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travelling wave phenomena

travelling wave phenomena

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Transient Overvoltages

1.Introduction

• Transient Phenomenon :

– Aperiodic function of time

– Short duration

• Example :Voltage & Current Surge :

(The current surge are made up of charging or discharging capacitive

currents that introduced by the change in voltages across the shunt

capacitances of the transmission system)

– Lightning Surge

– Switching Surge

Impulse Voltage Waveform

2.Traveling Wave

• Disturbance represented by

closing or opening the switch S.

• If Switch S closed, the line

suddenly connected to the

source.

• The whole line is not energized

instantaneously.

• Processed :

– When Switch S closed

– The first capacitor becomes

charged immediately

– Because of the first series

inductor (acts as open circuit),

the second capacitor is delayed

• This gradual buildup of voltage

over the line conductor can be

regarded as a voltage wave is

traveling from one end to the

other end

Voltage & Current Function

• vf=v1(x-t) • Zc=(L/C)½

• vb=v2(x+t) • If=vf/Zc

• = 1/(LC) • Ib=vb/Zc

• v(x,t)=vf + vb • I(x,t)=If + Ib

• vf=Zcif • I(x,t)=(C/L) ½

• vb=Zcib [v1(x-t) -v2(x+t)]

2.1 Velocity of Surge Propagation

• = 1/(LC) m/s

• Inductance single conductor Overhead Line (assuming

zero ground resistivity) :

L=2 x 10-7 ln (2h/r) H/m

C=1/[18 x 109 ln(2h/r)] F/m

1/ 2 1

1 2 10 ln 2h / r

7

• v

LC 18 10 ln 2h / r

9

K=dielectric constant (2.5 to 4.0)

2.2 Surge Power Input & Energy Storage

• P=vi Watt

• Ws= ½ Cv2 ; Wm= ½ Li2

• W=Ws+Wm = 2 Ws = 2 Wm = Cv2 = Li2

• P=W = Li2 /(LC) = i2 Zc = v2 / Zc

2.3 Superposition of Forward and

Backward-Traveling Wave

3. Effects of Line Termination

• Assuming vf, if,vb and ib are the instantaneous

voltage and current.

Hence the instantaneous voltage and current at

the point discontinuity are :

• v(x,t)=vf + vb and I(x,t)=If + Ib

• I=vf/Zc - vb/Zc and iZc=vf – vb

• v + iZc= 2vf so v=2vf=iZc

• vf = ½ (v+iZc) and vb = ½ (v+iZc) or

vb= vf-iZc

3.1 Line Termination in Resistance

v iR v 2f

Pf

2 Zc

i vf

R Zc vb2

Pb

R Zc Zc

vf

2R

PR

v 2

v vb

2

R Zc

f

vb vf R R

R Zc

Pf Pb PR

3.2 Line Termination in Impedance (Z)

2 Z Zc

i if vf v

Z Zc 2R

2Z Z Zc

v vf vb vf

Z Zc Z Zc

v v f vb v f

2Z Z Zc

Z Zc Z Zc

• Line is terminated with its characteristic impedance :

– Z=Zc

– =0, no reflection (infinitely long)

• Z>Zc

– vb is positive

– Ib is negative

– Reflected surges increased voltage and reduced current

• Z<Zc

– vb is negative

– Ib is positive

– Reflected surges reduced voltage and increased current

• Zs and ZR are defined as the sending-end and receiving

end.

Z s Zc Z R Zc

• s ; R

Z s Zc Z R Zc

3.3 Open-Circuit Line Termination

• Therefore if=-ib

• Vb=Zcib=Zif=vf

• Thus total voltage at the receiving end

v=vf+vb=2vf

• Voltage at the open end is twice the

forward voltage wave

3.4 Short Circuit Line Termination

• Therefore vf=-vb

• If=vf/Zc=-(vb/Zc)=ib

• Thus total voltage at the receiving end

v=if+ib=2if

• Current at the open end is twice the

forward current wave

3.5 Termination Through Capacitor

2(1 / Cs) v f 2v f 1

2Z v( s )

Z c 1 / Cs s s Z cCs 1

Z Zc 2v f

1 / Z cC 1 1

2(1 / Cs) 2v f

s s 1 / Z cC s s 1 / Z cC

Z c 1 / Cs So :

v v f v(t ) 2v f (1 e t / Z cC )

2v f

i (t ) e t / Z c C

Zc

vb (t ) v f (1 2e t / Z cC )

3.6 Termination Through Inductor

( Zc / L )t

v(t ) 2v f e

2v f ( Z c / L ) t

i (t ) (1 e )

Zc

vb (t ) v(t ) v f (t )

( Z c / L ) t

vb (t ) v f (2e 1)

4. Junction of Two Line

vf v f vb v

if

Z c1 i f ib i

vb vf vb v

ib

Z c1 Z c1 Z c1 Z c 2

i

v Z c1

2v f 1 v

Zc2 Zc2

2Z c 2 v 2

v vf

Pf

f

Z c1 Z c 2

Z c1

2 Z c1

i if v 2

Z c1 Z c 2 P

Z c 2 Z c1 Zc2

vb vf

Z c1 Z c 2 v 2

Z c1 Z c 2 Pb b

ib if Z c1

Z c1 Z c 2

5. Junction of Several Line

Example:

2v f Zc2

v

Z c1 Z c 2 / 2 2

2Z c1

v if

Z c1 Z c 2 / 2

2v f

if

Z c1 Z c 2 / 2

6. Bewley Lattice Diagram

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