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# Traveling Wave

Transient Overvoltages
1.Introduction
• Transient Phenomenon :
– Aperiodic function of time
– Short duration
• Example :Voltage & Current Surge :
(The current surge are made up of charging or discharging capacitive
currents that introduced by the change in voltages across the shunt
capacitances of the transmission system)

– Lightning Surge
– Switching Surge
Impulse Voltage Waveform
2.Traveling Wave
• Disturbance represented by
closing or opening the switch S.
• If Switch S closed, the line
suddenly connected to the
source.
• The whole line is not energized
instantaneously.
• Processed :
– When Switch S closed
– The first capacitor becomes
charged immediately
– Because of the first series
inductor (acts as open circuit),
the second capacitor is delayed
• This gradual buildup of voltage
over the line conductor can be
regarded as a voltage wave is
traveling from one end to the
other end
Voltage & Current Function
• vf=v1(x-t) • Zc=(L/C)½
• vb=v2(x+t) • If=vf/Zc
•  = 1/(LC) • Ib=vb/Zc
• v(x,t)=vf + vb • I(x,t)=If + Ib
• vf=Zcif • I(x,t)=(C/L) ½
• vb=Zcib [v1(x-t) -v2(x+t)]
2.1 Velocity of Surge Propagation

## • In the air = 300 000 km/s

•  = 1/(LC) m/s
• Inductance single conductor Overhead Line (assuming
zero ground resistivity) :
L=2 x 10-7 ln (2h/r) H/m
C=1/[18 x 109 ln(2h/r)] F/m
1/ 2 1
1  2 10 ln 2h / r  
7 
• v    
LC  18 10 ln 2h / r  
9


## • In the cable :  = 1/(LC) = 3 x 108 K m/s

K=dielectric constant (2.5 to 4.0)
2.2 Surge Power Input & Energy Storage

• P=vi Watt
• Ws= ½ Cv2 ; Wm= ½ Li2
• W=Ws+Wm = 2 Ws = 2 Wm = Cv2 = Li2
• P=W  = Li2 /(LC) = i2 Zc = v2 / Zc
2.3 Superposition of Forward and
Backward-Traveling Wave
3. Effects of Line Termination
• Assuming vf, if,vb and ib are the instantaneous
voltage and current.
Hence the instantaneous voltage and current at
the point discontinuity are :
• v(x,t)=vf + vb and I(x,t)=If + Ib
• I=vf/Zc - vb/Zc and iZc=vf – vb
• v + iZc= 2vf so v=2vf=iZc
• vf = ½ (v+iZc) and vb = ½ (v+iZc) or
vb= vf-iZc
3.1 Line Termination in Resistance

v  iR v 2f
Pf 
2 Zc
i vf
R  Zc vb2
Pb 
R  Zc Zc
vf 
2R
PR 
v 2

v  vb 
2

R  Zc
f

vb  vf R R
R  Zc
Pf  Pb  PR
3.2 Line Termination in Impedance (Z)
2 Z  Zc
i if vf  v
Z  Zc 2R
2Z Z  Zc
v vf vb  vf
Z  Zc Z  Zc
v  v f vb  v f
2Z Z  Zc
 
Z  Zc Z  Zc
• Line is terminated with its characteristic impedance :
– Z=Zc
–  =0, no reflection (infinitely long)
• Z>Zc
– vb is positive
– Ib is negative
– Reflected surges increased voltage and reduced current
• Z<Zc
– vb is negative
– Ib is positive
– Reflected surges reduced voltage and increased current
• Zs and ZR are defined as the sending-end and receiving
end.
Z s  Zc Z R  Zc
• s  ; R 
Z s  Zc Z R  Zc
3.3 Open-Circuit Line Termination

## • Boundary condition for current i=0

• Therefore if=-ib
• Vb=Zcib=Zif=vf
• Thus total voltage at the receiving end
v=vf+vb=2vf
• Voltage at the open end is twice the
forward voltage wave
3.4 Short Circuit Line Termination

## • Boundary condition for current v=0

• Therefore vf=-vb
• If=vf/Zc=-(vb/Zc)=ib
• Thus total voltage at the receiving end
v=if+ib=2if
• Current at the open end is twice the
forward current wave
3.5 Termination Through Capacitor

2(1 / Cs) v f 2v f 1
2Z v( s )  
 Z c  1 / Cs s s Z cCs  1
Z  Zc 2v f
1 / Z cC 1 1
2(1 / Cs)   2v f 
 s s  1 / Z cC s s  1 / Z cC
Z c  1 / Cs So :
v  v f v(t )  2v f (1  e t / Z cC )
2v f
i (t )  e t / Z c C
Zc
vb (t )  v f (1  2e t / Z cC )
3.6 Termination Through Inductor

( Zc / L )t
v(t )  2v f e
2v f ( Z c / L ) t
i (t )  (1  e )
Zc
vb (t )  v(t )  v f (t )
( Z c / L ) t
vb (t )  v f (2e  1)
4. Junction of Two Line
vf v f  vb  v
if 
Z c1 i f  ib  i
vb vf vb v
ib   
Z c1 Z c1 Z c1 Z c 2

i
v  Z c1 
2v f  1  v
Zc2  Zc2 
2Z c 2 v 2
v vf
Pf 
f
Z c1  Z c 2
Z c1
2 Z c1
i if v 2
Z c1  Z c 2 P
Z c 2  Z c1 Zc2
vb  vf
Z c1  Z c 2 v 2

Z c1  Z c 2 Pb  b

ib  if Z c1
Z c1  Z c 2
5. Junction of Several Line
Example:

2v f Zc2
v
Z c1  Z c 2 / 2 2
2Z c1
v if
Z c1  Z c 2 / 2
2v f
if 
Z c1  Z c 2 / 2
6. Bewley Lattice Diagram