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What is a Software?

Just as an automobile without a


driver is useless, a computer
without software is useless.
Software is the program and data
that a computer uses. Software is
kept on some hardware device
such as a hard disk, but it itself
intangible.
What is a Software?
Software consists of both programs
and data. Programs are lists of
instruction for the processor. Data
can be any information that a
program needs: character data,
numerical data, image data, audio
data, and countless other types.
Kinds of Software
• Operating System
• Programming Software
• Application Software
• Database Software
• Utility Software
• Data Backup and Recovery
Software
1. Operating System
•a computer program that manages the
resources of a computer. It accepts
keyboard or mouse inputs from users
and displays the results of the actions
and allows the user to run applications,
or communicate with other computer via
network connections.
1. Operating System
•Some of Well Known Operating
System
Rules of Operating System
• Management of the processor: The operating
system is responsible for managing allocation of the
processor between the different programs using a
scheduling algorithm.
• Management of the random access memory: The
operating system is responsible for managing the
memory space allocated to each application and
where relevant, to each user.
• Management of input/output: The operating system
allows unification and control of access of programs
to material resources via drivers (also known as
peripheral administrators or input/output
administrators).
Rules of Operating System
• Management of execution of applications: The
operating system is responsible for smooth execution
of applications by allocating the resources required
for them to operate.
• Management of authorizations: the operating
system is responsible for security relating to
execution of programs by guaranteeing that the
resources are used only by programs and users with
the relevant authorizations.
Rules of Operating System
• File Management: The operating system manage
reading and writing in the file system and the user
application file access authorizations.
• Information management: The operating system
provides a certain number of indicators that can be
used to diagnose the correct operation of the
machine.
2. Programming Software
• These software come in forms of
tools that assists a programmer in
writing computer programs.
Computer programs are sets of
logical instructions that make a
computer system perform certain
tasks.
2. Programming Software
• Popular Programming Languages
3. Application Software
(Application) is any program designed to
perform a specific functions directly for the
user or some cases, for another application
program. Example of application programs
include word processors, database programs,
web browsers, developing tools, drawing,
paint and image editing programs and
communication programs. Application
programs use the services of the computers
operating system and other supporting
programs.
3. Application Software
 Word Processor
 Spreadsheet Software
 Presentation Software
 Graphics Software
 Video Editing Software
 Web Browsers
 Personal Information Manager (PIM)
 Application Suites
 Integrated Software Packages
Word Processor
It processes words. It also processes
paragraphs, pages, and entire papers. Has
a variety of features that assist you in
writing and formatting documents, including
changing the font (the style of type) and
spell checking to help you avoid
typographical and spelling errors. Some
examples of word processing programs are
as follows.
Word Processor
Some examples of word processing
programs are as follows.
Spreadsheets Software
is very important in the modern world of
records and organization. Spreadsheet
software allows user to make lists, organize
budgets, perform calculations and much
more. While not all spreadsheet software is
the same, the general goal is to provide the
user with a simplified way of organizing and
presenting information.
Spreadsheets Software
Presentation Software
Multimedia authoring software
enables you to create a more
sophisticated presentation that
includes audio and video sequences.
Business presentation software
usually enables you to include image
and sometimes audio and video
developed with other tools.
Presentation Software
Graphic Software
is used to create, edit, view or
organize photos drawings, clip-art,
and other type of images. While there
are countless types of graphics
software and graphics utilities, there
are two primary types of graphics
software programs used in
conjunction with page layout software:
Image editor and illustration software.
Graphic Software
is used to create, edit, view or
organize photos drawings, clip-art,
and other type of images. While there
are countless types of graphics
software and graphics utilities, there
are two primary types of graphics
software programs used in
conjunction with page layout software:
Image editor and illustration software.
Graphic Software
Some of a Graphic Software
Video Editing Software
– also known as Non Linear Editing
(NLE), is application software which
handles the editing of video
sequences on a computer NLE
systems replace traditional flatbed
celluloid film editing tools and
analogue video tape to tape
machines.
Video Editing Software
Web Browsers
application program that serves as
the primary method for accessing the
World Wide Web, which is one of the
major services on the Internet. In
order to view a Web site, its address
(URL), such as www.facebook.com, is
typed into search box at the top of the
browser, and the site’s home page is
retrieved.
Web Browsers
Personal Information Manager
(PIM)
a software designed to organize names,
addresses and random notes easy and
efficient retrieval. It is just like an electronic
equivalent of a conventional book – type
personal organizer. PIM usually features an
automatic dialing telephone list, a
programmable calendar and an automatic
reminder schedule. It is ideal for people with
hectic schedule who spend a lot of time
working with their computers.
Personal Information Manager
(PIM)
Application Suites
A group of programs that are sold as a package
to solve common problems. The most popular
are office suites. Also known as productivity
suites, they are a set of business programs
designed with a uniform user interface and
common functions such as spell checking. The
primary programs are word processing,
spreadsheet, presentation graphics, database
and e-mail, although each suite has its own mix,
and variety of other programs and utilities may
also be included.
Application Suites
Integrated Software Package
Software that combines several
applications in one program, typically
providing at least word processing,
spreadsheet and database management.
Presentation graphics, page layout, paint,
calendar, address book, e-mail and other
applications may also be included. All
programs in an integrated package are
accessed via a common launching pad.
Integrated Software Package
4. Database Software
Database
a collection of information stored on
one or more computers organized
in a uniform format of records and
fields
record—a collection of data items in
a database
field—one piece of information in the
record
4. Database Software
– is a program that manage large amount of
data organized as fields, records and files.
Database structures information so you can
search the database by specific or
generalized content called a query.
Database Application are most popular with
business information systems and
companies needing to keep track of detailed
information such as school, hospital utility
firm etc.
4. Database Software
5. Utility Software
– a program that supports using the
computer, an application or a
developing environment. Also called
“utilities,” utility software is programmed
like any other software, expect that it
plays a supporting role. Usually
relatively small programs, they typically
perform a limited number tasks.
5. Utility Software
6.Data Backup and
Recovery Software
restoring data form disks, tapes,
CD’s and digital photo memory
cards that have been damaged by
accidents, natural disasters, power
surges and malfunctioning
electronics.
6.Data Backup and
Recovery Software
Security Threats
•Security
– refers to the steps a computer owner takes to
prevent unauthorized use of or damage to the
computer

•Malware
– describes any program that is intended to
cause harm or convey information to others
without the owner’s permission
Security Threats
•Viruses
– harmful programs that instruct your computer
to perform destructive activities, such as
erasing a disk drive
– Antivirus software (virus protection
software) searches executable files for the
sequences of characters that may cause harm
and disinfects the files by erasing or disabling
those commands
Security Threats
•Spyware
– programs contained with other programs that
track a computer user’s Internet usage and
send this data back to the company or person
that created it
– usually installed without the computer user’s
permission or knowledge
– Anti-spyware software detects spyware and
deletes them
Security Threats
•Adware
• software installed with another program
usually with the user’s permission
• generates advertising revenue for the
program’s creator by displaying targeted ads
to the program’s user
• Some adware requires a live internet
feed and uses constant bandwidth to upload
new advertisements.
Security Threats
•Trojan Horse.
Describe how the Greeks destroyed Troy by a
trick: they persuaded the Trojans to accept a ‘gift’. A
gigantic wooden horse that secretly contained Greek
warriors, who then destroyed Troy. Some computer
viruses use that trick. They look like a pleasant gift
program, but the program secretly contains
destructive warriors that destroy your computer. A
pleasant-seeming program that secretly contains a
virus is called a Trojan Horse.
Security Threats
•Firewall
– prevents other computers on the Internet from
accessing a computer and prevents programs
on a computer from accessing the Internet
without the computer user’s permission
– can be either hardware or software
– Router
• a device that controls traffic between network
components
• Usually has a built-in firewall.
– software firewalls track all incoming and
outgoing traffic
Security Threats
How the virus spread
Most people these days understand what a virus is and how
harmful it can be, but they are still somewhat unsure how
computer viruses spread. The truth is that there are dozens of
different ways in which a virus can spread from computer to
computer.
•1. Email Attachment. 7. Hackers
•2. Rogue Website. 8. Instant Messaging
•3. Network. 9. Fake Anti Virus Software
•4. Infected Boot Disk 10. From Mobile Devices
•5. Phishing Schemes 11. Friends and Relatives
•6. Infected software .

Security Threats
How the virus spread
Most people these days understand what a virus is and how
harmful it can be, but they are still somewhat unsure how
computer viruses spread. The truth is that there are dozens of
different ways in which a virus can spread from computer to
computer.
•1. Email Attachment. 7. Hackers
•2. Rogue Website. 8. Instant Messaging
•3. Network. 9. Fake Anti Virus Software
•4. Infected Boot Disk 10. From Mobile Devices
•5. Phishing Schemes 11. Friends and Relatives
•6. Infected software .

Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Troubleshooting is the process of figuring out how to solve a
computer problem. Even with the most updated software
and hardware, occasionally computers can malfunction. In
order to solve a problem, you must figure out which part of
the system is malfunctioning. You will need to check each
component of the computer, unless it is obvious where the
problem is coming from. Isolating the problem will help you
solve the problem quickly. Knowing how to solve these
problems with a shortcut perhaps using only a few keys on
the keyboard can save time and effort. Backing up your
important computer files to another source will ensure that
if your problem cannot be corrected, you will still have a
safe copy of your information.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Basic Troubleshooting Steps
1. Close open programs and windows you are not currently
using.
2. Make sure all of your cords are connected properly.
3. Try to repeat the sequence of commands you performed
before the problem occurred. See if this causes the same
response by your computer.
4. Press the F1 key to access the Help window. You can
search for a solution to your problem once the Help window
appears.
5. If there is an error message, record the full message for
future reference.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Basic Troubleshooting Steps
6. Restart your computer to see if it clears the problem. To
restart your computer, open the start window and select the
Restart button instead of the Log Off button.
7. If restarting the computer does not clear the problem,
shut down the computer and then start it back up again.
8. If the issue is still not resolved, check the common
technology issues below or call your system administrator.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Technology Issues
Below we describe some of the most commonly
encountered technology issues. Click on the issue to get
more information on possible solutions to correct the
problem.
 The printer is not working.
 The computer is frozen. A program is not responding.
 The keyboard is not working.
 New hardware or software is working incorrectly.
 The mouse is not working.
 The computer is slow.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The printer is not working.
 Check if the printer is turned on. If not, turn it on and try again.
 Check if the printer has paper. If not, put paper in the paper
tray and try printing again.
 Check if the printer has a paper jam. If so, remove the paper,
close the printer, and try printing again.
 Ensure that all printer cables are properly connected.
 Turn off the printer and turn on again.
 Check to see if a new printer driver is needed. Do this by going
to the manufacturer’s website to search for your printer model
and checking for any updated driver. Seek assistance from your
system administrator before installing any drivers.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The computer is frozen. A program is not
responding.
 Push the Ctrl, Alt, and Delete keys at the same time.
Then, start the Task Manager, highlight
the program’s name, and hit the End Task button.
 Perform a hard reboot by simply pressing the on/off
button to turn off the computer manually. This action should
only be done as a last resort if you have an unresponsive
program or critical error. This process could cause data
loss or corruption.
 Once the computer is responding again, run a virus
check.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The keyboard is not working.
 Make sure the keyboard is connected to the computer. If
not, connect it to the computer.
 If you are using a wireless keyboard, try changing the
batteries.
 If one of the keys on your keyboard gets stuck, turn the
computer off and clean with a damp
cloth.
 Use the mouse to restart the computer.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: New hardware or software is working incorrectly.
 Verify your computer meets the requirements of the
program or utility.
 Uninstall and install the program.
 There could be a conflict with another installed program
and you should contact your
system administrator.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The mouse is not working correctly.
 Check if the mouse is securely plugged into the
computer. If not, plug it in completely.
 Check to see if the cord has been damaged. If so, the
mouse may need replacing.
 If you are using a cordless mouse, try pushing the
connection button on the underside of the
mouse to reestablish a connection.
 Clean the mouse, especially on the bottom.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The computer is slow.
 Restart your computer.
 Verify that there is at least 200-500 MB of free hard drive
space. To do so, select Start and click on My Computer or
Computer. Then highlight the local C drive by clicking on it
once. Select the Properties button at the top left-hand
corner of the window; this will display a window showing
how much free and used space you have. If you need to
recapture space:
- Empty your recycle bin by right-clicking on the Recycle
Bin icon (usually on the desktop), then selecting Empty
Recycle Bin.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The computer is slow.
- Check your mail files. Remove any large attachments
and delete unused mail.
- Images and videos take up a lot of space, so consider
moving those to an external drive.
- Remove temporary files from the Internet. To do so:
o Click Start button | My Computer or Computer.
o Click Open Control Panel at the top of the window.
o Click Network | Internet | Internet Options.
o Select the General tab and click Delete under Browsing
History.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The computer is slow.
- Perform a disk cleanup. To do so:
o Click Start button | My Computer or Computer.
o Highlight the local C drive by clicking on it once.
o Select the properties button at the top left of the window.
o Go to the General tab and select Disk Cleanup.
o Once the Disk Cleanup finishes running, click on Clean
up System Files; this will
delete any unnecessary system-related files from your local
disk.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The computer is slow.
- Information in computer files changes often, resulting in
gaps or spaces within the file.
This takes up more space on the computer and can cause
the computer to slow down.
To reclaim these gaps in space, run disk defrag. To do so:
o Click start | My Computer or Computer.
o Highlight the local C drive by clicking on it once.
o Select the properties button at the top left of the window.
o Go to the Tools tab and select Run Defragmentation.
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The computer is slow.
 Old or unused programs that aren’t being used may still
have components running behind
the scenes when you start your computer, which can slow
down the system. You can prevent these programs from
running when you start your computer by removing unused
shortcuts and turning off unused program services.
- Remove unused shortcuts from Windows startup
o Click Start button | Select All Programs | Click Startup
o Right-click the shortcuts that you do not use and click
delete
Troubleshooting Common
Computer Problems
Common Solutions for Technology Issues
Issue: The computer is slow.
- Disable unused program services
o Click Start button | Control Panel | Administrative Tools |
Services
o For each program/service that you are certain that you
do not need, click on the
Service to highlight it, click the Stop link to stop the service
from running, then
double-click the service, choose Startup Type of Disabled,
and click OK.
 Run a virus scan to remove potential viruses that can
slow down your computer.
Q and A