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Chapter 9 Staffing, Training, and Compensation for Global Operations

PowerPoint by Kristopher Blanchard North Central University

© 2006 Prentice Hall

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Introduction
[In the new millennium], the caliber of the people will be the only source of competitive advantage.
²Allan Halcrow, Personnel Journal

Of the top 100 UK firms surveyed by Cendant International Assignment Services, 63 reported failed foreign assignments.
- www.expat.FT.com

© 2006 Prentice Hall

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In a polycentric staffing approach. local managers ± host-country managers (HCNs) ± are hired to fill key positions in their own country. parent-country nationals (PCNs).Staffing Philosophies for Global Operations Firms using an ethnocentric staffing approach fill key managerial positions with people from headquarters ± that is. © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-3 .

the best managers are recruited from within or outside of the company.Staffing Philosophies for Global Operations In the global staffing approach. In a regiocentric staffing approach. © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-4 . recruiting is done on a regional basis ± say within Latin America for a position in Chile. regardless of nationality.

Problems with Expatriation Selection based on headquarters criteria rather than assignment needs Inadequate preparation. and orientation prior to assignment Alienation or lack of support from headquarters Inability to adapt to local culture and working environment © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-5 . training.

Problems with Expatriation Problems with spouse and children ± poor adaptation. family unhappiness Insufficient compensation and financial support Poor programs for career support and repatriation © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-6 .

the Japanese doctors reveal little to their patients.Training and Development Challenges faced by expatriates ± China: a continuing problem for expatriates. one complained that at his welcome banquet he was served duck tongue and pigeon head ± Brazil: expatriates stress that cell phones are essential because home phones don¶t work ± India: returning executives complain that the pervasiveness of poverty and street children is overwhelming ± Indonesia: here you need to plan ahead financially because landlords typically demand rent two to three years in advance ± Japan: expatriates and their families remain concerned that although there is excellent medical care. © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-7 .

The cause of culture shock is the trauma people experience in new and different cultures.Cross-Cultural Training: Culture Shock Culture shock is a state of disorientation and anxiety about not knowing how to behave in an unfamiliar culture. © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-8 . where they lose the familiar signs and cues that they had used to interact in daily life and where they must learn to cope with a vast array of new cultural cues and expectations.

and deal with daily activities. excitement.Cross-Cultural Training: Culture Shock Honeymoon ± when positive attitudes and expectations. at home. use the language. and a tourist feeling prevail Irritation and hostility ± the crisis stage when cultural differences result in problems at work. and the family starts to accept their new life Biculturalism ± the stage at which the manager and family members grow to accept and appreciate local people and practices and are able to function effectively in two cultures © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-9 . and in daily living Gradual adjustment ± a period of recovery in which the ³patient´ gradually becomes able to understand and predict patterns of behavior.

© 2006 Prentice Hall 9-10 .Cross-Cultural Training: SubCulture Shock Subculture shock occurs when a manager is transferred to another part of the country where there are cultural differences ± essentially from what she or he perceives to be a ³majority´ culture to a ³minority´ one.

economics.Training Techniques Area studies. that is. and so forth Culture assimilators. which expose trainees to the kinds of situations they are likely to encounter that are critical to successful interactions Language training Sensitivity training Field experiences ± exposure to people from other cultures within the trainee¶s own country © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-11 . documentary programs about the country¶s geography. sociopolitical history.

Integrating Training with Global Orientation © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-12 .

Integrating Training with Global Orientation © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-13 .

´ Journal of World Business. and provide training and functional expertise. Richard Peterson. to instill world standards of performance.Training Host-Country Nationals We found that the key human resource role of the MNC [in Central and Eastern Europe] was to expose the local staff to a market economy. ³The use of Expatriates and Inpatriates in Central and Eastern Europe Since the Wall Came Down. © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-14 . 2003.

Training Host-Country Nationals Continuous training and development of HCNs and TCNs for management positions is an important factor for long-term success of the multinational corporation Ongoing development will facilitate the transition to an indigenization policy The company will have a well-trained management staff with broad international experience © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-15 .

Chinese managers appreciate a company that invests in their development and treats them with respect. In addition to converting a nation of tea drinkers into coffee lovers. but also to learn culture. and keeping local Chinese managers. Train. Starbucks sends managers to Tacoma. and Retain Local Managers in Beijing Starbucks Coffee International now has 70 facilities in China. Washington for three months to learn not only how to make a cup of coffee. © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-16 . training.Management Focus: Success! Starbucks¶ Java Style Helps Recruit. Starbucks had to deal with the problem of finding. As part of their training effort.

Training Host-Country Nationals Training to facilitate e-business adoption is taking on increasing importance Training in information and communication technologies is particularly critical for firms in new economy and emerging markets List of training needs for managers in Eastern Europe © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-17 .

Training Priorities for E-Business Development Return © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-18 .

Compensating Expatriates Compensation is a crucial link between strategy and its successful implementation ± Must be a fit between compensation and the goals of the firm Maintaining an appropriate compensation package is more complex than it would seem ± Little variation in typical salary but there is a wide variation in net spendable income © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-19 .

Balance Sheet Approach © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-20 .

as compared with home salary. private education for children Benefits ± Health insurance. trips home for family.Compensating Expatriates Salary ± Local salary buying power and currency translation. bonuses or incentives for dislocation Taxes ± Equalize any differential effects on taxes as a result of the assignment Allowances ± Relocation expenses. stock options © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-21 . cost-ofliving adjustments. housing allowance for assignment and allowance to maintaining house at home.

Compensating Host-Country Nationals A number of variable apply including local market factors and pay scales. and the cost of living must all be considered Eastern Europeans spend 35% to 40% of their disposable income on food and utilities ± East European managers must have cash for about 65% to 80% of their base pay ± US managers must have cash of about 40% © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-22 . unions. government involvement in benefits.

Compensating Host-Country Nationals To be competitive. as well as salary. It is important to make clear what benefits. come with a position because of the way compensation is perceived and regulated around the world © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-23 . MNCs can focus on providing goods and services that are either not available at all or are extremely expensive.

www. destination for technology outsourcing.Comparative Management in Focus: Compensating Russians Korean companies are cashing in by signing up low-cost Russian engineers. March 8. Cha Dae Sung.com. March 8. Samsung.1. 2004 Russia is our No. 2004 © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-24 .Businessweek.

and long-term incentives Tailor the compensation package to individual preferences © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-25 . Organize social events and other group activities. Provide small-group incentives Provide a mix of short.Comparative Management in Focus: Compensating Russians Select Russian employees who are achievementoriented and willing to take risks Tie individual bonuses to initiative and personal accountability (to encourage individual goal setting).

com Total Rewards: All of the tools available to the employer that may be used to attract.What is total rewards? http://www. From the simplest barter systems of centuries past to the current complex incentive formulas of today. elements and dimensions that collectively define an organization's strategy to attract. practices. the organizational premise has been the same: Provide productivity and results to our enterprise and we will provide you with something of value. Total rewards include everything the employee perceives to be of value resulting from the employment relationship. There are five elements of total rewards.worldatWork. Throughout history. motivating and retaining employees. These elements are: Compensation Benefits Work-Life Performance and Recognition Development and Career Opportunities © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-26 . each of which includes programs. motivate and retain employees. motivate and retain employees. employers have been challenged with attracting.

and Repatriation ± Global Management Teams ± The Role of Women ± Working within Local Labor Relations Systems © 2006 Prentice Hall 9-27 .Looking Ahead Chapter 10 ± Developing a Global Management Cadre ± Preparation. Adaptation.