Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University

CE 3121: Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory
Class 7
Consolidation Test on Cohesive Soil
Sources:
$4il Mechanics ÷ Lab4rat4ry Manual, B.M. DA$ (Chapter 17)
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C4ns4lidati4n
Definiti4ns & Ìntr4ducti4n
$ignificance
C4ns4lidati4n vs C42pacti4n
Type 4f C4ns4lidati4ns
One-Di2ensi4nal C4ns4lidati4n Test
Definiti4n
Pr4cedure
Graphs and results
Class Outlines
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Consolidation - DeIinition
C4ns4lidati4n refers t4 the c42pressi4n 4r
settle2ent that s4ils underg4 as a resp4nse 4f
placing l4ads 4nt4 the gr4und
These l4ads pr4duce c4rresp4nding increases
in the vertical effective stress, 9
v
'
C4ns4lidati4n is a ti2e-dependent pr4cess, in
s42e s4ils it 2ay take l4ng ti2e (100 years ?)
t4 achieve c42plete settle2ent
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
$igniIicance
The a24unt 4f s4il v4lu2e change that will 4ccur is
4ften 4ne 4f the g4verning design criteria 4f a
pr4ect
Ìf the settle2ent is n4t kept t4 t4lerable li2it, the
desire use 4f the structure 2ay be i2paired and
the design life 4f the structure 2ay be reduced
Ìt is theref4re i2p4rtant t4 have a 2ean 4f
predicting the a24unt 4f s4il c42pressi4n 4r
c4ns4lidati4n
Ìt is als4 i2p4rtant t4 kn4w the rate 4f c4ns4lidati4n
as well as the t4tal c4ns4lidati4n t4 be expected
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Consolidation - Case $tudy
Palacio de las Bellas, Artes, Nexico City
Total settlement = 3ft
The Leaning Tower of Pisa
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Consolidation - Introduction
The c42pressi4n is caused by:
Def4r2ati4n 4f s4il particles
Rel4cati4ns 4f s4il particles
Expulsi4n 4f water 4r air fr42 v4id spaces
M4st 4f the settle2ent 4f a structure 4n clay is
2ainly due t4 v4lu2etric changes and rarely
due t4 shear strain.
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Consolidation vs. Compaction
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Consolidation (cont.)
During c4ns4lidati4n, p4re water 4r the water in the
v4ids 4f saturated clay gets squeezed 4ut ÷ reducing
the v4lu2e 4f the clay ÷ hence causing settle2ent
called as c4ns4lidati4n settle2ent
The spring
anal4gy t4
c4ns4lidati4n.
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
'oids
'oids
$olids
H
J
v
÷ eJ
s
J
s
0
c
e
J
v
÷ (e - e)J
s
J
s
$olids
9

9

9

9

9

9

<9
f

<9
f

efore
After
Consolidation (cont.)
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
%ypes oI Consolidation
There are three types 4f c4ns4lidati4n:
Ì22ediate c4ns4lidati4n; caused by elastic
def4r2ati4n 4f dry s4il 4r 24ist and saturated
s4il with4ut change in 24isture c4ntent
Pri2ary c4ns4lidati4n; caused as a result 4f
v4lu2e change in saturated c4hesive s4ils
due t4 exclusi4n 4f water 4ccupied the v4id
spaces
$ec4ndary c4ns4lidati4n; 4ccurs in saturated
c4hesive s4ils as a result 4f the plastic
adust2ent 4f s4il fabrics
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
%ypes oI Consolidation (cont.)
Clayey s4ils underg4 c4ns4lidati4n settle2ent n4t
4nly under the acti4n 4f "external¨ l4ads (surcharge
l4ads) but als4 under its 4wn weight 4r weight 4f s4ils
that exist ab4ve the clay (ge4static l4ads).
Clayey s4ils als4 underg4 settle2ent when
dewatered (e.g., gr4und water pu2ping) ÷ because
the effective stress 4n the clay increases
C4arse-grained s4ils DO NOT underg4 c4ns4lidati4n
settle2ent due t4 relatively high hydraulic
c4nductivity c42pared t4 clayey s4ils. Ìnstead,
c4arse-grained s4ils underg4 ÌMMEDÌATE
settle2ent.
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
1- D Consolidation %est
The 2ain purp4se 4f c4ns4lidati4n tests is t4 4btain
s4il data which is used in predicting the rate and
a24unt 4f settle2ent 4f structures f4unded 4n clay.
The f4ur 24st i2p4rtant s4il pr4perties deter2ined by
a c4ns4lidati4n test are:
The pre-c4ns4lidati4n stress, 9
p
', This is the 2axi2u2
stress that the s4il has "felt¨ in the past.
The c42pressi4n index, C
c
, which indicates the
c42pressibility 4f a n4r2ally-c4ns4lidated s4il.
The rec42pressi4n index, C
r
, which indicates the
c42pressibility 4f an 4ver-c4ns4lidated s4il.
The c4efficient 4f c4ns4lidati4n, c
v
, which indicates the
rate 4f c42pressi4n under a l4ad incre2ent.
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%est Results

9
5

7

.
#ecom5ression
Index
om5ression
Index
Pre-onsoIidation
Stress
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Consolidation %est
Tw4 types 4f c4ns4lid42eters (4ed42eters)
c4224nly used:
Fl4ating-ring
Fixed ring
This lab uses the fixed-ring c4ns4lid42eter
A$TM D 2435
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Laboratory Consolidation %est
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Consolidation %est
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Laboratory Consolidation %est
9
v
9
v
Solids
Voids
Solids
Voids
V
s
V
v
V
v
V
s
1 !lace sample in ring
2 Apply load
3 Measure height change
4 Repeat for new load
V
ConIining
stress
efore After
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
!rocedure
Measure the inner dia2eter and height 4f the
c4ns4lidati4n cutter/ring and rec4rd its 2ass
Prepare a s4il speci2en f4r the test by tri22ing and
placing the s4il in the ring
Deter2ine the 2ass 4f ring + s4il
C4llect s42e excess s4il f4r 24isture c4ntent
Assu2e Gs = 2.7
$aturate the l4wer (larger) p4r4us st4ne 4n the base 4f
the c4ns4lid42eter
Place the speci2en and ring and place the upper
st4ne/disk Follow the rest in your lab manual
Place 1.5 kg (1
st
day), 3kg (2
nd
day), 6kg (3
rd
day), 12kg
(4
th
day)
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
http://www.uic.edu/classes/ce22/ce22lab/Experi2ent%2011-C4ns4lidati4n.pdf#search='c4ns4lidati4n%20test'
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Calculations and Graphs - 0
v
vs w(time)
PIot of VerticaI Dis5Iacement vs. Time
(P = 1000 5sf)
0.42
0.4205
0.421
0.4215
0.422
0.4225
0.423
0.4235
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Time (min
0.5
)
D
i
s
5
I
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
i
n
)
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
0
v
vs wtime Graph Find t
90
PIot of VerticaI Dis5Iacement vs. Time
(P = 1000 5sf)
0.42
0.4205
0.421
0.4215
0.422
0.4225
0.423
0.4235
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Time (min
0.5
)
D
i
s
5
I
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
i
n
)
t
90
= 2.5 min
0.5
1
2 3
4
5
t
90
d
0
D

D = 1.15

Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Calculation and Graph 0
v
vs log(time)
ogarithm of time curve fitting
0.42
0.4205
0.421
0.4215
0.422
0.4225
0.423
0.4235
0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
Time (min) - Iog ScaIe
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
I

D
i
s
5
I
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
i
n
)
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
0
v
vs log(time) Graph Find t
50
ogarithm of time curve fitting
0.42
0.4205
0.421
0.4215
0.422
0.4225
0.423
0.4235
0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
Time (min) - Iog ScaIe
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
I

D
i
s
5
I
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
i
n
)
d
100
= 0.42065
9

9

9

1
2
A
3
5
4

6

7
d
0
= 0.42305
8
d
50
=0.5(d
0
+d
100
)=0.42185
d
50 9
d
0
d
100
t
50
= 10.2 min
10
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Calculation
Deter2ine the height 4f
s4lids (H
s
) 4f the
speci2en in the 24ld
Deter2ine the change
in height (H)
Deter2ine the final
speci2en height, H
t(f)
Deter2ine the height 4f
v4ids (H
;
)
Deter2ine the final v4id
rati4
w s
s
s
G D
W
H
o
x
¦
'
+

'

=
2
4
s f t v
H H H =
) (
s
v
H
H
e =
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Calculation (cont.)
Calculate the c4efficient
4f c4ns4lidati4n (c
;
)
fr42 t
90
Calculate the c4efficient
4f c4ns4lidati4n (c
;
)
fr42 t
50
Pl4t e-l4g p curve and
find:
9
c
, C
c
, C
r
Pl4t c
v
÷ l4g p curves
2
90
H
t c
T
v
v
=
2
50
H
t c
T
v
v
=
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Calculation $ample (Ex. pp.121)
Eq 17.2
1(in) - H
s
H
v
= H
i
- H
s
H
i
e = H
v
/ H
s
(1.0 + 0.9917) / 2 (0.848 x 0.9959
2
)/(4 x 302)
t
90
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
!lot e vs log p
9
c
R
2in

c

r
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
In Your Report
Pl4t all curves find t
90
and t
50
(10 pl4ts)
$h4w y4ur calculati4ns in a table and find
e, c
v (t90)
, c
v (t50)
Pl4t e vs. l4g (p) and deter2ine:
P
c
C
c
C
r
Pl4t c
v
vs. l4g (p) (2 pl4ts)

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