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Socialization and Its


 The preparation of newcomers to become

members of an existing group and to think, feel,
and act in ways the group considers appropriate.

 The lifelong social experience by which people

develop their human potential and learn culture.
Social and personality
development of the self,
mind, and emotions
 Coined the term “looking-glass” self
Charles H. to describe process whereby human
development is created by
Cooley interaction with others

 Cooley´s concept of the looking

glass self, states that a person’s self
grows out of a person´s social
interactions with others. The view of
ourselves comes from the
contemplation of personal qualities
and impressions of how others
perceive us. Actually, how we see
ourselves does not come from who
we really are, but rather from how
we believe others see us.
“Looking-glass” self concept

 We imagine how we look to others.

 We interpret other’s reactions.
 We develop a self-concept.
George H.  “The Generalized Other” –
refers to how others think of
Mead us.

 He considered play as
critical to the development
of self because it is during
play that children learn to
take the role of others.
Three Stages in the
Development of Self:

1. Children initially only mimic the gestures/words of

2. At the age of three, they play the roles of specific
3. In the first three years of school, they become
involved in organized games, learning the role of
each position.
Jean  He studied children’s
“cognitive development”
Piaget and defined four stages
they go through in learning:

1. Sensorimotor Stage
2. Pre-Operational Stage
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational Stage
Freud  He believed that personality
consists of three elements:

1. the id
2. the ego
3. the superego
Agents of Socialization

Agents of socialization are the individuals, groups and institutions that

create the social context in which socialization takes place. It is
through agents of socialization that individuals learn and incorporate
the values and norms of their culture as well as their various positions
in the social structure in such terms as class, race and gender.

 The reasons why an

 The first and most individual marries
significant socialization differ from person to
agent. person.

 Courtship  A pre- or post-

Relationship Status marriage scenario
Marriage follows certain
Family Patterns (Pre-Marriage Scenarios)

Patterns of Mate Selection Number of Spouse/s Pattern

 Endogamy – people marry  Polygamy – more than one
within their own groups; such spouse at a time
as their race, tribe and social
 Polygyny – man marries
more two or more wives
 Polyandry – woman
 Exogamy – people marry marries two or more
outside their group or husbands
marriage between two
individuals who do not belong
to the same group  Monogamy – a man or a
woman is allowed to marry
only once at a time
Family Patterns (Post-Marriage Scenarios)

Accdg. to Internal
Organizations Accdg. To Decent
 Nuclear – composed of  Patrilineal – family members
husband, wife and trace their relationships and
children affiliations with the paternal
(father) side
 Matrilineal - family members
 Extended - nuclear unit trace their relationships and
with the addition of other affiliations with the maternal
relatives (grandparents, (mother) side
uncles, cousins, & etc.)  Bilateral - family members
trace their relationships and
affiliations with both parents
Family Patterns (Post-Marriage Scenarios)

Accdg. to Power/Authority Accdg. to Residence Pattern

 Patriarchal – authority is  Neo-Local – resides in a new
vested on the eldest male place, independent from
member of the family either the parents of the
husband or of the wife
 Matriarchal – authority is  Matrilocal – resides with or
vested on the grandmother or near the parents of the wife
mother  Patrilocal - resides with or
near the parents of the
 Egalitarian – authority is
vested on both the husband  Bilocal - resides alternately
and the wife with either of their parents