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Submitted to: Prof.

Ganachari

y The process of managing waste materials. It involves the

collection, transport, processing and/or disposal of waste materials.
y The aim of waste management has been to prevent

or reduce the impact of waste materials on human health or local amenity and reducing the impact of waste on the environment and recovering resources from waste materials.

Waste can be classified in as
y UNAVOIDABLE WASTE (or natural waste), in which

the investment necessary to its reduction is higher than the economy produced.
y AVOIDABLE WASTE:- when the cost of waste is

significantly higher than the cost to prevent it.

wood. old machines. containers and others) 5 . bottles. cans.Bio-degradable can be degraded (paper. fruits and others) Non-biodegradable cannot be degraded (plastics.

y Hazardous wastes(HW):-The number of industries that generate HW are maximum in Maharashtra (30. y Non-hazardous wastes:.0069%).38%) followed by Gujarat (22. And for commercial and industrial wastes is usually the responsibility of the generator.Waste management for non- hazardous residential and institutional waste streams in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities.93%). Minimum HW is reported in Chandigarh (0. .

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y Overproduction. . y Transportation. y Substitution. y Inventories. y Production of defective products. y Movement. y Waiting time.

Concept of Integrated Waste Management .

Presents waste minimization conce .

y Waste Control y Scrap Control y Spoilage Control y Control of Defectives .

It involves maintenance of detailed records of quantities with an object to detect shrinkage.Wastage may also occur from loss of control on process or poor quality of material. loss etc y Quality Control:. .y Quantity Control:. breakage.

Residue material that has a recovery value  Legitimate Scrap:- Predetermined or anticipated in advance due to experience in manufacturing operations.g. negligent handling of material etc. change in design or withdrawal from saleable lots or for some other reasons. . Defective Scrap:Resulting from poor quality of raw material. Administrative Scrap:Results from administrative decision e.

quantum of waste. .  Selection of right material and equipment.  Specific areas of responsibility.  Determination of acceptable limits of scrap.  Selection of right type of personnel with proper training and experience. Material specification at the product design stage.  Reporting the source of waste.

Production that fails to meet quality or dimensional requirements  Control through predetermined standards.  Prompt & systematic reporting of spoilage.  Control through fixation of individual responsibility. .

labour and processing  Control of defective requires a basis for evaluation of performance.Part of production that does not meet dimensional or quality specifications of a product but which can be reworked by additional application of material .  Standards may be fixed for occurrence of defective work .

 Poor quality of material  Lack of skill or training  Inadequate supervision  Damage in material handling  Defective or improper tooling and equipment  Deficiencies in product design  Inadequate inspection .

 Cost of abnormal wastage is excluded from total cost and charged to costing profit & loss account.  Any value realised from the waste is credited to process account.wastage is regarded as part of the production cost and distributed over good units.  Normal .

Process ¶P· Process ¶Q· Process ¶R· INPUT 2000 2000 1825 (-) NORMAL LOSS 40 100 183 EXPECTED OUTPUT 1960 1900 1642 ACTUAL OUTPUT 1950 1925 1590 ABNORMAL LOSS/GAIN 10(L) 25(G) 52(L) .

.If value of scrap is negligible. This will have an effect in reducing the factory cost. the good units should bear the cost of scrap and any income realised will be treated as other income.  Value of scrap will be credited to the job or process account and any unrecovered balance in the scrap account will be transferred to costing profit & loss account. then the net sales realisation after deducting the selling cost is transferred to either material or factory overhead account.  If the scrap value is significant and it cannot be identified with particular job or process.

. no separate accounting is required. If the cost of spoilage is normal then the cost is charged to the specific order or treated as production overheads.  Cost of abnormal spoilage is charged to costing P&L a/c . a proper credit should be given to relevant process account or job account.  If spoilt units are reused as raw materials in the same process. If spoilage is used for any other process or job.

 Abnormal defectives costs are charged to the costing P&L a/c.  If the defect is not identifiable to the particular department. the rework costs are charged to that job.  If normal defectives are easily identifiable with specific jobs. . the rework costs are treated as general overheads. Cost of rectification of normal defectives is charged to good units.

 Economies of scale and reduced overheads. Risk may be shared between authorities. .  Focuses on cost benefits from a holistic point of view.  Operational efficiencies.

 Few economies of scale. Loss of proximity principle.  Requires authorities to take on some risks impacting other partners.  External risks impacting on individual authorities may not be shared.  Time and costs to secure funding and for procurement process. .

more competition. .  The scope of contracts may be tailored to encourage greater market appetite from smaller specialist or locally based companies.  Greater market appetite for larger contracts.  Shared Targets. Authorities can change contractors/services more easily and frequently.

 Potential loss of community involvement and interest. Individual authorities constrained from influencing services beyond its boundaries. .  Likely to require more frequent tendering with less long term stability.  Short term focus may lead to higher costs in the long term.

y Brazilian companies. y Formoso : Developers & Builders y Isatto : Developers & Builders y Hirota: Contractor for private clients.Hirota. y Small organization y Sites are managed by a Civil engineer & Forman y Under graduate: Responsible for data collection .y Name of companies: Formoso.Isatto.

y Results in reducing the future availability Scare resources. . y Identify and controlling waste for future availability of material and energy.y Environment damage.

. Capital in larger quantities than those considered as necessary in the production of a building. Equipment. 2.‡ Any inefficiency that results in the use of y y y y y y 1. 3. Materials. Labour 4.

. ‡Waste should be defined as any losses produced by activities that generate direct or indirect costs but do not add any value to the product.Incidence of Material Losses Execution of unnecessary work Additional Costs ‡Not add value to the product.

. y Avoidable waste : When the cost of waste is significantly higher than the cost to prevent it.y Unavoidable waste : In which the investment necessary to its reduction is higher than the economy produced.

y Overproduction y Substitution y Waiting time y Transportation y Processing y Inventories y Production of defective product .

y The waste of building materials is far higher than the nominal figures assumed by the companies in their cost estimates. y None of them had a well-defined material management policy. y Company do not seem to be concerned about material waste. since they do not apply relatively simple procedures to avoid waste on site. . y There is a very high variability of waste indices from site to site.

y waste is usually the result of a combination of factors. and have very little to do with the lack of qualification and motivation of workers. y Problem in flow in the management system. . lack of planning. rather than originated by an isolated incident. flaws in the material supply system.y Most building firms did not know the amount of waste they had before the development of the study. y Inadequate design.

involving a large team of researchers. y The results of such surveys take a long time to be produced. Because of that the learning process tend to be very limited. .y Data collection was very expensive. usually after the work being monitored has finished. This limits the impact of those studies in terms of corrective action. including people who are heavily involved in monitoring the work on site. y The results of data collection take a long time to implement. This limits the impact of those studies in terms of corrective action. y Little involvement of people from the company in both data collection and analysis.

. y Those people could learn from their own experiences and commit themselves to the reduction of waste in the process.y A protocol was developed for data collection. involving the application of quantitative and qualitative techniques. y Feedback from the site must be as much transparent as possible and the people directly involved in the process.

y After identifying causes method used has to be pro- active. . y Post method emphasizes on learning how to learn from process control in order to encourage the learning process to happen in the whole system. allowing the processes to be controlled during the life span of the production process.

Periodical inventory Protocol used to define and monitor the production process Collecting productivity data of workers and usage of materials Weekly data. converted into monthly and then analyzed data Direction given to in charge of data collection Related to definition of control cycle Audit . Data: usage of material and manhours spent.Preliminary meeting to present the objective of study Gets information about the output of each activities.

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Find Resources in Waste. THANK YOU .No waste is best. Waste has to be separated as directed to use it.