You are on page 1of 97

Role des elements Nutritifs

Macro elements:
N (azote), P (Phosphore), K (Potassium)
Elements Secondaires :
Ca (Calcium), Mg (Magnesium), S (Soufre)
Micro nutrients:
Fe (fer), Cu (Cuivre), Zn (Zinc), B (Bore),
Mn (Manganese), Mo (Molybdenum) Cl (Chlore)

Presente par Elgad Agro-system elgad1@netvision.net.il


Mineral analysis of Barley (Orge)

Ca
N
P
N
K
K Ca
Ca
Mg
N S P
P
Cu
K
Mn
Zn

grain paille
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Mineral analysis of Corn

Ca N
P
K N
K Ca
Ca
Mg
S
P N Cu K
Mn P
Zn

grain straw
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Mineral analysis of Tomatoes

Ca N
P
K
N
N Ca Ca
Mg
S P
K Cu
Mn K
P
Zn

fruit plant
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Mineral analysis of Orange

N
P
Ca K
Ca N
N
Mg
S Ca
Cu
K P Mn
Zn K P

fruit plant
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of each nutrient

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of nutrients in physiology of
plant growth:

- 16% of proteins molecules (cell nucleus)

-component of chloroplast (chlorophyll)


. Photosynthesis
nitrogen N -hormonal balance and vegetative growth.

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Nitrogen deficiency

Yellow green color


(chlorosis)
firing of tips and margin
of leaves (begin with
mature leaves)

N def
elgad1@netvision.net.il
N def
Nitrogen deficiency
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Nitrogen deficiency N def
Nitrogen deficiency on maize
N def
Nitrogen deficiency on citrus N def
elgad1@netvision.net.il
N def
Nitrogen deficiency on maize
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Nitrogen deficiency on cucumber N def
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Nitrogen is taken up by plants as nitrate (NO3-)
or amonium (NH4+) ions.

Nitrogen is utilized to synthesize amino-acids


(which turn to proteins)
Nitrogen is also required as a compound of
chlorophyll , nucleic acids and enzymes.

Symptoms: Yellow green color


(chlorosis) firing of
tips and margin of leaves
(begin with mature leaves)

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of nutrients in physiology of
plant growth:

-energy source in ATP molecule


. (respiration & photosynthesis process)

Phosphorus P -->root growth factor

-flowering and hormonal balance.

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Phosphorus
deficiency

P def
Purplish coloration on foliage
of some plants

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Phosphorus
deficiency

P def
Delayed
maturity and
poor fruit or
seed
development

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Phosphorus
deficiency
on Maize
P def

elgad1@netvision.net.il
P def

Phosphorus
deficiency

elgad1@netvision.net.il
P def
Phosphorus is absorbed by plants as H2PO4-
HPO4-- or PO4--- depending on soil pH

Phosphorus is present in living cell. It form nucleic acids


(RNA DNA) and is used in energy transfer as ATP ADP
Phosphorus stimulates early growth and root formation.It
hastens maturity and promotes seed production.

Main deficiency symptoms:


-slow growth
-purplish or dark green coloration
-delayed maturity
-poor fruit and seed development

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of nutrients in physiology of
plant growth:

-cell wall & membranes component


. -->strength and shelf life

potassium K -carbohydrates synthesis and


. photosynthesis.

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Tip and marginal “burn”
Potassium deficiency starting on mature leaves K def
Weak leaves,plant lodge easily
Potassium deficiency
small fruit or shriveled seeds K def
Potassium deficiency
elgad1@netvision.net.il
K def
K def

Potassium deficiency
elgad1@netvision.net.il
K def
Potassium deficiency

elgad1@netvision.net.il
K def

Potassium deficiency elgad1@netvision.net.il


Potassium is taken up by plants in ion form K+
It remain in ionic form within cells and tissues.

Potassium is essential for translocation of sugars and starch


formation.it is required in opening and closing of stomata by
guard cells. (water evapo transpiration)
Potassium increase resistance to disease . Potassium increase
size and quality of fruits and vegetables. (ex:foliar in citrus)

Deficiency symptoms:
-Tip and marginal burn (mainly mature leaves)
-weak stalks, easy “lodge”
-small fruit
-slow growth
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of nutrients in physiology of
plant growth:

-cell wall & membranes component


. -->strength and shelf life

calcium Ca (as calcium pectate)


(move through xylem down up with water
flow, not through phloem:cellular active and
passive diffusion)

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Calcium deficiency

Symptoms:”Tip burn” of young leaves -celery,lettuce,cabbage


death of growing points (buds) and root tips
Ca def
-premature shedding of blossom and buds
-blossom end rot :tomatoes,pepper,melons bitter pit or cork spots: apples and pears
Calcium deficiency Ca def
lettuce
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Calcium deficiency

vineyard

Ca def

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Ca def

Calcium deficiency Sugar beet


elgad1@netvision.net.il
Calcium is absorbed by plants as calcium ion Ca++
is a structural nutrient and is an essential part in walls and
membranes. Moving through the xylem with the water
flow, once deposited in plant tissues, is not remobilized to
young tissue if deficient.

Symptoms:
-”Tip burn” of young leaves :celery,lettuce,cabbage
-death of growing points (buds) and root tips
-premature shedding of blossom and buds
-blossom end rot :tomatoes,pepper,melons
-bitter pit or cork spots: apples and pears

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of nutrients in physiology of
plant growth:

-key component of chlorophyll: -->


. Photosynthesis

Magnesium Mg -activation of enzymatic process

-nitrates reduction

-protein synthesis

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Interveinal chlorosis
(yellowing) in older leaves

Magnesium deficiency

Mg def
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Marginal yellowing
with green
“christmas tree”
along mid-rib of leaf

Mg def

Magnesium deficiency
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Mg is a component of
chlorophyll molecule

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Mg def

Magnesium deficiency
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Mg def
Magnesium deficiency
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Magnesium uptake is in ionic form Mg++
Chlorophyll molecule contain magnesium and is essential
for photosynthesis.
Magnesium is mobile in plant and is translocated to
younger tissue through the phloem

Symptoms of deficiency:
-interveinal chlorosis in older leaves
-curling of leaves upward along margins
-marginal yellowing with “green christmas tree”

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of nutrients in physiology of
plant growth:

-factor in synthesis of chlorophyll

iron Fe -carrier of Oxygen in respiration

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Fe :Iron deficiency

Interveinal chlorosis of young


leaves. Veins remain green except
in severe cases
Fe def
Fe :Iron deficiency Fe def elgad1@netvision.net.il
Fe :Iron deficiency Fe def elgad1@netvision.net.il
Fe: iron is required for chlorophyll. It is an activator in
respiration and photosynthesis.

Symptoms of deficiency:
-interveinal chlorosis of young leaves. Veins remains
green except in severe cases
-Twig dieback
-in severe cases,death of entire limbs or plants

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of nutrients in physiology of
plant growth:

-metabolism and glucide translocation.

-development and pollen fertility.

boron : B -protein synthesis

Symptoms of deficiency:
-death of terminal growth
-soft and necrosis in fruits
-reduction of flowering

elgad1@netvision.net.il
B Boron deficiency
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Bore deficiency
B Boron deficiency

elgad1@netvision.net.il
B Boron deficiency
improper
Pollination

Boron deficiency
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Boron is taken up by plants as borate ion (BO3---)
when boron is deficient, cells may continue to divide.
Boron regulate metabolism of carbohydrates in plant
Like calcium ,once assimilated ,is not remobilized in
plants for other leaves. A continuous supply is
necessary at growing points.
Deficiency first appear in young tissues

Symptoms:
-death of terminal growth
-thickness,curled, wilted and chlorotic leaves
-soft or necrotic spots in fruits and tubers
-reduced flowering or improper pollination

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Bore excess & toxicity

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of nutrients in physiology of
plant growth:

-enzyme activator.

-development of vitamin A.
Cu copper -protein synthesis

Symptoms:
-poor pigmentation
-wilting and death or leaf tips
-stunted growth

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Copper deficiency

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Zn def
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Zn def
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Zn def
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Salinity banana
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Role of nutrients in physiology of
plant growth:

-enzyme activator in growth.


-competition with fe (excess fe reduction)
Mn
manganese

Symptoms:
-pale green coloration with dark veins
-interveinal chlorosis of young leaves
Mn def.
Diagnosis of
deficiency in
different crops
?
Boron toxicity

elgad1@netvision.net.il
diagnosis
?

Bore excess & toxicity Calcium deficiency


elgad1@netvision.net.il
potassium deficiency
? elgad1@netvision.net.il
diagnosis
?

Bore excess & toxicity Fe :Iron deficiency

elgad1@netvision.net.il
?

Calcium deficiency
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Relationship
Mn
between nutrients
Ca
K

Fe
Cu

Mg
B

N Mo
Zn
stimulation
antagonism elgad1@netvision.net.il
Relationship
Mn
between nutrients
Ca
K

Fe
Cu

Mg
B

N Mo
Zn
stimulation
antagonism elgad1@netvision.net.il
Excess of calcium
Potassium deficiency

elgad1@netvision.net.il
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Example of addition of K and Na (kg/ha) on the mineral
composition of cotton leaves in (meq/100g dry mat.)

Minerals in leaves in meq/100g Addition in kg/ha


Mg Ca Na K Na K
12 113 12 19 83 0
9 95 6 28 83 14
8 98 5 46 83 42
8 96 2 50 83 56

As well we increased the K the Na,


Ca , Mg decreased !!!
Cooper H.P. et al elgad1@netvision.net.il
1953
Cl- and NO3- has the same
competition effect in uptake
Cl-

As well we increase the NO3-


in soil solution we reduce the
uptake of Cl- in the
tomatoes plant

NO3-
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Balance in nutrition

Maintaining a balance of nutrients in the soil is an important


management objective.
By judicious use of fertilizers ,nutrients which are deficient
in soil can be supplied to growing plants.
The objective of fertilizers program is to supplement the
capacity of soils to supply nutrients for normal and healthy
growth.

elgad1@netvision.net.il
B Boron deficiency on maize

Recognize deficiency symptoms elgad1@netvision.net.il


B Boron deficiency on maize

Symptoms:
-death of terminal growth
-thickness,curled, wilted and chlorotic leaves
-soft or necrotic spots in fruits and tubers
-reduced flowering or improper pollination

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Ca calcium deficiency on carnation

Recognize deficiency symptoms elgad1@netvision.net.il


Ca calcium deficiency on carnation

Symptoms:
-”Tip burn” of young leaves :celery,lettuce,cabbage
-death of growing points (buds) and root tips
-premature shedding of blossom and buds
-blossom end rot :tomatoes,pepper,melons
-bitter pit or cork spots: apples and pears
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Cl Chlore toxicity on citrus

Recognize deficiency symptoms elgad1@netvision.net.il


Fe iron deficiency on citrus

Recognize deficiency symptoms elgad1@netvision.net.il


Fe iron deficiency on citrus

Symptoms of deficiency:
-interveinal chlorosis of young leaves. Veins remains
green except in severe cases
-Twig dieback
-in severe cases,death of entire limbs or plants
elgad1@netvision.net.il
K potassium deficiency on cotton

Recognize deficiency symptoms elgad1@netvision.net.il


K potassium
deficiency on cotton

Deficiency symptoms:
-Tip and marginal burn (mainly mature leaves)
-weak stalks, easy “lodge”
-small fruit
-slow growth
elgad1@netvision.net.il
N Nitrogen deficiency on banana

Recognize deficiency symptoms elgad1@netvision.net.il


N Nitrogen deficiency on banana

Symptoms: Yellow green color


(chlorosis) firing of
tips and margin of leaves
(begin with mature leaves)

elgad1@netvision.net.il
Mg magnesium deficiency on pea

Recognize deficiency symptoms elgad1@netvision.net.il


Mg magnesium
deficiency on pea

Symptoms of deficiency:
-interveinal chlorosis in older leaves
-curling of leaves upward along margins
-marginal yellowing with “green christmas tree”
elgad1@netvision.net.il
P phosphorus deficiency on maize

Recognize deficiency symptoms elgad1@netvision.net.il


P phosphorus deficiency on maize

Main deficiency symptoms:


-slow growth
-purplish or dark green coloration
-delayed maturity
-poor fruit and seed development

elgad1@netvision.net.il
elgad1@netvision.net.il
Presente par
Elharrar Gad
Elgad Agro-system

elgad1@netvision.net.il