D N Sonawane


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Boiler Types, Combustion in boilers Performances evaluation of boilers, Analysis of losses Feed water treatment, Blow down Energy conservation opportunities.

Introduction to Boiler 

Enclosed Pressure Vessel Heat generated by Combustion of Fuel is transferred to water to become steam Process: Evaporation

Steam volume increases to 1,600 times from water and produces tremendous force  Boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment. Care is must to avoid explosion.

What is a boiler?

What are the various heating surfaces in a boiler?
Heating surface is expressed in square feet or in square meter
Classified into :

1 Radiant Heating Surfaces ² (direct or primary)
including all water-backed surfaces that are directly exposed to the radiant heat of the combustion flame.

2 Convected Heating Surfaces ² ( indirect or secondary) including all those water-backed surfaces
exposed only to hot combustion gases.

3 Extended Heating Surfaces ² referring to the surface
of economizers and super heaters used in certain types of water tube boilers.

Fuels used in Boiler
S. olid No 1 Coal 2 Lignite 3 4 5 6 Liquid Gaseous AgroWaste HSD NGas aggase LDO io Gas ith ur.Oil Rice Husk LSHS addy oconut shell Groundnutshell

if pressure at which steam passes through such pipes exceeds 3. which is wholly.Indian Boiler Regulation IBR Steam Boilers means any closed vessel exceeding 22. or partly under pressure when the steam is shut off. As per section 28 & 29 of the Indian Boilers Act.75 liters in capacity and which is used expressively for generating steam under pressure and includes any mounting or other fitting attached to such vessel.5 kg/cm2 above atmospheric pressure or such pipe exceeds 254 mm in internal diameter and includes in either case any connected fitting of a steam pipe. IBR Steam Pipe means any pipe through which steam passes from a boiler to a prime mover or other user or both. .

Typical Boiler Specification Boiler Make & Year MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating) : : : : : : XYZ & 2003 10TPH (F & A 100oC) Rated Working Pressure Type of Boiler 10. Fire tube.packaged Fuel Fired Total Heating Surface Fuel Oil 310 M2 .54 kg/cm2(g) 3 Pass.

Boiler Systems Water treatment system Feed water system Steam System Blow down system Fuel supply system  ir Supply system Flue gas system .

5kg/cm2 Merits Low Capital Cost and fuel Efficient (82%) Accepts wide & load fluctuations Steam pressure variation is less (Large volume of water) Packaged Boiler Fire Tube Boiler     .Boiler Types and Classifications    Fire in tube or Hot gas through tubes and boiler feed water in shell side Fire Tubes submerged in water Application Used for small steam capacities ( up to 12000 kg/hr and 17.

120 t/hr Characteristics High Capital Cost Used for high pressure high capacity steam boiler Demands more controls Calls for very stringent water quality Water Tube Boiler     .5.Boiler Types and Classifications     Water flow through tubes Water Tubes surrounded by hot gas Application Used for Power Plants Steam capacities range from 4.

Higher thermal efficiency   .Package boilers are generally of shell type with fire tube design  High heat release rate in small combustion space   Packaged Boiler More number of passes-so more heat transfer Large number of small diameter tubes leading to good convective heat transfer.

Chain    rate or Traveling rate Stoker Boiler Coal is fed on one end of a moving steel chain grate Coal burns and ash drops off at end Coal grate controls rate of coal feed into furnace by controlling the thickness of the fuel bed. Coal must be uniform in size as large lumps will not burn out completely Bed thickness decreases from coal feed end to rear end and so more air at front and less air at rear end to be supplied Water tube boiler    .

 Uses both suspension and grate burning Coal fed continuously over burning coal bed Coal fines burn in suspension and larger coal pieces burn on grate Good flexibility to meet changing load requirements Preferred over other type of stokers in industrial application Spreader Stoker Boiler     .

Pulverized Fuel Boiler Coal is pulverised to a fine powder. and 70-75% is below 75 microns. so that less than 2% is +300 microns. See Figure Tangential firing . ‡ Combustion takes place at temperatures from 1300-1700°C ‡ Particle residence time in the boiler is typically 2-5 seconds ‡ One of the most popular system for firing pulverized coal is the tangential firing using four burners corner to corner to create a fire ball at the center of the furnace. Coal is blown with part of the combustion air into the boiler plant through a series of burner nozzles.

Thermal power Station Boiler ‡90% of coal-fired power boiler in the world is Pulverized type .


and it permits combination firing (i. oil and gas in same burner).Pulverized Fuel Boiler (Contd. Disadvantages   High power demand for pulverizing Requires more maintenance. can use coal.. there is widespread use of pulverized coal furnaces. Because of these advantages.e. flyash erosion and pollution complicate unit operation .) Advantages  Its ability to burn all ranks of coal from anthracitic to lignitic..

s air velocity is gradually increased. increase in velocity gives rise to bubble formation. Coal is fed continuously in to a hot air agitated refractory sand bed. the particles are undisturbed at low velocity.Fluidized bed Combustion (FBC) boiler When an evenly distributed air or gas is passed upward through a finely divided bed of solid particles such as sand supported on a fine mesh. the coal will burn rapidly and the bed attains a uniform temperature Fluidized Bed Combustion . vigorous turbulence and rapid mixing and the bed is said to be fluidized. a stage is reached when the individual particles are suspended in the air stream Further.

In addition.) Advantages :  Higher rates of heat transfer between combustion process and boiler tubes (thus reduced furnace area and size required). combustion temperature 850oC is lower than in a conventional furnace.Fluidized-bed boiler (Contd. The lower furnace temperatures means reduced NOx production. respectively. solids which do not escape up the stack. This means the plant can easily use high sulfur coal. Fuel Flexibility: Multi fuel firing   Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler  . the limestone (CaCO3) and dolomite (MgCO3) react with SO2 to form calcium and magnesium sulfides..

.Performance Evaluation of Boilers  What are the factors for poor efficiency? Efficiency reduces with time.Deterioration of fuel and water quality also leads to poor performance of boiler. due to poor combustion. heat transfer fouling and poor operation and maintenance. Any observed abnormal deviations could therefore be investigated to pinpoint the problem area for necessary corrective action.  How Efficiency testing helps to improve performance? Helps us to find out how far the boiler efficiency drifts away from the best efficiency.

Indirect Method . 1) The Direct Method: Where the energy gain of the working fluid (water and steam) is compared with the energy content of the boiler fuel. Direct Method 2. There are two methods of assessing boiler efficiency. Boiler Efficiency Evaluation Method 1. 2) The Indirect Method: Where the efficiency is the difference between the losses and the energy input.Boiler Efficiency Thermal efficiency of boiler is defined as the percentage of heat input that is effectively utilized to generate steam.

Cal/kg Find efficiency and Evaporation Ratio? .Cal/kg  Feed water temperature :850 C  Enthalpy of feed water :85 K.Cal/kg Heat output data  Qty of steam generated :8 TPH  Steam pr/temp :10 kg/cm2(g)/1800C  Enthalpy of steam(sat) at 10 kg/cm2(g) pressure :665 K.Example: Type of boiler: Coal fired Boiler Heat input data Qty of coal consumed :1.8 TPH GCV of coal :3200K.

4 Evaporation Ratio .0% = 8 Tonne of steam/1.8 Ton of coal = 4.8 TPH x 1000Kg/T x 3200 = 80.Efficiency Calculation by Direct Method Boiler efficiency (L): = Q x (H ± h) x 100 (q x GCV) Where Q = Quantity of steam generated per hour (kg/hr) H = Enthalpy of saturated steam (kcal/kg) h = Enthalpy of feed water (kcal/kg) q = Quantity of fuel used per hour (kg/hr) GCV = Gross calorific value of the fuel (kcal/kg) Boiler efficiency (L)= 8 TPH x1000Kg/Tx (665±85) x 100 1.

H2 loss 3. 100 Boiler Flue gas ir 8. Moisture in air 5. Dry Flue gas loss 2. Moisture in uel 4. O loss 6. ottom ash loss fficie cy (by In Direct Method) = 100 ± (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) . Sur ace loss 7.What are the losses that occ r i a boiler? team O tp t 1. Fly ash loss Fuel Input.

oss due to Unburnt in fly ash = 8. Partial combustion of C to CO = 6. Dry flue gas loss = 2. oss due to moisture in air = 5.Boiler Heat Balance: Input/ utput Parameter Kcal / Kg of fuel % 100 = Heat Input in fuel Various Heat losses in boiler 1. Surface heat losses = 7. oss due to moisture in fuel = 4. oss due to Unburnt in bottom = ash = Total osses Boiler efficiency = 100 ± (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8) . oss due to hydrogen in fuel 3.

CO and Temperature from Flue Surface Temp & mbient Temp Ambient temperature in 0C & humidity of air in kg/kg of dry air. Percentage combustible in ash and Amount of blow down Size & dimension of boiler CV of ash (for solid fuels) as 2. moisture content. C. Fuel flow. steam or water flow Temp & Pressure of steam Temperature of water inlet / outlet t of economizer % of CO2 or O2.What are the Measurements to be carried out during energy udit in Boiler? Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2. S. ash CV in kcal/kg . content) Heat content of fuel.

All the Instrument should be calibrated Ensure fuel and water availability Test at maximum steam load condition Conduct 8 hrs minimum (1/2 or 1 hr frequently) Water level in drum should be same at start & end of test Gas Sampling point should be proper No blow down during test .Test Procedure         Plan / inform the concerned dept.

0 % GCV of Oil : 10200 kcal/kg Steam Generation Pressure : 7kg/cm2(g)-saturated Enthalpy of steam : 660 kCal/kg Feed water temperature : 60oC Percentage of Oxygen in flue gas: 7 Percentage of CO2in flue gas : 11 Flue gas temperature (Tf) : 220 0C Ambient temperature (Ta) : 27 0C Humidity of air : 0.Example: The following are the data collected for a typical oil fired boiler.0 % H2: 12. Find out the efficiency of the boiler by indirect method and Boiler Evaporation ratio.018 kg/kg of dry air .0 % O2: 1. y y y y y y y y y y Type of boiler : Oil fired Ultimate analysis of Oil C: 84.0 % S: 3.

82 = 20.82 = 1.32 x S)]/100 kg/kg of oil =[(11.5 x (12 ± 1/8)} + (4.82 kg of air/kg of oil Step-2: Find the %Excess air supplied Excess air supplied (EA) = (O2 x 100) (21-O2) = (7 x 100)/(21-7) = 50% Step-3: Find the Actual mass of air supplied Actual mass of air supplied /kg of fuel : [ 1 + EA/100] x Theo.32 x 3)]/100 kg/kg of oil =13. Air (AAS) = [1 + 50/100] x 13.5 x 13.74 kg of air/kg of oil .43 x 84) + [{34.43 x C) + [{34.Solution Step-1: Find the theoretical air re uirement =[(11.5 x ( 2 ± O2/8)} + (4.

23 x (220 ± 27) 10200 9.03 x 64 + 100 x 100 20.19 x 0.19 %Dry flue gas loss = 21.84 x 44 + 12 % eat loss in dry flue gas 32 0.19 + 1=21.35 kg / kg of oil = 21.23 x (220-27) x 100 9.35 x 0.29% Alternatively a simple method can be used for determining the dry flue gas loss as given below.Step-4: Estimation of all losses I Dry flue gas loss i. Percentage heat loss due to dry flue gas = m x Cp x (Tf ± Ta ) x 100 CV of fuel Total mass of flue gas (m) = mass of actual air supplied + mass of fuel supplied = 20.07 x 32) 2 + mass of O2 m =21.74 x 77 + (0. Percentage heat loss due to dry flue gas = m x Cp x (Tf ± Ta ) x 100 CV of fuel m = mass of CO2 + mass of SO2 + mass of m= 0.22% 10200 .

ii. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H2 in fuel = Where.45 (Tf ± Ta)} CV of fuel 9 x 12 {584 + 0. Heat loss due to moisture present in air AAS x humidity x 0.018 x 0.45 x (Tf ± Ta) x 100 CV of fuel =[ 20. 2 ± percentage of 2 in fuel 9x 2 {584 + 0.317% iv Heat loss due to radiation and other unaccounted losses For a small boiler it is estimated to be 2% .74 x 0.45 (220 ± 27)} 10200 = 7.10% iii.45 x (220-27) x 100]/10200 = 0.

11 .83/ (660-60) = 14.024 = 83 %(app) Evaporation atio = eat utilised for steam generation/ eat addition to the steam = 10200 x 0. iv.10+0. eat loss due to dry flue gas eat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to eat loss due to moisture present in air eat loss due to radiation and other unaccounted loss : 2% 2 : 9.10 % : 0.317+2] = 100 ± 17. ii.29+7.317 % Boiler Efficiency = 100.[9.29% in fuel : 7.Boiler Efficiency i. iii.

Why Boiler Blow Down ? When water evaporates Dissolved solids gets concentrated Solids precipitates Coating of tubes  educes the heat transfer rate .

substantial amount of heat energy is lost with intermittent blow down. pH.    . Silica etc) within prescribed limits so that steam quality is not likely to be affected TDS level keeps varying fluctuations of the water level in the boiler.Intermittent Blowdown  The intermittent blown down is given by manually operating a valve fitted to discharge pipe at the lowest point of boiler shell to reduce parameters (TDS or conductivity.

This type of blow down is common in highpressure boilers.Continuous Blowdown  A steady and constant dispatch of small stream of concentrated boiler water. This ensures constant TDS and steam purity. Once blow down valve is set for a given conditions. opportunity exits for recovering this heat by blowing into a flash tank and generating flash steam. and replacement by steady and constant inflow of feed water. there is no need for regular operator intervention. Even though large quantities of heat are wasted.     .

TDS in FW Blow down flow rate = 3%x 10.The uantity of blowdown re uired to control boiler water solids concentration is calculated by using the following formula: (Continuous Blow down) Steam 10 T/hr TDS(T) =0 TDS(S) in feed water TDS (C) =3500 ppm Allowable) 100 ppm Blow down(B) B = SX100/(C-S) Blowdown % = TDS in FWx100 TDSin Boiler .000kg/hr = 300kg/hr = 100 / (3500-100) = (100/3400)x100 = 2.9 %=3% .

sodium phosphate. Sodium carbonate. then high rates of blowdown are required to dispose off the sludge. to low pressures. If these conditions are not applied. and when only small quantity of water is required to be treated.high TDS content in boiler water is tolerated.Boiler Water Treatment     Method : It is carried out by adding chemicals to boiler to prevent the formation of scale by converting the scale-forming compounds to free-flowing sludges. sodium sulphite and compounds of vegetable or inorganic origin are all used for this purpose. . sodium aluminate. Chemicals : Different waters require different chemicals. Limitation : Applicable to boilers. They become uneconomical from heat and water loss consideration. which can be removed by blowdown. Internal treatment alone is not recommended. where feed water is low in hardness salts.

with spray aeration to remove carbon dioxide and iron. Different treatment Process : ion exchange. it is necessary to remove suspended solids and colour from the raw water.     . reverse osmosis and de-aeration. Methods of pre-treatment include simple sedimentation in settling tanks or settling in clarifiers with aid of coagulants and flocculants. dissolved solids (particularly the calcium and magnesium ions which are a major cause of scale formation) and dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide). Pressure sand filters. Before any of these are used. demineralization. Removal of only hardness salts is called softening. may be used to remove metal salts from bore well water. while total removal of salts from solution is called demineralization.External Water Treatment  Propose: External treatment is used to remove suspended solids. because these may foul the resins used in the subsequent treatment sections.

do not form scales in boilers. and blowdown quantity. This is achieved by using a ³cation´ resin. hardness is removed as the water passes through bed of natural zeolite or synthetic resin and without the formation of any precipitate. which exchanges the cations in the raw water with hydrogen ions. Following this. It also does not reduce the alkalinity. mineral acid and caustic soda respectively.  . the water passes through an ³anion´ resin which exchanges anions with the mineral acid (e. Since base exchanger only replaces the calcium and magnesium with sodium. The complete removal of silica can be achieved by correct choice of anion resin. sulphuric acid) and forms water. The sodium salts being soluble. The simplest type is µbase exchange¶ in which calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged for sodium ions. Ion exchange processes can be used for almost total demineralization if required. Carbonic acid is removed in degassing tower in which air is blown through the acid water. Demineralization is the complete removal of all salts. typically.Ion-exchange Process (Softener Plant)  In ion-exchange process.g. Regeneration of cations and anions is necessary at intervals using. it does not reduce the TDS content. producing hydrochloric. sulphuric and carbonic acid.

De-aeration can be done by mechanical de-aeration.    . Certain gases. such as carbon dioxide and oxygen. greatly increase corrosion. All natural waters contain dissolved gases in solution. such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. When heated in boiler systems. Removal of oxygen. It also dissolves iron (Fe) which when returned to the boiler precipitates and causes scaling on the boiler and tubes. Carbonic acid corrodes metal reducing the life of equipment and piping. dissolved gases. carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) are released as gases and combine with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid. carbon dioxide and other non-condensable gases from boiler feedwater is vital to boiler equipment longevity as well as safety of operation. are expelled by preheating the feed water before it enters the boiler. by chemical de-deration or by both together.De-aeration  In de-aeration. (H2CO3).

at about 82oC. Vacuum pumps or steam ejectors are required to maintain the vacuum. They operate at the boiling point of water at the pressure in the de-aerator.Mechanical de-aeration Removal of oxygen and carbon dioxide can be accomplished by heating the boiler feed water. They can be of vacuum or pressure type. and steam is readily available & economical   Chemical de-aeration  While the most efficient mechanical de-aerators reduce oxygen to very low levels (0. even trace amounts of oxygen may cause corrosion damage to a system. The steam raises the water temperature causing the release of O2 and CO2 gases that are then vented from the system. This type can reduce the oxygen content to 0. Steam is preferred for de-aeration because steam is free from O2 and CO2. can reduce the oxygen content in water to less than 0. The vacuum type of de-aerator operates below atmospheric pressure. The pressure-type de-aerators operates by allowing steam into the feed water and maintaining temperature of 105oC.02 mg/litre.005 mg/litre). So removal of hat traces of oxygen with a chemical oxygen scavenger such as sodium sulfite or hydrazine is needed.005 mg/litre. .

the process is reversed and the water from the solution of high concentration flows to the weaker solution. This process is suitable for waters with very high TDS. such as sea water. This is known as reverse osmosis. The quality of water produced depends upon the concentration of the solution on the high-pressure side and pressure differential across the membrane.Reverse Osmosis  Reverse osmosis uses the fact that when solutions of differing concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. water from less concentrated solution passes through the membrane to dilute the liquid of high concentration. If the solution of high concentration is pressurized.  .

8-10.5 25 20-40 10-10.2 10 .5 15 15-25 9. ppm Total iron dissolved solids ppm Specific electrical conductivity at 250C (mho) Phosphate residual ppm p at 250C Silica (max) ppm Upto20 kg/cm2 3000-3500 500 1000 21 kg/cm2 40 41-60 kg/cm2 500-750 150 300 1500-2000 200 400 20-40 10-10.Recommended Boiler Water imits Factor TDS.

Energy Conservation Opportunities in Boilers .

Reduce Stack Temperature  Stack temperatures greater than 200°C indicates potential for recovery of waste heat.1.  It also indicate the scaling of heat transfer/recovery equipment and hence the urgency of taking an early shut down for water / flue side cleaning. 22o C reduction in flue gas temperature increases boiler efficiency by 1% .

corresponds to a 1% saving in fuel consumption . Feed Water Preheating using Economizer For an older shell boiler. Increase in overall thermal efficiency would be in the order of 3%. by economiser / condensate recovery.Gas) Flue gas reduction up to 65oC  6oC raise in feed water temperature. an economizer could be used to reduce it to 200oC. with a flue gas exit temperature of 260oC.2.  Condensing economizer(N.

3. an  In order to improve thermal efficiency by 1%. . the combustion air temperature must be raised by 20 oC. Combustion Air Preheating  Combustion air preheating is alternative to feed water heating.

In the case of oil and gas fired systems.  With coal firing: Loss occurs as grit carry-over or carbonin-ash (2% loss). . Poor oil fires can result from improper viscosity. large lumps will not burn out completely. while small pieces and fines may block the air passage. thus causing poor air distribution. Incomplete Combustion (c c c c c +   co co co co) Incomplete combustion can arise from a shortage of air or surplus of fuel or poor distribution of fuel. Example: Poor mixing of fuel and air at the burner. carbonization on tips and deterioration of diffusers. Example :In chain grate stokers. CO or smoke with normal or high excess air indicates burner system problems. Increase in the fines in pulverized coal also increases carbon loss. worn tips.4.

type o burner. The optimum excess air level varies ith urnace design.6% rise in efficiency.0.5 Fuel ulverised coal xcess air levels for different fuels Type of Furnace or Burners Completely ater-cooled urnace or slagtap or dry-ash removal artially ater-cooled urnace or dry-ash removal Spreader stoker Water-cooler vibrating-grate stokers Chain-grate and traveling-gate stokers nder eed stoker Oil burners. register type Multi. Control excess air for every 1% reduction in excess air .uel burners and lat.lame Dutch over (10-23 through grates) and Ho t type ll urnaces Recovery urnaces or dra t and sodapulping processes xcess Air (% y t) 15-20 15-40 30-60 30-60 15-50 20-50 5-10 10-30 20-25 25-35 5-7 Coal Fuel oil Wood agasse lack liquor . uel and process variables.5.Install oxygen trim system Ta le 2.

The heat loss from the boiler shell is normally a fixed energy loss. Radiation and Convection Heat oss  The surfaces lose heat to the surroundings depending on the surface area and the difference in temperature between the surface and the surroundings. With modern boiler designs. Repairing or augmenting insulation can reduce heat loss through boiler walls   . irrespective of the boiler output.6.5% on the gross calorific value at full rating. but will increase to around 6%. this may represent only 1. if the boiler operates at only 25 percent output.

Automatic Blowdown Control continuous blowdown is very wasteful.  Automatic blowdown controls can be installed that sense and respond to boiler water conductivity and pH.  Uncontrolled .7.  A 10% blow down in a 15 kg/cm2 boiler results in 3% efficiency loss.

Correct checking and maintenance of feedwater and boiler water quality. which depends mainly on the type of water treatment installed (e.g. Add a waste heat recovery system to blowdowns ± Flash steam generation       . base exchange softener or demineralisation): Amount of uncontaminated condensate returned to the boilerhouse Boiler load variations. maximising condensate return and smoothing load swings will minimise the loss.B OWDOWN HEAT OSS This loss varies between 1% and 6% and depends on a number of factors: Total dissolved solids (TDS) allowable in boiler water Quality of the make-up water.

but installing a heat exchanger in the blowdown line allows this waste heat to be used in preheating makeup and feedwater. The amount of blowdown should be minimized by following a good water treatment program. Heat recovery is most suitable for continuous blowdown operations which in turn provides the best water treatment program.Up to 2 percentage points. Blowdown of boilers to reduce the sludge and solid content allows heat to go down the drain.Blowdown Heat Recovery     Efficiency Improvement . .

8. High exit gas temperatures at normal excess air indicate poor heat transfer performance. When the flue gas temperature rises about 20oC above the temperature for a newly cleaned boiler. Stack temperature should be checked and recorded regularly as an indicator of soot deposits. Also same result will occur due to scaling on the water side. Elevated stack temperatures may indicate excessive soot buildup. Any such deposits should be removed on a regular basis. This condition can result from a gradual build-up of gas-side or waterside deposits. Reduction of Scaling and Soot osses    In oil and coal-fired boilers. it is time to remove the soot deposits . soot buildup on tubes acts as an insulator against heat transfer. Waterside deposits require a review of water treatment procedures and tube cleaning to remove deposits.

 ‡ Every millimeter thickness of soot coating increases the stack temperature by about 55oC. 3 mm of soot can cause an increase in fuel consumption by 2.5%.Cleaning Incorrect water treatment. poor combustion and poor cleaning schedules can easily reduce overall thermal efficiency  However. ‡ A 1mm thick scale (deposit) on the water side could increase fuel consumption by 5 to 8% . the additional cost of maintenance and cleaning must be taken into consideration when assessing savings.

Pressure should be reduced in stages. Potential 1 to 2% improvement. the process does not operate all the time. a similar reduction in the temperature of the flue gas temperature results. such as an increase in water carryover from the boiler owing to pressure reduction. In some cases. and there are periods when the boiler pressure could be reduced. Reduction of Boiler Steam Pressure  Lower steam pressure gives a lower saturated steam temperature and without stack heat recovery.    . Adverse effects. Steam is generated at pressures normally dictated by the highest pressure / temperature requirements for a particular process.9. and no more than a 20 percent reduction should be considered. may negate any potential saving.

combustion air control is effected by throttling dampers fitted at forced and induced draft fans. the possibility of replacing the dampers by a VSD should be evaluated. . Though dampers are simple means of control. giving poor control characteristics at the top and bottom of the operating range. Blowers and Pumps Generally. they lack accuracy.10. Variable Speed Control for Fans. If the load characteristic of the boiler is variable.

Effect of Boiler oading on Efficiency  As the load falls. most combustion appliances need more excess air to burn the fuel completely and increases the sensible heat loss.11. Operation of boiler below 25% should be avoided Optimum efficiency occurs at 65-85% of full loads    . Below half load. This reduction in flow rate for the same heat transfer area. reducing the sensible heat loss. reduced the exit flue gas temperatures by a small extent. so does the value of the mass flow rate of the flue gases through the tubes.

12. Since boiler plants traditionally have a useful life of well over 25 years. replacement must be carefully studied.  . over or under-sized for present requirements. Boiler Replacement if the existing boiler is :  Old and inefficient. not capable of firing cheaper substitution fuel. The feasibility study should examine all implications of long-term fuel availability and company growth plans. not designed for ideal loading conditions replacement option should be explored. All financial and engineering factors should be considered.

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