man¶s capacity to coerce the behavior of another through the threat of sanctions.

y Force is the application of coercion or the use of

physical pressure. The application of force is required when all other extreme form of influence have failed. When people refused to accept the authority of government or to be influenced by threat of sanctions, the only tool left to government to ensure compliance is force.
y Force is the Ultima Ratio of politics

y Persuasion is the capability to covince a

person to do (or not to do) something

y is the capacity of a person or institution to command

obedience without coercion

y is a legitimate power. Political Power is not always in

close relation with legitimacy

y is not based on the superior force of those issuing

command but derives from the popular recognition that some people and institutions have the right to issue commands. Since government authority is based on voluntary acceptance of the right to rule, the degree of authority is directly proportional to level of legitimacy

What is POWER?
y Power is a prime ingredient of politics y Power is the ability of one person to get another to do his bidding y Power is a connection between the ruler and the ruled. Power in y y y


politics is identical with money in economy Power is man¶s control over the mind and action of othe man (Hans J. Morgenthau) Power is a sort of enabling device to carry out or implement policies or and decisions (Michael Roskin, et.al.) Power is the capacity to influence behavior through the threat of coercion. Power depends upon the use, or threat of use, of negative or positive sanctions (Mark R. Amstutz) Power is the ability to use the source of influence to influence the process of political decision making for the benefit of the whole society (Ramlan Surbakti)

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Power is interhuman relation Power holder influences person or other side Power holder can be individual, group, organization, or government Object of power (the influenced) can be individual, group, organization, or government (or state, in case of foreign policy) Person or group that have sources of power are not really powerful since it depend on the ability to use the sources of power effectively The application of power resources perhaps involve coercion, consensus, or combination of the two The use of power depends on the moral perspective used in politics The application of influence¶s resources is exceptionally beneficial to the people as a whole or beneficial only to small group of society Most political power purpose to use the resources of power for public society, while personal power on the other hand, tend to use power for the interest of the small part of society Power that have political aspect is the use of influence¶s resources to influence the political process

Influence Resource, i.e.: wealth, followers, descendant, knowledge or science, money, skill, position in society, appearance (handsome, beautiful), strength, nobly, fame, piety, and many others

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